[USC07] 42 USC 7401: Congressional findings and declaration of purpose
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42 USC 7401: Congressional findings and declaration of purpose Text contains those laws in effect on June 17, 2018
From Title 42-THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 85-AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROLSUBCHAPTER I-PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIESPart A-Air Quality and Emission Limitations

§7401. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) Findings

The Congress finds-

(1) that the predominant part of the Nation's population is located in its rapidly expanding metropolitan and other urban areas, which generally cross the boundary lines of local jurisdictions and often extend into two or more States;

(2) that the growth in the amount and complexity of air pollution brought about by urbanization, industrial development, and the increasing use of motor vehicles, has resulted in mounting dangers to the public health and welfare, including injury to agricultural crops and livestock, damage to and the deterioration of property, and hazards to air and ground transportation;

(3) that air pollution prevention (that is, the reduction or elimination, through any measures, of the amount of pollutants produced or created at the source) and air pollution control at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments; and

(4) that Federal financial assistance and leadership is essential for the development of cooperative Federal, State, regional, and local programs to prevent and control air pollution.

(b) Declaration

The purposes of this subchapter are-

(1) to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation's air resources so as to promote the public health and welfare and the productive capacity of its population;

(2) to initiate and accelerate a national research and development program to achieve the prevention and control of air pollution;

(3) to provide technical and financial assistance to State and local governments in connection with the development and execution of their air pollution prevention and control programs; and

(4) to encourage and assist the development and operation of regional air pollution prevention and control programs.

(c) Pollution prevention

A primary goal of this chapter is to encourage or otherwise promote reasonable Federal, State, and local governmental actions, consistent with the provisions of this chapter, for pollution prevention.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §101, formerly §1, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 392 ; renumbered §101 and amended Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(2), (3), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992 ; Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485 ; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §108(k), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2468 .)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857 of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in a prior section 1857 of this title, act of July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §1, 69 Stat. 322 , prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1990-Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(k)(1), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "that the prevention and control of air pollution at its source is the primary responsibility of States and local governments; and".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(k)(2), inserted "prevention and" after "pollution".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(k)(3), added subsec. (c).

1967-Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 90–148 inserted "and enhance the quality of" after "to protect".

1965-Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–272 substituted "this title" for "this Act", which for purposes of codification has been changed to "this subchapter".

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §711(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2684 , provided that:

"(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall be effective on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990].

"(2) The Administrator's authority to assess civil penalties under section 205(c) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7524(c)], as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur or continue on or after the date of enactment of this Act. Civil penalties for violations that occur prior to such date and do not continue after such date shall be assessed in accordance with the provisions of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act.

"(3) The civil penalties prescribed under sections 205(a) and 211(d)(1) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7524(a), 7545(d)(1)], as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur on or after the date of enactment of this Act. Violations that occur prior to such date shall be subject to the civil penalty provisions prescribed in sections 205(a) and 211(d) of the Clean Air Act in effect immediately prior to the enactment of this Act. The injunctive authority prescribed under section 211(d)(2) of the Clean Air Act, as amended by this Act, shall apply to violations that occur or continue on or after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(4) For purposes of paragraphs (2) and (3), where the date of a violation cannot be determined it will be assumed to be the date on which the violation is discovered."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment; Pending Actions; Continuation of Rules, Contracts, Authorizations, Etc.; Implementation Plans

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §406, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 795 , as amended by Pub. L. 95–190, §14(b)(6), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1405 , provided that:

"(a) No suit, action, or other proceeding lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under the Clean Air Act [this chapter], as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1977] shall abate by reason of the taking effect of the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below]. The court may, on its own motion or that of any party made at any time within twelve months after such taking effect, allow the same to be maintained by or against the Administrator or such officer or employee.

"(b) All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to the Clean Air Act [this chapter], as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1977], and pertaining to any functions, powers, requirements, and duties under the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act, and not suspended by the Administrator or the courts, shall continue in full force and effect after the date of enactment of this Act until modified or rescinded in accordance with the Clean Air Act as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below].

