[USC10] 7 USC CHAPTER 87, SUBCHAPTER II, Part A: Programs
Result 1 of 1
   
 
7 USC CHAPTER 87, SUBCHAPTER II, Part A: Programs
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 87—EXPORT PROMOTIONSUBCHAPTER II—AGRICULTURAL EXPORT PROGRAMS

Part A—Programs

§5621. Direct credit sales program

(a) Short-term program

To promote the sale of agricultural commodities, the Commodity Credit Corporation may finance the commercial export sale of such commodities from privately owned stocks on credit terms for not to exceed a 3-year period.

(b) Intermediate-term program

Subject to subsection (c), to promote the sale of agricultural commodities the Commodity Credit Corporation may finance the commercial export sales of agricultural commodities from privately owned stocks on credit terms for a period of not less than 3 years nor in excess of 10 years in a manner that will directly benefit United States agricultural producers.

(c) Determinations

The Commodity Credit Corporation shall not finance an export sale under subsection (b) unless the Secretary determines that such sale will—

(1) develop, expand, or maintain the importing country as a foreign market, on a long-term basis, for the commercial sale and export of United States agricultural commodities, without displacing normal commercial sales;

(2) improve the capability of the importing country to purchase and use, on a long-term basis, United States agricultural commodities; or

(3) otherwise promote the export of United States agricultural commodities.


The reference in paragraphs (1) and (2) to "on a long-term basis" shall not apply in the case of determinations with respect to sales to the independent states of the former Soviet Union.

(d) Use of program

(1) General uses

The Commodity Credit Corporation may use export sales financing authorized under this section—

(A) to increase exports of agricultural commodities;

(B) to compete against foreign agricultural exports;

(C) to assist countries in meeting their food and fiber needs, particularly—

(i) developing countries; and

(ii) countries that are emerging markets that have committed to carry out, or are carrying out, policies that promote economic freedom, private domestic production of food commodities for domestic consumption, and the creation and expansion of efficient domestic markets for the purchase and sale of agricultural commodities; and


(D) for such other purposes as the Secretary determines appropriate consistent with the provisions of subsection (c).

(2) General restrictions

Export sales financing authorized under this section shall not be used for foreign aid, foreign policy, or debt rescheduling purposes. The provisions of the cargo preference laws shall not apply to export sales financed under this section.

(e) Terms of credit assistance

Any contract for the financing of exports by the Commodity Credit Corporation under this section shall include—

(1) a requirement that repayment shall be made in dollars with interest accruing thereon as determined appropriate by the Secretary; and

(2) a requirement, if the Secretary determines such requirement appropriate to protect the interests of the United States, that an initial payment be made by the purchaser at the time of sale or shipment of the agricultural commodity that is subject to the contract.

(f) Restrictions

The Commodity Credit Corporation may not make export sales financing authorized under this section available in connection with sales of an agricultural commodity to any country that the Secretary determines cannot adequately service the debt associated with such sale.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title II, §201, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3672; amended Pub. L. 102–511, title VII, §707(a)–(c), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3350, 3351; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §277(c)(2), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 979.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 201 of Pub. L. 95–501 enacted section 1707b of this title prior to the complete revision of Pub. L. 95–501 by Pub. L. 101–624.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (d)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 104–127 substituted "emerging markets" for "emerging democracies".

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–511, §707(a), inserted sentence at end.

Subsec. (d)(1)(C). Pub. L. 102–511, §707(b), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "to assist countries, particularly developing countries, in meeting their food and fiber needs; and".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–511, §707(c), added subsec. (f).

Regulations

Pub. L. 102–511, title VII, §707(d), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3351, required Secretary of Agriculture to issue final regulations to implement this section not later than 30 days after Oct. 24, 1992, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §276, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 977.

§5622. Export credit guarantee program

(a) Short-term credit guarantees

The Commodity Credit Corporation may guarantee the repayment of credit made available to finance commercial export sales of agricultural commodities, including processed agricultural products and high-value agricultural products, from privately owned stocks on credit terms that do not exceed a 24-month period.

(b) Purpose of program

The Commodity Credit Corporation may use export credit guarantees authorized under this section—

(1) to increase exports of agricultural commodities;

(2) to compete against foreign agricultural exports;

(3) to assist countries in meeting their food and fiber needs, particularly—

(A) developing countries; and

(B) countries that are emerging markets that have committed to carry out, or are carrying out, policies that promote economic freedom, private domestic production of food commodities for domestic consumption, and the creation and expansion of efficient domestic markets for the purchase and sale of agricultural commodities; and


(4) for such other purposes as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(c) Restrictions on use of credit guarantees

Export credit guarantees authorized by this section shall not be used for foreign aid, foreign policy, or debt rescheduling purposes. The provisions of the cargo preference laws shall not apply to export sales with respect to which credit is guaranteed under this section.

