[USC03] 42 USC CHAPTER 21, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERALLY
Result 1 of 1
   
 
42 USC CHAPTER 21, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERALLY
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 21—CIVIL RIGHTS

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERALLY

§1981. Equal rights under the law

(a) Statement of equal rights

All persons within the jurisdiction of the United States shall have the same right in every State and Territory to make and enforce contracts, to sue, be parties, give evidence, and to the full and equal benefit of all laws and proceedings for the security of persons and property as is enjoyed by white citizens, and shall be subject to like punishment, pains, penalties, taxes, licenses, and exactions of every kind, and to no other.

(b) "Make and enforce contracts" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "make and enforce contracts" includes the making, performance, modification, and termination of contracts, and the enjoyment of all benefits, privileges, terms, and conditions of the contractual relationship.

(c) Protection against impairment

The rights protected by this section are protected against impairment by nongovernmental discrimination and impairment under color of State law.

(R.S. §1977; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §101, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1071.)

Codification

R.S. §1977 derived from act May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §16, 16 Stat. 144.

Section was formerly classified to section 41 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–166 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–166, title IV, §402, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1099, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note below] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect upon enactment [Nov. 21, 1991].

"(b) Certain Disparate Impact Cases.—Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, nothing in this Act shall apply to any disparate impact case for which a complaint was filed before March 1, 1975, and for which an initial decision was rendered after October 30, 1983."

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–166, §1, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1071, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1981a of this title and sections 60l and 1201 to 1224 of Title 2, The Congress, amending this section and sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e–1, 2000e–2, 2000e–4, 2000e–5, 2000e–16, 12111, 12112, and 12209 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 2000e and 2000e–4 of this title, and section 1a–5 of Title 16, Conservation] may be cited as the 'Civil Rights Act of 1991'."

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–559, which amended section 1988 of this title, is known as "The Civil Rights Attorney's Fees Awards Act of 1976", see note set out under section 1988 of this title.

Severability

Pub. L. 102–166, title IV, §401, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1099, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above], or an amendment made by this Act, or the application of such provision to any person or circumstances is held to be invalid, the remainder of this Act and the amendments made by this Act, and the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances, shall not be affected."

Congressional Findings

Pub. L. 102–166, §2, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1071, provided that: "The Congress finds that—

"(1) additional remedies under Federal law are needed to deter unlawful harassment and intentional discrimination in the workplace;

"(2) the decision of the Supreme Court in Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989) has weakened the scope and effectiveness of Federal civil rights protections; and

"(3) legislation is necessary to provide additional protections against unlawful discrimination in employment."

Purposes of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–166, §3, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1071, provided that: "The purposes of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above] are—

"(1) to provide appropriate remedies for intentional discrimination and unlawful harassment in the workplace;

"(2) to codify the concepts of 'business necessity' and 'job related' enunciated by the Supreme Court in Griggs v. Duke Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971), and in the other Supreme Court decisions prior to Wards Cove Packing Co. v. Atonio, 490 U.S. 642 (1989);

"(3) to confirm statutory authority and provide statutory guidelines for the adjudication of disparate impact suits under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); and

"(4) to respond to recent decisions of the Supreme Court by expanding the scope of relevant civil rights statutes in order to provide adequate protection to victims of discrimination."

Legislative History for 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §105(b), Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1075, provided that: "No statements other than the interpretive memorandum appearing at Vol. 137 Congressional Record S 15276 (daily ed. Oct. 25, 1991) shall be considered legislative history of, or relied upon in any way as legislative history in construing or applying, any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note above] that relates to Wards Cove—Business necessity/cumulation/alternative business practice."

Construction of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §116, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1079, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this title [enacting section 1981a of this title and amending this section, sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e–1, 2000e–2, 2000e–4, 2000e–5, 2000e–16, 12111, and 12112 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor] shall be construed to affect court-ordered remedies, affirmative action, or conciliation agreements, that are in accordance with the law."

Alternative Means of Dispute Resolution

Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §118, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1081, provided that: "Where appropriate and to the extent authorized by law, the use of alternative means of dispute resolution, including settlement negotiations, conciliation, facilitation, mediation, factfinding, minitrials, and arbitration, is encouraged to resolve disputes arising under the Acts or provisions of Federal law amended by this title [enacting section 1981a of this title and amending this section, sections 1988, 2000e, 2000e–1, 2000e–2, 2000e–4, 2000e–5, 2000e–16, 12111, and 12112 of this title, and section 626 of Title 29, Labor]."