"(c) Nothing in this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below] nor any action taken pursuant to this Act shall in any way affect any requirement of an approved implementation plan in effect under section 110 of the Clean Air Act [section 7410 of this title] or any other provision of the Act in effect under the Clean Air Act before the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 7, 1977] until modified or rescinded in accordance with the Clean Air Act [this chapter] as amended by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below].

"(d)(1) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below] shall be effective on date of enactment [Aug. 7, 1977].

"(2) Except as otherwise expressly provided, each State required to revise its applicable implementation plan by reason of any amendment made by this Act [see Short Title of 1977 Amendment note below] shall adopt and submit to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Administration such plan revision before the later of the date-

"(A) one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1977], or

"(B) nine months after the date of promulgation by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Administration of any regulations under an amendment made by this Act which are necessary for the approval of such plan revision."

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–40, §1, Aug. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 207 , provided that: "This Act [amending section 7412 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 7412 of this title] may be cited as the 'Chemical Safety Information, Site Security and Fuels Regulatory Relief Act'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–286, §1, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2773 , provided that: "This Act [amending section 7511b of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 7511b of this title] may be cited as the 'Border Smog Reduction Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–549, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2399 , is popularly known as the "Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990". See Tables for classification.

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–23, §1, July 17, 1981, 95 Stat. 139 , provided: "That this Act [amending sections 7410 and 7413 of this title] may be cited as the 'Steel Industry Compliance Extension Act of 1981'."

Short Title of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–95, §1, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 685 , provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 4362, 7419 to 7428, 7450 to 7459, 7470 to 7479, 7491, 7501 to 7508, 7548, 7549, 7551, 7617 to 7625, and 7626 of this title, amending sections 7403, 7405, 7407 to 7415, 7417, 7418, 7521 to 7525, 7541, 7543, 7544, 7545, 7550, 7571, 7601 to 7605, 7607, 7612, 7613, and 7616 of this title, repealing section 1857c–10 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section, sections 7403, 7422, 7470, 7479, 7502, 7521, 7548, and 7621 of this title, and section 792 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977'."

Short Title of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–604, §1, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1676 , provided: "That this Act [amending this chapter generally] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Amendments of 1970'."

Short Title of 1967 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–148, §1, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 485 , provided: "That this Act [amending this chapter generally] may be cited as the 'Air Quality Act of 1967'."

Short Title of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–675, §1, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 954 , provided: "That this Act [amending sections 7405 and 7616 of this title and repealing section 1857f–8 of this title] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1966'."

Short Title

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §317, formerly §14, as added by Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 401 ; renumbered §307 by Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992 ; renumbered §310 by Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499 ; renumbered §317 by Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705 , provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Clean Air Act'."

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §201, as added by Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992 , and amended by Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499 , provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter II of this chapter] may be cited as the 'National Emission Standards Act'." Prior to its amendment by Pub. L. 90–148, title II of act June 14, 1955, was known as the "Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act".

Act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title IV, §401, as added by Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §14, 84 Stat. 1709 , provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter IV of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Noise Pollution and Abatement Act of 1970'."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §711(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2684 , provided that: "Except as otherwise expressly provided in this Act [see Tables for classification], no suit, action, or other proceeding lawfully commenced by the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], shall abate by reason of the taking effect of the amendments made by this Act."

Transfer of Functions

Reorg. Plan No. 3 of 1970, §2(a)(3), eff. Dec. 2, 1970, 35 F.R. 15623, 84 Stat. 2086, transferred to Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency functions vested by law in Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare or in Department of Health, Education, and Welfare which are administered through Environmental Health Service, including functions exercised by National Air Pollution Control Administration, and Environmental Control Administration's Bureau of Solid Waste Management, Bureau of Water Hygiene, and Bureau of Radiological Health, except insofar as functions carried out by Bureau of Radiological Health pertain to regulation of radiation from consumer products, including electronic product radiation, radiation as used in healing arts, occupational exposure to radiation, and research, technical assistance, and training related to radiation from consumer products, radiation as used in healing arts, and occupational exposure to radiation.

Impact on Small Communities

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §810, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2690 , provided that: "Before implementing a provision of this Act [see Tables for classification], the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall consult with the Small Communities Coordinator of the Environmental Protection Agency to determine the impact of such provision on small communities, including the estimated cost of compliance with such provision."