(d) Restrictions

The Commodity Credit Corporation shall not make credit guarantees available in connection with sales of agricultural commodities to any obligor that the Secretary determines cannot adequately service the debt associated with such sale.

(e) Terms

Export credit guarantees issued pursuant to this section shall contain such terms and conditions as the Commodity Credit Corporation determines to be necessary.

(f) United States agricultural commodities

The Commodity Credit Corporation shall finance or guarantee under this section only United States agricultural commodities.

(g) Ineligibility of financial institutions

(1) In general

A financial institution shall be ineligible to receive an assignment of a credit guarantee issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation under this section if it is determined by the Corporation, at the time of the assignment, that such financial institution—

(A) is the financial institution issuing the letter of credit or a subsidiary of such institution; or

(B) is owned or controlled by an entity that owns or controls that financial institution issuing the letter of credit.

(2) Third country banks

The Commodity Credit Corporation may guarantee under subsection (a) the repayment of credit made available to finance an export sale irrespective of whether the obligor is located in the country to which the export sale is destined.

(h) Conditions for fish and processed fish products

In making available any guarantees of credit under this section in connection with sales of fish and processed fish products, the Secretary shall make such guarantees available under terms and conditions that are comparable to the terms and conditions that apply to guarantees provided with respect to sales of other agricultural commodities under this section.

(i) Consultation on agricultural export credit programs

The Secretary and the United States Trade Representative shall consult on a regular basis with the Committee on Agriculture, and the Committee on International Relations, of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate on the status of multilateral negotiations regarding agricultural export credit programs.

(j) Administration

(1) Definition of long term

In this subsection, the term "long term" means a period of 10 or more years.

(2) Guarantees

In administering the export credit guarantees authorized under this section, the Secretary shall—

(A) develop an approach to risk evaluation that facilitates accurate country risk designations and timely adjustments to the designations (on an ongoing basis) in response to material changes in country risk conditions, with ongoing opportunity for input and evaluation from the private sector;

(B) adjust risk-based guarantees as necessary to ensure program effectiveness and United States competitiveness;

(C) work with industry to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that risk-based fees associated with the guarantees cover the operating costs and losses over the long term; and

(D) notwithstanding any other provision of this section, administer and carry out (only after consulting with the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry of the Senate) the program pursuant to such terms as may be agreed between the parties to address the World Trade Organization dispute WTO/DS267 to the extent not superseded by any applicable international undertakings on officially supported export credits to which the United States is a party.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title II, §202, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3673; amended Pub. L. 102–237, title III, §334, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1859; Pub. L. 102–511, title VII, §§708, 709(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3351; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §§243(a), 277(c)(3), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 965, 979; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3102(a)–(c), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 289; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3101(a), (c), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1831, 1832; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3101(a), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 778.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 202 of Pub. L. 95–501 enacted section 1707c of this title prior to the complete revision of Pub. L. 95–501 by Pub. L. 101–624.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(1), substituted "24-month" for "3-year".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(2), substituted "obligor" for "country".

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(3), (4), redesignated subsecs. (j) and (k) as (i) and (j), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (i) which related to percentages of export credit guarantees issued to promote export of processed or high-value agricultural products in fiscal years 1996 through 2007.

Subsec. (j)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(5)(A), (B), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (A) and (B), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) maximize the export sales of agricultural commodities;

"(B) maximize the export credit guarantees that are made available and used during the course of a fiscal year;".

Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(5)(B), (D)(i), redesignated subpar. (E) as (C) and struck out ", but do not exceed," after "cover". Former subpar. (C) redesignated (A).

Subsec. (j)(2)(D). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(5)(C), (D)(ii), (E), added subpar. (D). Former subpar. (D) redesignated (B).

Subsec. (j)(2)(E). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(5)(B), redesignated subpar. (E) as (C).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 113–79, §3101(a)(4), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j).

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(a)(1), struck out par. (1) designation and heading before "The Commodity" and struck out pars. (2) and (3) which related to supplier credits and extended supplier credits, respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(a)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Subject to the provisions of subsection (c) of this section, the Commodity Credit Corporation may guarantee the repayment of credit made available by financial institutions in the United States to finance commercial export sales of agricultural commodities, including processed agricultural products and high-value agricultural products, from privately owned stocks on credit terms that are for not less than a 3-year period nor for more than a 10-year period in a manner that will directly benefit United States agricultural producers."