Executive Order No. 13050

Ex. Ord. No. 13050, June 13, 1997, 62 F.R. 32987, which established the President's Advisory Board on Race, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13138, §3(e), Sept. 30, 1999, 64 F.R. 53880, formerly set out as a note under section 14 of the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§1981a. Damages in cases of intentional discrimination in employment

(a) Right of recovery

(1) Civil rights

In an action brought by a complaining party under section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e–5, 2000e–16] against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) prohibited under section 703, 704, or 717 of the Act [42 U.S.C. 2000e–2, 2000e–3, 2000e–16], and provided that the complaining party cannot recover under section 1981 of this title, the complaining party may recover compensatory and punitive damages as allowed in subsection (b), in addition to any relief authorized by section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from the respondent.

(2) Disability

In an action brought by a complaining party under the powers, remedies, and procedures set forth in section 706 or 717 of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e–5, 2000e–16] (as provided in section 107(a) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12117(a)), and section 794a(a)(1) of title 29, respectively) against a respondent who engaged in unlawful intentional discrimination (not an employment practice that is unlawful because of its disparate impact) under section 791 of title 29 and the regulations implementing section 791 of title 29, or who violated the requirements of section 791 of title 29 or the regulations implementing section 791 of title 29 concerning the provision of a reasonable accommodation, or section 102 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12112), or committed a violation of section 102(b)(5) of the Act, against an individual, the complaining party may recover compensatory and punitive damages as allowed in subsection (b), in addition to any relief authorized by section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, from the respondent.

(3) Reasonable accommodation and good faith effort

In cases where a discriminatory practice involves the provision of a reasonable accommodation pursuant to section 102(b)(5) of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12112(b)(5)] or regulations implementing section 791 of title 29, damages may not be awarded under this section where the covered entity demonstrates good faith efforts, in consultation with the person with the disability who has informed the covered entity that accommodation is needed, to identify and make a reasonable accommodation that would provide such individual with an equally effective opportunity and would not cause an undue hardship on the operation of the business.

(b) Compensatory and punitive damages

(1) Determination of punitive damages

A complaining party may recover punitive damages under this section against a respondent (other than a government, government agency or political subdivision) if the complaining party demonstrates that the respondent engaged in a discriminatory practice or discriminatory practices with malice or with reckless indifference to the federally protected rights of an aggrieved individual.

(2) Exclusions from compensatory damages

Compensatory damages awarded under this section shall not include backpay, interest on backpay, or any other type of relief authorized under section 706(g) of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000e–5(g)].

(3) Limitations

The sum of the amount of compensatory damages awarded under this section for future pecuniary losses, emotional pain, suffering, inconvenience, mental anguish, loss of enjoyment of life, and other nonpecuniary losses, and the amount of punitive damages awarded under this section, shall not exceed, for each complaining party—

(A) in the case of a respondent who has more than 14 and fewer than 101 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $50,000;

(B) in the case of a respondent who has more than 100 and fewer than 201 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $100,000; and

(C) in the case of a respondent who has more than 200 and fewer than 501 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $200,000; and

(D) in the case of a respondent who has more than 500 employees in each of 20 or more calendar weeks in the current or preceding calendar year, $300,000.

(4) Construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit the scope of, or the relief available under, section 1981 of this title.

(c) Jury trial

If a complaining party seeks compensatory or punitive damages under this section—

(1) any party may demand a trial by jury; and

(2) the court shall not inform the jury of the limitations described in subsection (b)(3).

(d) Definitions

As used in this section:

(1) Complaining party

The term "complaining party" means—

(A) in the case of a person seeking to bring an action under subsection (a)(1), the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000e et seq.); or

(B) in the case of a person seeking to bring an action under subsection (a)(2), the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, the Attorney General, a person who may bring an action or proceeding under section 794a(a)(1) of title 29, or a person who may bring an action or proceeding under title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12111 et seq.].

(2) Discriminatory practice

The term "discriminatory practice" means the discrimination described in paragraph (1), or the discrimination or the violation described in paragraph (2), of subsection (a).

(R.S. §1977A, as added Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §102, Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1072.)

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter VI (§2000e et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(B) is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327, as amended. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§12111 et seq.) of chapter 126 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 1981 of this title.

§1982. Property rights of citizens

All citizens of the United States shall have the same right, in every State and Territory, as is enjoyed by white citizens thereof to inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property.