Radon Assessment and Mitigation

Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §118(k), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1659 , as amended by Pub. L. 105–362, title V, §501(i), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3284 , provided that:

"(1) National assessment of radon gas.-No later than one year after the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986], the Administrator shall submit to the Congress a report which shall, to the extent possible-

"(A) identify the locations in the United States where radon is found in structures where people normally live or work, including educational institutions;

"(B) assess the levels of radon gas that are present in such structures;

"(C) determine the level of radon gas and radon daughters which poses a threat to human health and assess for each location identified under subparagraph (A) the extent of the threat to human health;

"(D) determine methods of reducing or eliminating the threat to human health of radon gas and radon daughters; and

"(E) include guidance and public information materials based on the findings or research of mitigating radon.

"(2) Radon mitigation demonstration program.-

"(A) Demonstration program.-The Administrator shall conduct a demonstration program to test methods and technologies of reducing or eliminating radon gas and radon daughters where it poses a threat to human health. The Administrator shall take into consideration any demonstration program underway in the Reading Prong of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York and at other sites prior to enactment. The demonstration program under this section shall be conducted in the Reading Prong, and at such other sites as the Administrator considers appropriate.

"(B) Liability.-Liability, if any, for persons undertaking activities pursuant to the radon mitigation demonstration program authorized under this subsection shall be determined under principles of existing law.

"(3) Construction of section.-Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the Administrator to carry out any regulatory program or any activity other than research, development, and related reporting, information dissemination, and coordination activities specified in this subsection. Nothing in paragraph (1) or (2) shall be construed to limit the authority of the Administrator or of any other agency or instrumentality of the United States under any other authority of law."

Spill Control Technology

Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §118(n), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1660 , provided that:

"(1) Establishment of program.-Within 180 days of enactment of this subsection [Oct. 17, 1986], the Secretary of the United States Department of Energy is directed to carry out a program of testing and evaluation of technologies which may be utilized in responding to liquefied gaseous and other hazardous substance spills at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility that threaten public health or the environment.

"(2) Technology transfer.-In carrying out the program established under this subsection, the Secretary shall conduct a technology transfer program that, at a minimum-

"(A) documents and archives spill control technology;

"(B) investigates and analyzes significant hazardous spill incidents;

"(C) develops and provides generic emergency action plans;

"(D) documents and archives spill test results;

"(E) develops emergency action plans to respond to spills;

"(F) conducts training of spill response personnel; and

"(G) establishes safety standards for personnel engaged in spill response activities.

"(3) Contracts and grants.-The Secretary is directed to enter into contracts and grants with a nonprofit organization in Albany County, Wyoming, that is capable of providing the necessary technical support and which is involved in environmental activities related to such hazardous substance related emergencies.

"(4) Use of site.-The Secretary shall arrange for the use of the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility to carry out the provisions of this subsection."

Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research

Pub. L. 99–499, title IV, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1758 , provided that:

"SEC. 401. SHORT TITLE.

"This title may be cited as the 'Radon Gas and Indoor Air Quality Research Act of 1986'.

"SEC. 402. FINDINGS.

"The Congress finds that:

"(1) High levels of radon gas pose a serious health threat in structures in certain areas of the country.

"(2) Various scientific studies have suggested that exposure to radon, including exposure to naturally occurring radon and indoor air pollutants, poses a public health risk.

"(3) Existing Federal radon and indoor air pollutant research programs are fragmented and underfunded.

"(4) An adequate information base concerning exposure to radon and indoor air pollutants should be developed by the appropriate Federal agencies.

"SEC. 403. RADON GAS AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY RESEARCH PROGRAM.

"(a) Design of Program.-The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall establish a research program with respect to radon gas and indoor air quality. Such program shall be designed to-

"(1) gather data and information on all aspects of indoor air quality in order to contribute to the understanding of health problems associated with the existence of air pollutants in the indoor environment;

"(2) coordinate Federal, State, local, and private research and development efforts relating to the improvement of indoor air quality; and

"(3) assess appropriate Federal Government actions to mitigate the environmental and health risks associated with indoor air quality problems.