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(c)(1), struck out ", consistent with the provisions of subsection (c) of this section" after "appropriate".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(a)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to requirements for guarantees under former subsec. (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(c)(2), struck out par. (1) designation and heading before "The Commodity" and struck out par. (2) which related to criteria for the determination required under this subsec. with respect to credit guarantees under former subsec. (b).

Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (b).

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(a)(3), redesignated subsecs. (g) to (i) as (e) to (g), respectively. Former subsecs. (e) and (f) redesignated (c) and (d), respectively.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(c)(3), substituted "subsection (a)" for "subsections (a) and (b)".

Subsecs. (h) to (l). Pub. L. 110–246, §3101(a)(3), (4), redesignated subsecs. (j) to (l) as (h) to (j), respectively, and added subsec. (k). Former subsecs. (h) and (i) redesignated (f) and (g), respectively.

2002—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–171, §3102(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §3102(b), substituted "through 2007" for ", 2001, and 2002".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 107–171, §3102(c), added subsec. (l).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127, §243(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 104–127, §277(c)(3), substituted "emerging markets" for "emerging democracies".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–127, §243(a)(2), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–127, §243(a)(3), added subsec. (h) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (h). Text read as follows: "The Commodity Credit Corporation shall finance or guarantee under this section only United States agricultural commodities. The Commodity Credit Corporation shall not finance or guarantee under this section the value of any foreign agricultural component."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 104–127, §243(a)(4), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "is not in a sound financial condition;", redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, of par. (1), and added par. (2).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104–127, §243(a)(5), added subsec. (k) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (k). Text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—In issuing export credit guarantees under this section in connection with sales to the independent states of the former Soviet Union, the Commodity Credit Corporation shall, to the extent practicable and subject to paragraph (2), ensure that no less than 35 percent of the total amount of credit guarantees issued for a fiscal year are issued to promote the export of processed and high-value agricultural products and that the balance are issued to promote the export of bulk or raw agricultural commodities.

"(2) Limitation.—The 35 percent requirement of paragraph (1) shall apply for a fiscal year only to the extent that the percentage of the total amount of credit guarantees issued for that fiscal year under this section to promote the export to all countries of processed and high-value agricultural products is less than 25 percent."

1992—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 102–511, §709(a)(1), inserted ", including processed agricultural products and high-value agricultural products," after "agricultural commodities".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–511, §708(a), inserted sentence at end.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–511, §708(b), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "to assist countries, particularly developing countries, in meeting their food and fiber needs; and".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–511, §709(a)(2), added subsec. (k).

1991—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation under this section if it is determined by the Corporation, at the time of the assignment, that" for "or proceeds payable under a credit guarantee issued by the Commodity Credit Corporation under this section if it is determined by the Corporation that".

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §243(d), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 967, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Apr. 4, 1996], the Secretary of Agriculture shall issue regulations to carry out the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 5602 and 5641 of this title]."

Promotion of Agricultural Exports to Emerging Markets

Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1542, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3691, as amended by Pub. L. 102–237, title III, §338, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1859; Pub. L. 102–511, title VII, §706, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3350; Pub. L. 103–182, title III, §321(g), Dec. 8, 1993, 107 Stat. 2112; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §§277(a), 278, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 977, 979; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3203, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 300; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3204, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1837; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3203, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 779; Pub. L. 113–188, title I, §101(b), Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2017; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §§3201(b)(3)(A), 3304, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4616, 4619, provided that:

"(a) Funding.—The Commodity Credit Corporation shall make available for fiscal years 1996 through 2023 not less than $1,000,000,000 of direct credits or export credit guarantees for exports to emerging markets under section 201 or 202 of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 (7 U.S.C. 5621 and 5622), in addition to the amounts acquired or authorized under section 211 of the Act (7 U.S.C. 5641) for the program.

"(b) Facilities and Services.—

"(1) In general.—A portion of such export credit guarantees shall be made available for—

"(A) the establishment or improvement of facilities, or

"(B) the provision of services or United States produced goods,

in emerging markets by United States persons to improve handling, marketing, processing, storage, or distribution of imported agricultural commodities and products thereof if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that such guarantees will primarily promote the export of United States agricultural commodities (as defined in section 102(7) of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 [7 U.S.C. 5602(7)]).