(R.S. §1978.)

Codification

R.S. §1978 derived from act Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §1, 14 Stat. 27.

Section was formerly classified to section 42 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Ex. Ord. No. 11063. Equal Opportunity in Housing

Ex. Ord. No. 11063, Nov. 20, 1962, 27 F.R. 11527, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939, provided:

WHEREAS the granting of Federal assistance for the provision, rehabilitation, or operation of housing and related facilities from which Americans are excluded because of their race, color, creed, or national origin is unfair, unjust, and inconsistent with the public policy of the United States as manifested in its Constitution and laws; and

WHEREAS the Congress in the Housing Act of 1949 [see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title] has declared that the general welfare and security of the Nation and the health and living standards of its people require the realization as soon as feasible of the goal of a decent home and a suitable living environment for every American family; and

WHEREAS discriminatory policies and practices based upon race, color, creed, or national origin now operate to deny many Americans the benefits of housing financed through Federal assistance and as a consequence prevent such assistance from providing them with an alternative to substandard, unsafe, unsanitary, and overcrowded housing; and

WHEREAS such discriminatory policies and practices result in segregated patterns of housing and necessarily produce other forms of discrimination and segregation which deprive many Americans of equal opportunity in the exercise of their unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; and

WHEREAS the executive branch of the Government, in faithfully executing the laws of the United States which authorize Federal financial assistance, directly or indirectly, for the provision, rehabilitation, and operation of housing and related facilities, is charged with an obligation and duty to assure that those laws are fairly administered and that benefits thereunder are made available to all Americans without regard to their race, color, creed, or national origin:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by the Constitution and laws of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Part I—Prevention of Discrimination

Section 101. I hereby direct all departments and agencies in the executive branch of the Federal Government, insofar as their functions relate to the provision, rehabilitation, or operation of housing and related facilities, to take all action necessary and appropriate to prevent discrimination because of race, color, religion (creed), sex, disability, familial status or national origin—

(a) in the sale, leasing, rental, or other disposition of residential property and related facilities (including land to be developed for residential use), or in the use or occupancy thereof, if such property and related facilities are—

(i) owned or operated by the Federal Government, or

(ii) provided in whole or in part with the aid of loans, advances, grants, or contributions hereafter agreed to be made by the Federal Government, or

(iii) provided in whole or in part by loans hereafter insured, guaranteed, or otherwise secured by the credit of the Federal Government, or

(iv) provided by the development or the redevelopment of real property purchased, leased, or otherwise obtained from a State or local public agency receiving Federal financial assistance for slum clearance or urban renewal with respect to such real property under a loan of grant contract hereafter entered into; and

(b) in the lending practices with respect to residential property and related facilities (including land to be developed for residential use) of lending institutions, insofar as such practices relate to loans hereafter insured or guaranteed by the Federal Government.

Sec. 102. I hereby direct the Department of Housing and Urban Development and all other executive departments and agencies to use their good offices and to take other appropriate action permitted by law, including the institution of appropriate litigation, if required, to promote the abandonment of discriminatory practices with respect to residential property and related facilities heretofore provided with Federal financial assistance of the types referred to in Section 101(a)(ii), (iii), and (iv).

Part II—Implementation by Departments and Agencies

Sec. 201. Each executive department and agency subject to this order is directed to submit to the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing established pursuant to Part IV of this order (hereinafter sometimes referred to as the Committee), within thirty days from the date of this order, a report outlining all current programs administered by it which are affected by this order.

Sec. 202. Each such department and agency shall be primarily responsible for obtaining compliance with the purposes of this order as the order applies to programs administered by it; and is directed to cooperate with the Committee, to furnish it, in accordance with law, such information and assistance as it may request in the performance of its functions, and to report to it at such intervals as the Committee may require.

Sec. 203. Each such department and agency shall, within thirty days from the date of this order, issue such rules and regulations, adopt such procedures and policies, and make such exemptions and exceptions as may be consistent with law and necessary or appropriate to effectuate the purposes of this order. Each such department and agency shall consult with the Committee in order to achieve such consistency and uniformity as may be feasible.

Part III—Enforcement

Sec. 301. The Committee, any subcommittee thereof, and any officer or employee designated by any executive department or agency subject to this order may hold such hearings, public or private, as the Committee, department, or agency may deem advisable for compliance, enforcement, or educational purposes.