"(b) Program Requirements.-The research program required under this section shall include-

"(1) research and development concerning the identification, characterization, and monitoring of the sources and levels of indoor air pollution, including radon, which includes research and development relating to-

"(A) the measurement of various pollutant concentrations and their strengths and sources,

"(B) high-risk building types, and

"(C) instruments for indoor air quality data collection;

"(2) research relating to the effects of indoor air pollution and radon on human health;

"(3) research and development relating to control technologies or other mitigation measures to prevent or abate indoor air pollution (including the development, evaluation, and testing of individual and generic control devices and systems);

"(4) demonstration of methods for reducing or eliminating indoor air pollution and radon, including sealing, venting, and other methods that the Administrator determines may be effective;

"(5) research, to be carried out in conjunction with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, for the purpose of developing-

"(A) methods for assessing the potential for radon contamination of new construction, including (but not limited to) consideration of the moisture content of soil, porosity of soil, and radon content of soil; and

"(B) design measures to avoid indoor air pollution; and

"(6) the dissemination of information to assure the public availability of the findings of the activities under this section.

"(c) Advisory Committees.-The Administrator shall establish a committee comprised of individuals representing Federal agencies concerned with various aspects of indoor air quality and an advisory group comprised of individuals representing the States, the scientific community, industry, and public interest organizations to assist him in carrying out the research program for radon gas and indoor air quality.

"(d) Implementation Plan.-Not later than 90 days after the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986], the Administrator shall submit to the Congress a plan for implementation of the research program under this section. Such plan shall also be submitted to the EPA Science Advisory Board, which shall, within a reasonable period of time, submit its comments on such plan to Congress.

"(e) Report.-Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act [Oct. 17, 1986], the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report respecting his activities under this section and making such recommendations as appropriate.

"SEC. 404. CONSTRUCTION OF TITLE.

"Nothing in this title shall be construed to authorize the Administrator to carry out any regulatory program or any activity other than research, development, and related reporting, information dissemination, and coordination activities specified in this title. Nothing in this title shall be construed to limit the authority of the Administrator or of any other agency or instrumentality of the United States under any other authority of law.

"SEC. 405. AUTHORIZATIONS.

"There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the activities under this title and under section 118(k) of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (relating to radon gas assessment and demonstration program) [section 118(k) of Pub. L. 99–499, set out as a note above] not to exceed $5,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1987, 1988, and 1989. Of such sums appropriated in fiscal years 1987 and 1988, two-fifths shall be reserved for the implementation of section 118(k)(2)."

Study of Odors and Odorous Emissions

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 792 , directed Administrator of Environmental Protection Agency to conduct a study and report to Congress not later than Jan. 1, 1979, on effects on public health and welfare of odors and odorous emissions, source of such emissions, technology or other measures available for control of such emissions and costs of such technology or measures, and costs and benefits of alternative measures or strategies to abate such emissions.

List of Chemical Contaminants From Environmental Pollution Found in Human Tissue

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 792 , directed Administrator of EPA, not later than twelve months after Aug. 7, 1977, to publish throughout the United States a list of all known chemical contaminants resulting from environmental pollution which have been found in human tissue including blood, urine, breast milk, and all other human tissue, such list to be prepared for the United States and to indicate approximate number of cases, range of levels found, and mean levels found, directed Administrator, not later than eighteen months after Aug. 7, 1977, to publish in same manner an explanation of what is known about the manner in which chemicals entered the environment and thereafter human tissue, and directed Administrator, in consultation with National Institutes of Health, the National Center for Health Statistics, and the National Center for Health Services Research and Development, to, if feasible, conduct an epidemiological study to demonstrate the relationship between levels of chemicals in the environment and in human tissue, such study to be made in appropriate regions or areas of the United States in order to determine any different results in such regions or areas, and the results of such study to be reported, as soon as practicable, to appropriate committee of Congress.

Study on Regional Air Quality

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(d), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793 , directed Administrator of EPA to conduct a study of air quality in various areas throughout the country including the gulf coast region, such study to include analysis of liquid and solid aerosols and other fine particulate matter and contribution of such substances to visibility and public health problems in such areas, with Administrator to use environmental health experts from the National Institutes of Health and other outside agencies and organizations.