"(2) Priority.—The Commodity Credit Corporation shall give priority under this subsection to—

"(A) projects that encourage the privatization of the agricultural sector or that benefit private farms or cooperatives in emerging markets; and

"(B) projects for which nongovernmental persons agree to assume a relatively larger share of the costs.

"(3) Construction waiver.—The Secretary may waive any applicable requirements relating to the use of United States goods in the construction of a proposed facility, if the Secretary determines that—

"(A) goods from the United States are not available; or

"(B) the use of goods from the United States is not practicable.

"(4) Term of guarantee.—A facility payment guarantee under this subsection shall be for a term that is not more than the lesser of—

"(A) the term of the depreciation schedule of the facility assisted; or

"(B) 20 years.

"(c) Consultations.—Before the authority under this section is exercised, the Secretary of Agriculture shall consult with exporters of United States agricultural commodities (as defined in section 102(7) of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 [7 U.S.C. 5602(7)]), nongovernmental experts, and other Federal Government agencies in order to ensure that facilities in an emerging market for which financing is guaranteed under paragraph (1)(B) do not primarily benefit countries which are in close geographic proximity to that emerging market.

"(d) Foreign Debt Burdens.—In carrying out the program described in subsection (a), the Secretary of Agriculture shall ensure that the credits for which repayment is guaranteed under subsection (a) do not negatively affect the political and economic situation in emerging markets by excessively adding to the foreign debt burdens of such countries.

"(e) Emerging Market.—In this section and section 1543 [7 U.S.C. 3293], the term 'emerging market' means any country, foreign territory, customs union, or other economic market that the Secretary determines—

"(1) is taking steps toward a market-oriented economy through the food, agriculture, or rural business sectors of its economy; and

"(2) has the potential to provide a viable and significant market for United States agricultural commodities or products of United States agricultural commodities."

Presidential Determination of Emerging Democracies

Determination of President of the United States, No. 95–35, Aug. 10, 1995, 60 F.R. 44723, provided:

Pursuant to the authority vested in me by section 1542(f) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act of 1990, as amended (7 U.S.C. 5622 note) (hereinafter "the Act"), I hereby determine that the following countries are taking the steps set forth in section 1542(f) of the Act to qualify as emerging democracies for purposes of that section:

Albania, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cambodia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Egypt, El Salvador, Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ghana, Guatemala, Hungary, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Morocco, Namibia, Nicaragua, Pakistan, Panama, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, Ukraine, Yemen, and Zimbabwe.

In making this determination, I have considered the eligibility only of those countries for which programs are underway or currently contemplated by the Department of Agriculture.

The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to publish this determination in the Federal Register.

William J. Clinton.      

§5623. Agricultural trade promotion and facilitation

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall carry out activities under this section—

(1) to access, develop, maintain, and expand markets for United States agricultural commodities; and

(2) to promote cooperation and the exchange of information.

(b) Market Access Program

(1) Definition of eligible trade organization

In this subsection, the term "eligible trade organization" means—

(A) a United States agricultural trade organization or regional State-related organization that promotes the export and sale of United States agricultural commodities and that does not stand to profit directly from specific sales of United States agricultural commodities;

(B) a cooperative organization or State agency that promotes the sale of United States agricultural commodities; or

(C) a private organization that promotes the export and sale of United States agricultural commodities if the Secretary determines that such organization would significantly contribute to United States export market development.

(2) In general

The Commodity Credit Corporation shall establish and carry out a program, to be known as the "Market Access Program", to encourage the development, maintenance, and expansion of commercial export markets for United States agricultural commodities (including commodities that are organically produced (as defined in section 6502 of this title)) through cost-share assistance to eligible trade organizations that implement a foreign market development program.

(3) Participation requirements

(A) Marketing plan and other requirements

To be eligible for cost-share assistance under this subsection, an eligible trade organization shall—

(i) prepare and submit a marketing plan to the Secretary that meets the guidelines governing such a marketing plan specified in this paragraph or otherwise established by the Secretary;

(ii) meet any other requirements established by the Secretary; and

(iii) enter into an agreement with the Secretary.

(B) Purpose of marketing plan

A marketing plan submitted under this paragraph shall describe the advertising or other market oriented export promotion activities to be carried out by the eligible trade organization with respect to which assistance under this subsection is being requested.