Sec. 302. If any executive department or agency subject to this order concludes that any person or firm (including but not limited to any individual, partnership, association, trust, or corporation) or any State or local public agency has violated any rule, regulation, or procedure issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or any nondiscrimination provision included in any agreement or contract pursuant to any such rule, regulation, or procedure, it shall endeavor to end and remedy such violation by informal means, including conference, conciliation, and persuasion unless similar efforts made by another Federal department or agency have been unsuccessful. In conformity with rules, regulations, procedures, or policies issued or adopted by it pursuant to Section 203 hereof, a department or agency may take such action as may be appropriate under its governing laws, including, but not limited to, the following:

It may—

(a) cancel or terminate in whole or in part any agreement or contract with such person, firm, or State or local public agency providing for a loan, grant, contribution, or other Federal aid, or for the payment of a commission or fee;

(b) refrain from extending any further aid under any program administered by it and affected by this order until it is satisfied that the affected person, firm, or State or local public agency will comply with the rules, regulations, and procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, and any nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract;

(c) refuse to approve a lending institution or any other lender as a beneficiary under any program administered by it which is affected by this order or revoke such approval if previously given.

Sec. 303. In appropriate cases executive departments and agencies shall refer to the Attorney General violations of any rules, regulations, or procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or violations of any nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract, for such civil or criminal action as he may deem appropriate. The Attorney General is authorized to furnish legal advice concerning this order to the Committee and to any department or agency requesting such advice.

Sec. 304. Any executive department or agency affected by this order may also invoke the sanctions provided in Section 302 where any person or firm, including a lender, has violated the rules, regulations, or procedures issued or adopted pursuant to this order, or the nondiscrimination provisions included in any agreement or contract, with respect to any program affected by this order administered by any other executive department or agency.

Part IV—Establishment of the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing

[Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939.]

Part V—Powers and Duties of the President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing

Sec. 501. [Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939.]

Sec. 502. (a) The Committee shall take such steps as it deems necessary and appropriate to promote the coordination of the activities of departments and agencies under this order. In so doing, the Committee shall consider the overall objectives of Federal legislation relating to housing and the right of every individual to participate without discrimination because of race, color, religion (creed), sex, disability, familial status or national origin in the ultimate benefits of the Federal programs subject to this order.

(b) The Committee may confer with representatives of any department or agency, State or local public agency, civic, industry, or labor group, or any other group directly or indirectly affected by this order; examine the relevant rules, regulations, procedures, policies, and practices of any department or agency subject to this order and make such recommendations as may be necessary or desirable to achieve the purposes of this order.

(c) The Committee shall encourage educational programs by civic, educational, religious, industry, labor, and other nongovernmental groups to eliminate the basic causes of discrimination in housing and related facilities provided with Federal assistance.

Sec. 503. [Revoked. Ex. Ord. No. 12259, Dec. 31, 1980, 46 F.R. 1253; Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604, Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939.]

Part VI—Miscellaneous

Sec. 601. As used in this order, the term "departments and agencies" includes any wholly-owned or mixed-ownership Government corporation, and the term "State" includes the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and the territories of the United States.

Sec. 602. This order shall become effective immediately.

[Functions of President's Committee on Equal Opportunity in Housing under Ex. Ord. No. 11063 delegated to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development by Ex. Ord. No. 12892, §6–604(a), Jan. 17, 1994, 59 F.R. 2939, set out as a note under section 3608 of this title.]

§1983. Civil action for deprivation of rights

Every person who, under color of any statute, ordinance, regulation, custom, or usage, of any State or Territory or the District of Columbia, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizen of the United States or other person within the jurisdiction thereof to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party injured in an action at law, suit in equity, or other proper proceeding for redress, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable. For the purposes of this section, any Act of Congress applicable exclusively to the District of Columbia shall be considered to be a statute of the District of Columbia.

(R.S. §1979; Pub. L. 96–170, §1, Dec. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 1284; Pub. L. 104–317, title III, §309(c), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3853.)

Codification

R.S. §1979 derived from act Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, §1, 17 Stat. 13.

Section was formerly classified to section 43 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–317 inserted before period at end of first sentence ", except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity, injunctive relief shall not be granted unless a declaratory decree was violated or declaratory relief was unavailable".