Railroad Emission Study

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §404, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793 , as amended by H. Res. 549, Mar. 25, 1980, directed Administrator of EPA to conduct a study and investigation of emissions of air pollutants from railroad locomotives, locomotive engines, and secondary power sources on railroad rolling stock, in order to determine extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States, technological feasibility and current state of technology for controlling such emissions, and status and effect of current and proposed State and local regulations affecting such emissions, and within one hundred and eighty days after commencing such study and investigation, Administrator to submit a report of such study and investigation, together with recommendations for appropriate legislation, to Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works and House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

Study and Report Concerning Economic Approaches to Controlling Air Pollution

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §405, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 794 , directed Administrator, in conjunction with Council of Economic Advisors, to undertake a study and assessment of economic measures for control of air pollution which could strengthen effectiveness of existing methods of controlling air pollution, provide incentives to abate air pollution greater than that required by Clean Air Act, and serve as primary incentive for controlling air pollution problems not addressed by Clean Air Act, and directed that not later than 2 years after Aug. 7, 1977, Administrator and Council conclude study and submit a report to President and Congress.

National Industrial Pollution Control Council

For provisions relating to establishment of National Industrial Pollution Control Council, see Ex. Ord. No. 11523, Apr. 9, 1970, 35 F.R. 5993, set out as a note under section 4321 of this title.

Federal Compliance With Pollution Control Standards

For provisions relating to responsibility of head of each Executive agency for compliance with applicable pollution control standards, see Ex. Ord. No. 12088, Oct. 13, 1978, 43 F.R. 47707, set out as a note under section 4321 of this title.

Executive Order No. 10779

Ex. Ord. No. 10779, Aug. 21, 1958, 23 F.R. 6487, which related to cooperation of Federal agencies with State and local authorities, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11282, May 26, 1966, 31 F.R. 7663, formerly set out under section 7418 of this title.

Executive Order No. 11507

Ex. Ord. No. 11507, Feb. 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 2573, which provided for prevention, control, and abatement of air pollution at Federal facilities, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11752, Dec. 17, 1973, 38 F.R. 34793, formerly set out as a note under section 4331 of this title.

Promoting Domestic Manufacturing and Job Creation-Policies and Procedures Relating to Implementation of Air Quality Standards

Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 12, 2018, 83 F.R. 16761, provided:

Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency

Under the Clean Air Act (CAA), Public Law 88–206 [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for certain common air pollutants, often referred to as "criteria pollutants," which it must review every 5 years. Over the past four decades, EPA has revised these standards a number of times to increase their stringency, including revisions to the standards for ozone, particulate matter, and four other criteria pollutants. Since 1970, emissions of criteria pollutants have declined dramatically and air quality has improved significantly. At the same time, each new revision of the NAAQS triggers numerous new planning, permitting, and other requirements for affected States, localities, and regulated entities. In addition, each new revision can affect the planning for and availability of Federal funding for certain new transportation projects.

Under the CAA, States with areas that do not meet revised NAAQS must submit for approval to the Administrator of the EPA (Administrator) State Implementation Plans (SIPs) showing how they will comply with the revised standards. States that fail to submit a SIP or that submit an inadequate SIP risk the imposition of a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) that establishes a path to compliance. In addition, manufacturers and other applicants seeking preconstruction permits for new construction generally must demonstrate compliance with the new standards as soon as they go into effect. As the NAAQS have become more stringent, obtaining the air permits needed to construct new manufacturing and industrial facilities or to expand or modernize existing facilities has become increasingly difficult. In some areas, revised NAAQS are approaching what are considered to be "background levels" of pollution (i.e., levels associated with natural sources or emissions originating outside of the United States), leading to significant practical challenges for constructing or expanding manufacturing and industrial facilities. Those challenges range from difficulties in demonstrating compliance to costs and uncertainty associated with permitting delays and emissions-control requirements.

Under the CAA, EPA has also established a Regional Haze Program, which requires States to submit for the Administrator's approval plans that cover 10-year implementation periods and to demonstrate "reasonable progress" toward improving and maintaining visibility in certain national parks and wilderness areas. In recent years, States have spent significant time and resources developing Regional Haze Program SIPs. EPA, however, has rejected several of them, in whole or in part, and issued FIPs in their place, which often impose more costly and burdensome measures.