(C) Specific elements

To be approved by the Secretary, a marketing plan submitted under this paragraph shall—

(i) specifically describe the manner in which assistance received by the eligible trade organization, in conjunction with funds and services provided by the eligible trade organization, will be expended in implementing the marketing plan;

(ii) establish specific market goals to be achieved under the marketing plan; and

(iii) contain whatever additional requirements are determined by the Secretary to be necessary.

(D) Branded promotion

A marketing plan approved by the Secretary may provide for the use of branded advertising to promote the sale of United States agricultural commodities in a foreign country under such terms and conditions as may be established by the Secretary.

(E) Amendments

An approved marketing plan may be amended by the eligible trade organization at any time, subject to the approval of the amendment by the Secretary.

(4) Level of assistance and cost-share requirements

(A) In general

The Secretary shall justify in writing the level of assistance to be provided to an eligible trade organization under this subsection and the level of cost sharing required of the organization.

(B) Limitation on branded promotion

Assistance provided under this subsection for activities described in paragraph (3)(D) shall not exceed 50 percent of the cost of implementing the marketing plan, except that the Secretary may determine not to apply such limitation in the case of United States agricultural commodities with respect to which there has been a favorable decision by the United States Trade Representative under section 2411 of title 19. Criteria used by the Secretary for determining that the limitation shall not apply shall be consistent and documented.

(5) Other terms and conditions

(A) Multiyear basis

The Secretary may provide assistance under this subsection on a multiyear basis, subject to annual review by the Secretary for compliance with the approved marketing plan.

(B) Termination of assistance

The Secretary may terminate any assistance made, or to be made, available under this subsection if the Secretary determines that—

(i) the eligible trade organization is not adhering to the terms and conditions applicable to the provision of the assistance;

(ii) the eligible trade organization is not implementing the approved marketing plan or is not adequately meeting the established goals of the plan;

(iii) the eligible trade organization is not adequately contributing its own resources to the implementation of the plan; or

(iv) the Secretary determines that termination of assistance in a particular instance is in the best interests of the Market Access Program.

(C) Evaluations

Beginning not later than 15 months after the initial provision of assistance under this subsection to an eligible trade organization, the Secretary shall monitor the expenditures by the eligible trade organization of such assistance, including the following:

(i) An evaluation of the effectiveness of the marketing plan of the eligible trade organization in developing or maintaining markets for United States agricultural commodities.

(ii) An evaluation of whether assistance provided under this subsection is necessary to maintain such markets.

(iii) A thorough accounting of the expenditure by the eligible trade organization of the assistance provided under this subsection.

(6) Restrictions on use of funds

Assistance provided under this subsection to an eligible trade organization may not be used—

(A) to provide direct assistance to any foreign for-profit corporation for the corporation's use in promoting foreign-produced products; or

(B) to provide direct assistance to any for-profit corporation that is not recognized as a small business concern (as described in section 632(a) of title 15), excluding—

(i) a cooperative;

(ii) an association described in section 291 of this title; or

(iii) a nonprofit trade association.

(7) Permissive use of funds

Assistance provided under this subsection to a United States agricultural trade association, cooperative, or small business may be used for individual branded promotional activity related to a United States branded product, if the beneficiaries of the activity have provided funds for the activity in an amount that is at least equivalent to the amount of such assistance.

(8) Priority

In providing assistance for branded promotion, the Secretary should give priority to small-sized entities.

(9) Contribution level

(A) In general

The Secretary should require a minimum contribution level of 10 percent from an eligible trade organization that receives assistance for nonbranded promotion.

(B) Increases in contribution level

The Secretary may increase the contribution level in any subsequent year that an eligible trade organization receives assistance for nonbranded promotion.

(10) Additionality

The Secretary should require each participant in the Market Access Program to certify that any Federal funds received supplement, but do not supplant, private or third party participant funds or other contributions to Program activities.

(11) Independent audits

If as a result of an evaluation or audit of activities of a participant under the Market Access Program, the Secretary determines that a further review is justified in order to ensure compliance with the requirements of the Program, the Secretary should require the participant to contract for an independent audit of the Program activities, including activities of any subcontractor.

(12) Tobacco

No funds made available under the Market Access Program may be used for activities to develop, maintain, or expand foreign markets for tobacco.

(c) Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program

(1) Definition of eligible trade organization

In this subsection, the term "eligible trade organization" means a United States trade organization that—

(A) promotes the export of 1 or more United States agricultural commodities; and

(B) does not have a business interest in or receive remuneration from specific sales of agricultural commodities.

(2) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish and, in cooperation with eligible trade organizations, carry out a program to be known as the "Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program" to maintain and develop foreign markets for United States agricultural commodities.