1979Pub. L. 96–170 inserted "or the District of Columbia" after "Territory", and provisions relating to Acts of Congress applicable solely to the District of Columbia.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–170 applicable with respect to any deprivation of rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws occurring after Dec. 29, 1979, see section 3 of Pub. L. 96–170, set out as a note under section 1343 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§1984. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Mar. 1, 1875, ch. 114, §5, 18 Stat. 337, which was formerly classified to section 46 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, related to Supreme Court review of cases arising under act Mar. 1, 1875. Sections 1 and 2 of act Mar. 1, 1875 were declared unconstitutional in U.S. v. Singleton, 109 U.S. 3, and sections 3 and 4 of such act were repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862.

§1985. Conspiracy to interfere with civil rights

(1) Preventing officer from performing duties

If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to prevent, by force, intimidation, or threat, any person from accepting or holding any office, trust, or place of confidence under the United States, or from discharging any duties thereof; or to induce by like means any officer of the United States to leave any State, district, or place, where his duties as an officer are required to be performed, or to injure him in his person or property on account of his lawful discharge of the duties of his office, or while engaged in the lawful discharge thereof, or to injure his property so as to molest, interrupt, hinder, or impede him in the discharge of his official duties;

(2) Obstructing justice; intimidating party, witness, or juror

If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire to deter, by force, intimidation, or threat, any party or witness in any court of the United States from attending such court, or from testifying to any matter pending therein, freely, fully, and truthfully, or to injure such party or witness in his person or property on account of his having so attended or testified, or to influence the verdict, presentment, or indictment of any grand or petit juror in any such court, or to injure such juror in his person or property on account of any verdict, presentment, or indictment lawfully assented to by him, or of his being or having been such juror; or if two or more persons conspire for the purpose of impeding, hindering, obstructing, or defeating, in any manner, the due course of justice in any State or Territory, with intent to deny to any citizen the equal protection of the laws, or to injure him or his property for lawfully enforcing, or attempting to enforce, the right of any person, or class of persons, to the equal protection of the laws;

(3) Depriving persons of rights or privileges

If two or more persons in any State or Territory conspire or go in disguise on the highway or on the premises of another, for the purpose of depriving, either directly or indirectly, any person or class of persons of the equal protection of the laws, or of equal privileges and immunities under the laws; or for the purpose of preventing or hindering the constituted authorities of any State or Territory from giving or securing to all persons within such State or Territory the equal protection of the laws; or if two or more persons conspire to prevent by force, intimidation, or threat, any citizen who is lawfully entitled to vote, from giving his support or advocacy in a legal manner, toward or in favor of the election of any lawfully qualified person as an elector for President or Vice President, or as a Member of Congress of the United States; or to injure any citizen in person or property on account of such support or advocacy; in any case of conspiracy set forth in this section, if one or more persons engaged therein do, or cause to be done, any act in furtherance of the object of such conspiracy, whereby another is injured in his person or property, or deprived of having and exercising any right or privilege of a citizen of the United States, the party so injured or deprived may have an action for the recovery of damages occasioned by such injury or deprivation, against any one or more of the conspirators.

(R.S. §1980.)

Codification

R.S. §1980 derived from acts July 31, 1861, ch. 33, 12 Stat. 284; Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, §2, 17 Stat. 13.

Section was formerly classified to section 47 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1986. Action for neglect to prevent

Every person who, having knowledge that any of the wrongs conspired to be done, and mentioned in section 1985 of this title, are about to be committed, and having power to prevent or aid in preventing the commission of the same, neglects or refuses so to do, if such wrongful act be committed, shall be liable to the party injured, or his legal representatives, for all damages caused by such wrongful act, which such person by reasonable diligence could have prevented; and such damages may be recovered in an action on the case; and any number of persons guilty of such wrongful neglect or refusal may be joined as defendants in the action; and if the death of any party be caused by any such wrongful act and neglect, the legal representatives of the deceased shall have such action therefor, and may recover not exceeding $5,000 damages therein, for the benefit of the widow of the deceased, if there be one, and if there be no widow, then for the benefit of the next of kin of the deceased. But no action under the provisions of this section shall be sustained which is not commenced within one year after the cause of action has accrued.

(R.S. §1981.)

Codification

R.S. §1981 derived from act Apr. 20, 1871, ch. 22, §6, 17 Stat. 15.

Section was formerly classified to section 48 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1987. Prosecution of violation of certain laws

The United States attorneys, marshals, and deputy marshals, the United States magistrate judges appointed by the district and territorial courts, with power to arrest, imprison, or bail offenders, and every other officer who is especially empowered by the President, are authorized and required, at the expense of the United States, to institute prosecutions against all persons violating any of the provisions of section 1990 of this title or of sections 5506 to 5516 and 5518 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes, and to cause such persons to be arrested, and imprisoned or bailed, for trial before the court of the United States or the territorial court having cognizance of the offense.