Given the national importance of successful and efficient implementation of air quality standards to promote public health, welfare, and economic growth, this memorandum directs the Administrator to take specific actions to ensure efficient and cost-effective implementation of the NAAQS program, including with regard to permitting decisions for new and expanded facilities, and with respect to the Regional Haze Program. These actions are intended to ensure that EPA carries out its core missions of protecting the environment and improving air quality in accord with statutory requirements, while reducing unnecessary impediments to new manufacturing and business expansion essential for a growing economy.

Accordingly, by the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby directed as follows:

Section 1. Timely Processing of State Implementation Plans. The Administrator shall, as practicable and consistent with law, endeavor in all cases to take final action on SIPs within 18 months of the date of the submission of a SIP. This goal applies to all SIPs and SIP revisions submitted pursuant to section 110 of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7410). The Administrator shall consider the expansion of existing performance goals related to the timely processing of SIPs starting with the Fiscal Year (FY) 2019 performance plan.

Sec. 2. Cooperative Engagement with States to Review Regional Haze Plans. The Administrator shall undertake a process to review all full or partial FIPs issued under the 2007 planning period of the Regional Haze Program and to develop options, at the request of affected States, consistent with law, to replace FIPs with approvable SIPs. The Administrator shall consider the expansion of existing performance goals related to the cooperative engagement with States in EPA's review of Regional Haze Plans starting with the FY 2019 performance plan.

Sec. 3. Timely Processing of Preconstruction Permit Applications. The Administrator shall endeavor to take final action on applications for preconstruction permits, as appropriate and consistent with law, within 1 year of the date of receiving a complete application. This 1-year goal applies to all completed applications for preconstruction permits for which EPA is the direct permitting authority under the CAA. The Administrator shall also seek to ensure that determinations relating to the completeness of an application are not unduly delayed. To the extent that a State is the direct permitting authority, EPA shall endeavor to provide prompt technical support, reviews, and determinations, as necessary and consistent with applicable law, in order to assist States in the timely issuance of preconstruction permits. The Administrator shall, starting with the FY 2019 performance plan, develop performance goals related to the timely processing of preconstruction permit applications.

Sec. 4. Demonstrations or Petitions Submitted Pursuant to Sections 319 and 179B of the CAA Relating to Emissions Beyond the Control of State and Local Air Agencies. The Administrator shall take the following actions with regard to demonstrations or petitions submitted pursuant to sections 319 and 179B of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7619, 7509a), in order to provide relief to State and local air agencies addressing emissions that are beyond their control:

(a) Timely Processing. With respect to all exceptional event demonstrations submitted pursuant to section 319 of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7619), and all demonstrations or petitions relating to international emissions submitted pursuant to section 179B of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7509a), the Administrator shall endeavor to take final action within 120 days of a complete submission, as appropriate and consistent with law. The Administrator shall also endeavor to use available monitoring data and modeling tools to assist States in identifying potential exceptional events and international emissions that may affect concentrations of criteria pollutants. The Administrator shall, starting with the FY 2019 performance plan, develop performance goals related to the timely processing of demonstrations or petitions.

(b) Policies Relating to International Emissions. The Administrator shall ensure that EPA continues to take into consideration a State's ability to meet and attain NAAQS that may be affected by international transport of criteria pollutants. With regard to all demonstrations or petitions submitted pursuant to section 179B of the CAA, the Administrator shall also seek to ensure, including through rulemakings or guidance and as appropriate and consistent with law, that EPA does not limit its consideration of demonstrations or petitions to those submitted by States located on the borders of the United States with Mexico or Canada, but rather considers section 179B demonstrations or petitions submitted by any State, including but not limited to those located in the Western United States. Additionally, with respect to section 179B demonstrations or petitions, the Administrator shall ensure that EPA does not limit its consideration to emissions emanating from Mexico or Canada, but rather considers, where appropriate, emissions that may emanate from any location outside the United States, including emissions from Asia.