(3) Use of funds

Funds made available to carry out this subsection shall be used only to provide—

(A) cost-share assistance to an eligible trade organization under a contract or agreement with the eligible trade organization; and

(B) assistance for other costs that are appropriate to carry out the Foreign Market Development Cooperator Program, including contingent liabilities that are not otherwise funded.

(d) E (Kika) de la Garza Emerging Markets Program

(1) Definition of emerging market

In this subsection, the term "emerging market" means any country, foreign territory, customs union, or other economic market that the Secretary determines—

(A) is taking steps toward a market-oriented economy through the food, agriculture, or rural business sectors of its economy; and

(B) has the potential to provide a viable and significant market for United States agricultural commodities.

(2) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program, to be known as the "E (Kika) de la Garza Emerging Markets Program"—

(A) to develop agricultural markets in emerging markets; and

(B) to promote cooperation and exchange of information between agricultural institutions and agribusinesses in the United States and emerging markets.

(3) Development of agricultural systems

(A) In general

(i) Implementation

To develop, maintain, or expand markets for exports of United States agricultural commodities, the Secretary shall make available to emerging markets the expertise of the United States—

(I) to make assessments of food and rural business systems needs;

(II) to make recommendations on measures necessary to enhance the effectiveness of the food and rural business systems described in subclause (I), including potential reductions in trade barriers; and

(III) to identify and carry out specific opportunities and projects to enhance the effectiveness of the food and rural business systems described in subclause (I).

(ii) Extent of program

The Secretary shall implement this subparagraph with respect to at least 3 emerging markets in each fiscal year.

(B) Experts from the United States

The Secretary may implement subparagraph (A) by providing—

(i) assistance to teams (consisting primarily of agricultural consultants, agricultural producers, other persons from the private sector, and government officials expert in assessing the food and rural business systems of other countries) to enable those teams to conduct the assessments, make the recommendations, and identify the opportunities and projects described in subparagraph (A)(i) in emerging markets;

(ii) for necessary subsistence and transportation expenses of—

(I) United States food and rural business system experts, including United States agricultural producers and other United States individuals knowledgeable in agricultural and agribusiness matters, to enable such United States food and rural business system experts to assist in transferring knowledge and expertise to entities from emerging markets; and

(II) individuals designated by emerging markets to enable such designated individuals to consult with such United States experts to enhance food and rural business systems of such emerging markets and to transfer knowledge and expertise to such emerging markets.

(C) Cost-sharing

The Secretary shall encourage the nongovernmental experts described in subparagraph (B) to share the costs of, and otherwise assist in, the participation of those experts in the E (Kika) de la Garza Emerging Markets Program.

(D) Technical assistance

The Secretary is authorized to provide, or pay the necessary costs for, technical assistance (including the establishment of extension services) to enable individuals or other entities to carry out recommendations, projects, and opportunities in emerging markets, including recommendations, projects, and opportunities described in subclauses (II) and (III) of subparagraph (A)(i).

(E) Reports to Secretary

A team that receives assistance under subparagraph (B)(i) shall prepare and submit to the Secretary such reports as the Secretary may require.

(F) Advisory committee

To provide the Secretary with information that may be useful to the Secretary in carrying out this subsection, the Secretary may establish an advisory committee composed of representatives of the various sectors of the food and rural business systems of the United States.

(G) Effect

The authority provided under this subsection shall be in addition to and not in place of any other authority of the Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation.

(e) Technical assistance for specialty crops

(1) Establishment

The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish an export assistance program, in this subsection referred to as the "program", to address existing or potential unique barriers that prohibit or threaten the export of United States specialty crops.

(2) Purpose

The program shall provide direct assistance through public and private sector projects and technical assistance, including through the program under section 3157(e) of this title, to remove, resolve, or mitigate existing or potential sanitary, phytosanitary, and technical barriers to trade.

(3) Priority

The program shall address time sensitive and strategic market access projects based on—

(A) trade effect on market retention, market access, and market expansion; and

(B) trade impact.

(4) Multiyear projects

The Secretary may provide assistance under the program to a project for longer than a 5-year period if the Secretary determines that further assistance would effectively support the purpose described in paragraph (2).

(5) Outreach and technical assistance

The Secretary shall—

(A) conduct outreach to inform eligible organizations of the requirements of the program and the process by which such organizations may submit proposals for funding;

(B) provide technical assistance to eligible organizations to assist in developing proposals and complying with the requirements of the program; and

(C) solicit input from eligible organizations on improvements to streamline and facilitate the provision of assistance under this subsection.