(R.S. §1982; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

References in Text

Sections 5506 to 5510, 5516 to 5519 and 5524 to 5535 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, were repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §341, 35 Stat. 1153; section 5506, 5511 to 5515, and 5520 to 5523, also referred to in text, were repealed by act Feb. 8, 1894, ch. 25, §1, 28 Stat. 37. The provisions of sections 5508, 5510, 5516, 5518 and 5524 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes were reenacted by act Mar. 4, 1909, and classified to sections 51, 52, 54 to 59, 246, 428 and 443 to 445 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. Those sections were repealed and reenacted as sections 241, 242, 372, 592, 593, 752, 1071, 1581, 1583 and 1588 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, in the general revision of Title 18 by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683.

Codification

R.S. §1982 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §4, 14 Stat. 28; May 31, 1870, Ch. 114, §9, 16 Stat. 142.

Section was formerly classified to section 49 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted "United States attorneys" for "district attorneys". See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

"United States magistrate judges" substituted in text for "magistrates" pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28. Previously, "magistrates" substituted for "commissioners" pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

Reference to the district courts substituted for reference to the circuit courts on authority of act Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167.

§1988. Proceedings in vindication of civil rights

(a) Applicability of statutory and common law

The jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters conferred on the district courts by the provisions of titles 13, 24, and 70 of the Revised Statutes for the protection of all persons in the United States in their civil rights, and for their vindication, shall be exercised and enforced in conformity with the laws of the United States, so far as such laws are suitable to carry the same into effect; but in all cases where they are not adapted to the object, or are deficient in the provisions necessary to furnish suitable remedies and punish offenses against law, the common law, as modified and changed by the constitution and statutes of the State wherein the court having jurisdiction of such civil or criminal cause is held, so far as the same is not inconsistent with the Constitution and laws of the United States, shall be extended to and govern the said courts in the trial and disposition of the cause, and, if it is of a criminal nature, in the infliction of punishment on the party found guilty.

(b) Attorney's fees

In any action or proceeding to enforce a provision of sections 1981, 1981a, 1982, 1983, 1985, and 1986 of this title, title IX of Public Law 92–318 [20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.], the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993 [42 U.S.C. 2000bb et seq.], the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 [42 U.S.C. 2000cc et seq.], title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], or section 12361 of title 34, the court, in its discretion, may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the costs, except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity such officer shall not be held liable for any costs, including attorney's fees, unless such action was clearly in excess of such officer's jurisdiction.

(c) Expert fees

In awarding an attorney's fee under subsection (b) in any action or proceeding to enforce a provision of section 1981 or 1981a of this title, the court, in its discretion, may include expert fees as part of the attorney's fee.

(R.S. §722; Pub. L. 94–559, §2, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2641; Pub. L. 96–481, title II, §205(c), Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2330; Pub. L. 102–166, title I, §§103, 113(a), Nov. 21, 1991, 105 Stat. 1074, 1079; Pub. L. 103–141, §4(a), Nov. 16, 1993, 107 Stat. 1489; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40303, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 104–317, title III, §309(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3853; Pub. L. 106–274, §4(d), Sept. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 804.)

References in Text

Title 13 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Title" meaning title 13 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§530 to 1093. For complete classification of R.S. §§530 to 1093 to the Code, see Tables.

Title 24 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "Title 'Civil Rights,' " meaning title 24 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§1977 to 1991, which are classified to sections 1981 to 1983, 1985 to 1987, and 1989 to 1994 of this title. For complete classification of R.S. §§1977 to 1991 to the Code, see Tables.

Title 70 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "Title 'Crimes,' " meaning title 70 of the Revised Statutes, consisting of R.S. §§5323 to 5550. For complete classification of R.S. §§5323 to 5550, see Tables.

Title IX of Public Law 92–318, referred to in subsec. (b), is title IX of Pub. L. 92–318, June 23, 1972, 86 Stat. 373, as amended, known as the Patsy Takemoto Mink Equal Opportunity in Education Act, which is classified principally to chapter 38 (§1681 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1681 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 103–141, Nov. 16, 1993, 107 Stat. 1488, which is classified principally to chapter 21B (§2000bb et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000bb of this title and Tables.