(c) Continuing Assessment. In implementing section 179B of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7509a), section 319 of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7619), and section 182(h) of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7511a(h)), the Administrator shall ensure that EPA continues to assess background concentrations and sources of pollution outside of the control of State and local air agencies that may affect implementation or application of these provisions. Such assessment may include current and future trends in pollution from foreign sources; regional trends in exceptional events, including wildfires, stratospheric ozone intrusions, and volcanic seismic activities; and other events, as appropriate and consistent with law.

Sec. 5. Monitoring and Modeling Data. The Administrator shall take the following actions to ensure that monitoring and modeling data is used appropriately in designations, permitting decisions, and demonstrations:

(a) Designations. Given the significant planning, permitting, and other requirements for affected States, localities, and regulated entities associated with nonattainment designations, the Administrator's goal for future designations should be, to the extent feasible and permitted by law, to rely on data from EPA-approved air quality monitors for such designations.

(b) Permitting Decisions and Demonstrations.

(i) Where modeling is necessary for permitting decisions, for State plans, or for exceptional event or international emissions demonstrations, the Administrator shall seek to ensure that EPA's applicable modeling tools are sufficiently accurate for their intended application; and that the relevant State or local air agency, or permit applicant as applicable, is consulted regarding whether the use of modeling projections in lieu of monitored data is appropriate. The Administrator should also seek to streamline EPA's processes for considering and approving inputs to models and updates to modeling techniques, including updates to account for site-specific conditions. Where EPA-approved models are not representative of site conditions or planned activities, the Administrator shall seek, as appropriate and consistent with law, to streamline the process for approving alternative models and to provide for other methods that promote innovative State approaches.

(ii) The Administrator shall, consistent with law, continue to take actions, such as setting significant impact levels and related values, that enable EPA to clearly identify the types or classes of permitting and related decisions that do not require modeling or that can rely on streamlined modeling approaches. This requirement is especially important in areas for which EPA concludes that permits need to demonstrate compliance with NAAQS that have yet to be fully implemented. In developing significant impact levels, EPA should, as appropriate and consistent with law, allow for natural variability in meteorological conditions and industrial processes.

Sec. 6. Offsets. To the extent consistent with law and air quality improvement, the Administrator shall provide flexibility to States with regard to identifying and achieving offsets, including by allowing intrastate and regional inter-precursor trading. These efforts should include development and implementation of flexible offset policies in rural areas where few facilities exist to generate offsets, in order to promote their economic expansion. The Administrator shall examine steps to help regions and States benefit from flexibilities available in the permitting process for new facilities and projects.

Sec. 7. Future NAAQS Reviews. The Administrator shall evaluate whether EPA is complying fully with the requirements of section 109(d)(2)(C) of the CAA (42 U.S.C. 7409(d)(2)(C)) relating to the scope and characterization of advice provided by its Clean Air Act Scientific Advisory Committee, including requirements that the Committee advise the Administrator regarding background concentrations and adverse public health or other effects that may result from implementation of revised air quality standards. In addition, the Administrator shall examine the current NAAQS review process and develop criteria to ensure transparency in the evaluation, assessment, and characterization of scientific evidence in such reviews. The Administrator shall also develop clear guidance for differentiating the role of science and policy considerations in establishing NAAQS.

Sec. 8. Timely Issuance of Implementing Regulations and Guidance. When issuing any final rule establishing or revising NAAQS, the Administrator shall, where appropriate and consistent with law, concurrently issue regulations and guidance necessary for implementing the new or revised standards. The regulations and guidance shall specify the information that is relevant to the submission and consideration of SIPs and preconstruction permit applications.

Sec. 9. Review of Rules, Guidance, Memoranda, and Procedures Relating to State Implementation Plans and Permitting. The Administrator shall evaluate EPA's existing rules, guidance, memoranda, and other public documents relating to the implementation of NAAQS, including documents that relate to the submission and consideration of preconstruction permit applications. The Administrator shall, consistent with law, determine whether any such documents should be revised or rescinded to ensure more timely permitting decisions under the NAAQS. Any resulting revisions or rescissions should seek, among other things, to provide States with additional implementation flexibility. The Administrator should also evaluate the adequacy of existing internal review procedures to determine whether they can be improved to ensure prompt evaluation and timely action on new and pending SIPs and permit applications.

Sec. 10. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this memorandum shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(d) You are hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Donald J. Trump.