(6) Regulations and procedures

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 20, 2018, the Secretary shall review program regulations, procedures, and guidelines for assistance under this subsection and make revisions to streamline, improve, and clarify the application, approval and compliance processes for such assistance, including revisions to implement the requirements of paragraph (5).

(B) Considerations

In reviewing and making revisions under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider—

(i) establishing accountability standards that are appropriate for the size and scope of a project; and

(ii) establishing streamlined application and approval processes, including for smaller-scale projects or projects to address time-sensitive trade barriers.

(7) Annual report

Each year, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report that contains, for the period covered by the report, a description of—

(A) each factor that affects the export of specialty crops, including each factor relating to any—

(i) significant sanitary or phytosanitary issue;

(ii) trade barrier; or

(iii) emerging sanitary or phytosanitary issue or trade barrier; and


(B)(i) any funds provided under subsection (f)(3)(A)(iv) that were not obligated in a fiscal year; and

(ii) the reason such funds were not obligated.

(f) Funding and administration

(1) Commodity Credit Corporation

The Secretary shall use the funds, facilities, and authorities of the Commodity Credit Corporation to carry out this section.

(2) Funding amount

For each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, of the funds of, or an equal value of commodities owned by, the Commodity Credit Corporation, the Secretary shall use to carry out this section $255,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(3) Allocation

(A) In general

For each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023, the Secretary shall allocate funds to carry out this section in accordance with the following:

(i) Market access program

For market access activities authorized under subsection (b), of the funds of, or an equal value of commodities owned by, the Commodity Credit Corporation, not less than $200,000,000 for each fiscal year.

(ii) Foreign market development cooperator program

To carry out subsection (c), of the funds of, or an equal value of commodities owned by, the Commodity Credit Corporation, not less than $34,500,000 for each fiscal year.

(iii) E (Kika) de la Garza Emerging Markets Program

To provide assistance under subsection (d), of the funds of, or an equal value of commodities owned by, the Commodity Credit Corporation, not more than $8,000,000 for each fiscal year.

(iv) Technical assistance for specialty crops

To carry out subsection (e), of the funds of, or an equal value of the commodities owned by, the Commodity Credit Corporation, $9,000,000 for each fiscal year.

(v) Priority trade fund

(I) In general

In addition to the amounts allocated under clauses (i) through (iv), and notwithstanding any limitations in those clauses, as determined by the Secretary, for 1 or more programs under this section for authorized activities to access, develop, maintain, and expand markets for United States agricultural commodities, $3,500,000 for each fiscal year.

(II) Considerations

In allocating funds made available under subclause (I), the Secretary may consider providing a greater allocation to 1 or more programs under this section for which the amounts requested under applications exceed available funding for the 1 or more programs.

(B) Reallocation

Any funds allocated under clauses (i) through (iv) of subparagraph (A) that remain unobligated one year after the end of the fiscal year in which they are first made available shall be reallocated to the priority trade fund under subparagraph (A)(v). To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall allocate such reallocated funds to support exports of those types of United States agricultural commodities eligible for assistance under the program for which the funds were originally allocated under subparagraph (A).

(4) Cuba

Notwithstanding section 7207 of title 22 or any other provision of law, funds made available under this section may be used to carry out the programs authorized under subsections (b) and (c) in Cuba. Funds may not be used as described in the previous sentence in contravention with directives set forth under the National Security Presidential Memorandum entitled "Strengthening the Policy of the United States Toward Cuba" issued by the President on June 16, 2017, during the period in which that memorandum is in effect.

(5) Authorization of appropriations

In addition to any other amounts provided under this subsection, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to carry out the programs and authorities under paragraph (3)(A)(v) and subsections (b) through (e).

(Pub. L. 95–501, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3674; amended Pub. L. 102–237, title III, §309, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1856; Pub. L. 103–66, title I, §1302(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 103–465, title IV, §411(d), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 4963; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §244(a)(1), (b), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 967, 968; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3102(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1832; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3201(a), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4608.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 203 of Pub. L. 95–501 enacted section 1707d of this title prior to the complete revision of Pub. L. 95–501 by Pub. L. 101–624.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–334 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to market access program.

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–246 inserted "(including commodities that are organically produced (as defined in section 6502 of this title))" after "agricultural commodities".

1996Pub. L. 104–127, §244(a)(1)(A), substituted "access" for "promotion" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (e)(2)(B), (f)(2)(B), (C). Pub. L. 104–127, §244(a)(1)(B), substituted "market access program" for "marketing promotion program".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 104–127, §244(b), added par. (4).