The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 106–274, Sept. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 803, which is classified principally to chapter 21C (§2000cc et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000cc of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

Codification

R.S. §722 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §3, 14 Stat. 27; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §18, 16 Stat. 144.

Section was formerly classified to section 729 of Title 28 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 869.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–274 inserted "the Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000," after "Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993," and deleted comma after "section 13981 of this title,".

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–317 inserted before period at end ", except that in any action brought against a judicial officer for an act or omission taken in such officer's judicial capacity such officer shall not be held liable for any costs, including attorney's fees, unless such action was clearly in excess of such officer's jurisdiction".

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322, which directed the amendment of the last sentence of this section by striking "or" after "92–318," and by inserting ", or section 13981 of this title," after "1964", was executed to subsec. (b) of this section by striking "or" after "Act of 1993," and by inserting ", or section 13981 of this title," after "1964", to reflect the probable intent of Congress and amendments by Pub. L. 102–166 and Pub. L. 103–141. See 1993 and 1991 Amendment notes below.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–141 inserted "the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993," before "or title VI".

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–166, §113(a)(1), designated first sentence of existing provisions as subsec. (a).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–166, §§103, 113(a)(1), designated second sentence of existing provisions as subsec. (b) and inserted "1981a," after "1981,".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–166, §113(a)(2), added subsec. (c).

1980Pub. L. 96–481 struck out "or in any civil action or proceeding, by or on behalf of the United States of America, to enforce, or charging a violation of, a provision of the United States Internal Revenue Code,".

1976Pub. L. 94–559 authorized the court, in its discretion, to allow a reasonable attorney's fee as part of the prevailing party's costs.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–166 effective Nov. 21, 1991, except as otherwise provided, see section 402 of Pub. L. 102–166, set out as a note under section 1981 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–481 effective Oct. 1, 1981, and applicable to adversary adjudication as defined in section 504(b)(1)(C) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and to civil actions and adversary adjudications described in section 2412 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, which are pending on, or commenced on or after Oct. 1, 1981, see section 208 of Pub. L. 96–481, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2412 of Title 28.

Short Title of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–559, §1, Oct. 19, 1976, 90 Stat. 2641, provided: "That this Act [amending this section] may be cited as 'The Civil Rights Attorney's Fees Awards Act of 1976'."

§1989. United States magistrate judges; appointment of persons to execute warrants

The district courts of the United States and the district courts of the Territories, from time to time, shall increase the number of United States magistrate judges, so as to afford a speedy and convenient means for the arrest and examination of persons charged with the crimes referred to in section 1987 of this title; and such magistrate judges are authorized and required to exercise all the powers and duties conferred on them herein with regard to such offenses in like manner as they are authorized by law to exercise with regard to other offenses against the laws of the United States. Said magistrate judges are empowered, within their respective counties, to appoint, in writing, under their hands, one or more suitable persons, from time to time, who shall execute all such warrants or other process as the magistrate judges may issue in the lawful performance of their duties, and the persons so appointed shall have authority to summon and call to their aid the bystanders or posse comitatus of the proper county, or such portion of the land or naval forces of the United States, or of the militia, as may be necessary to the performance of the duty with which they are charged; and such warrants shall run and be executed anywhere in the State or Territory within which they are issued.

(R.S. §§1983, 1984; Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Codification

R.S. §§1983 and 1984 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §§4, 5, 14 Stat. 28; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §§9, 10, 16 Stat. 142.

Section was formerly classified to section 50 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judges" and "magistrate judges" substituted in text for "magistrates" wherever appearing pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, "magistrates" substituted for "commissioners" pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

"District courts" substituted for "circuit courts" on authority of act Mar. 3, 1911, ch. 231, §291, 36 Stat. 1167.

§1990. Marshal to obey precepts; refusing to receive or execute process

Every marshal and deputy marshal shall obey and execute all warrants or other process, when directed to him, issued under the provisions of section 1989 of this title. Every marshal and deputy marshal who refuses to receive any warrant or other process when tendered to him, issued in pursuance of the provisions of this section, or refuses or neglects to use all proper means diligently to execute the same, shall be liable to a fine in the sum of $1,000, for the benefit of the party aggrieved thereby.

(R.S. §§1985, 5517.)

Codification

R.S. §1985 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §5, 14 Stat. 28; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §10, 16 Stat. 142.

R.S. §5517 derived from act May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §10, 16 Stat. 142.