1994—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–465, §411(d)(1), struck out par. (1) designation and heading, redesignated subpars. (A) to (C) of former par. (1) as pars. (1) to (3), respectively, and realigned margins, and struck out former par. (2) which related to assistance to counter or offset adverse effects of subsidy, import quota, or other unfair trade practice of foreign country, except in the case of activities conducted by small entities operating through regional State-related organizations.

Subsec. (f)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 103–465, §411(d)(2), inserted "or" at end of subpar. (C), redesignated subpar. (E) as (D), and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "the unfair trade practice that was the basis of the provision of assistance has been discontinued and marketing assistance is no longer required to offset its effects; or".

1993—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–66 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "The Secretary shall provide export assistance under this section on a priority basis in the case of an unfair trade practice."

1991—Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "November 28, 1990," for "the date of enactment of this Act".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–465 effective on the date of entry into force of the WTO Agreement with respect to the United States (Jan. 1, 1995), except as otherwise provided, see section 451 of Pub. L. 103–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Prohibition on Assistance to Mink Associations

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(a) [title VII, §718], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681-27, as amended by Pub. L. 106–31, title V, §5001(b), May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 109; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3201(b)(1)(D), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4616, provided that: "Hereafter, none of the funds made available in annual appropriations Acts may be used to provide assistance to, or to pay the salaries of personnel to carry out a market promotion/market access program pursuant to section 203(b) of the Agricultural Trade Act of 1978 (7 U.S.C. 5623(b)[)] that provides assistance to the United States Mink Export Development Council or any mink industry trade association."

Secretarial Actions To Achieve Savings in Market Access Program; Regulations

Pub. L. 103–66, title I, §1302(b), (c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 330, 331, as amended by Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §244(a)(2)(A)(ii), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 968, which directed the Secretary of Agriculture to implement changes in the market access program beginning with fiscal year 1994 in order to improve the effectiveness of the program and to meet stated objectives, and required issuance of regulations not later than 90 days after Aug. 10, 1993, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3201(b)(1)(E), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4616.

§5624. Barter of agricultural commodities

(a) In general

The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation may provide eligible commodities in barter for foreign products under such terms and conditions as the Secretary or the Corporation shall prescribe.

(b) Eligible commodities

Unless otherwise specified, eligible commodities shall include—

(1) agricultural commodities acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation through price support operations; and

(2) agricultural commodities acquired by the Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation in the normal course of business and available for disposition.

(c) Barter by exporters of agricultural commodities

(1) Purpose

The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation shall encourage exporters of agricultural commodities to barter such commodities for foreign products—

(A) to acquire such foreign products needed by such exporters; and

(B) to develop, maintain, or expand foreign markets for United States agricultural exports.

(2) Eligible activities

The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation may provide eligible commodities to exporters to assist such exporters in barter transactions.

(3) Technical assistance

The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation shall provide technical advice and assistance relating to the barter of agricultural commodities to any United States exporter who requests such advice or assistance.

(d) Transfer of foreign products to other Government agencies

The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation may transfer any foreign products that the Secretary or such Corporation obtains through barter activities to other Government agencies if the Corporation receives assurances that it will receive full reimbursement from the agency within the same fiscal year in which such transfer occurs.

(e) Corporation authority not limited

Nothing contained in this section shall limit the authority of the Commodity Credit Corporation to acquire, hold, or dispose of such foreign materials as such Corporation determines appropriate in carrying out the functions and protecting the assets of the Corporation.

(f) Prohibited activities

The Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation shall take reasonable precautions to prevent the misuse of eligible commodities in a barter or exchange program, including activities that—

(1) displace or interfere with commercial sales of United States agricultural commodities that otherwise might be made;

(2) unduly disrupt world prices of agricultural commodities or the normal patterns of commercial trade with recipient countries; or

(3) permit the resale or transshipment of eligible commodities to countries other than the intended recipient country.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3676; amended Pub. L. 102–237, title III, §320, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1857.)

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–237 amended heading and substituted "Government" for "government" in text.

§5625. Combination of programs

The Commodity Credit Corporation may carry out a program under which commercial export credit guarantees available under section 5622 of this title are combined with direct credits from the Commodity Credit Corporation under section 5621 of this title to reduce the effective rate of interest on export sales of agricultural commodities.

(Pub. L. 95–501, title II, §205, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1531, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3677.)