Section was formerly classified to section 51 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1991. Fees; persons appointed to execute process

Every person appointed to execute process under section 1989 of this title shall be entitled to a fee of $5 for each party he may arrest and take before any United States magistrate judge, with such other fees as may be deemed reasonable by the magistrate judge for any additional services necessarily performed by him, such as attending at the examination, keeping the prisoner in custody, and providing him with food and lodging during his detention, and until the final determination of the magistrate judge; such fees to be made up in conformity with the fees usually charged by the officers of the courts of justice within the proper district or county, as near as may be practicable, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States on the certificate of the judge of the district within which the arrest is made, and to be recoverable from the defendant as part of the judgment in case of conviction.

(R.S. §1987; Pub. L. 90–578, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Codification

R.S. §1987 derived from acts Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §7, 14 Stat. 29; May 31, 1870, ch. 114, §12, 16 Stat. 143.

Section was formerly classified to section 53 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judge" and "magistrate judge" substituted in text for "magistrate" wherever appearing pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Previously, "magistrate" substituted for "commissioner" pursuant to Pub. L. 90–578. See chapter 43 (§631 et seq.) of Title 28.

§1992. Speedy trial

Whenever the President has reason to believe that offenses have been, or are likely to be committed against the provisions of section 1990 of this title or of section 5506 to 5516 and 5518 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes, within any judicial district, it shall be lawful for him, in his discretion, to direct the judge, marshal, and United States attorney of such district to attend at such place within the district, and for such time as he may designate, for the purpose of the more speedy arrest and trial of persons so charged, and it shall be the duty of every judge or other officer, when any such requisition is received by him to attend at the place and for the time therein designated.

(R.S. §1988; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909.)

References in Text

Sections 5506 to 5510, 5516 to 5519 and 5524 to 5535 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in text, were repealed by act Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 321, §341, 35 Stat. 1153; section 5506, 5511 to 5515, and 5520 to 5523, also referred to in text, were repealed by act Feb. 8, 1894, ch. 25, §1, 28 Stat. 37. The provisions of sections 5508, 5510, 5516, 5518 and 5524 to 5532 of the Revised Statutes were reenacted by act Mar. 4, 1909, and classified to sections 51, 52, 54 to 59, 246, 428 and 443 to 445 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. Those sections were repealed and reenacted as sections 241, 242, 372, 592, 593, 752, 1071, 1581, 1583 and 1588 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, in the general revision of Title 18 by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683.

Codification

R.S. §1988 derived from act Apr. 9, 1866, ch. 31, §8, 14 Stat. 29.

Section was formerly classified to section 54 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, effective Sept. 1, 1948, substituted "United States attorney" for "district attorney". See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

§1993. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–315, pt. III, §122, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 637

Section, R.S. §1989, authorized President to employ land or naval forces to aid in execution of judicial process issued under sections 1981 to 1983 or 1985 to 1992 of this title, or to prevent violation and enforce due execution of sections 1981 to 1983 and 1985 to 1994 of this title. See section 252 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§1994. Peonage abolished

The holding of any person to service or labor under the system known as peonage is abolished and forever prohibited in any Territory or State of the United States; and all acts, laws, resolutions, orders, regulations, or usages of any Territory or State, which have heretofore established, maintained, or enforced, or by virtue of which any attempt shall hereafter be made to establish, maintain, or enforce, directly or indirectly, the voluntary or involuntary service or labor of any persons as peons, in liquidation of any debt or obligation, or otherwise, are declared null and void.

(R.S. §1990.)

Codification

R.S. §1990 derived from act Mar. 2, 1867, ch. 187, §1, 14 Stat. 546.

Section was formerly classified to section 56 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§1995. Criminal contempt proceedings; penalties; trial by jury

In all cases of criminal contempt arising under the provisions of this Act, the accused, upon conviction, shall be punished by fine or imprisonment or both: Provided however, That in case the accused is a natural person the fine to be paid shall not exceed the sum of $1,000, nor shall imprisonment exceed the term of six months: Provided further, That in any such proceeding for criminal contempt, at the discretion of the judge, the accused may be tried with or without a jury: Provided further, however, That in the event such proceeding for criminal contempt be tried before a judge without a jury and the sentence of the court upon conviction is a fine in excess of the sum of $300 or imprisonment in excess of forty-five days, the accused in said proceeding, upon demand therefore, shall be entitled to a trial de novo before a jury, which shall conform as near as may be to the practice in other criminal cases.

This section shall not apply to contempts committed in the presence of the court or so near thereto as to interfere directly with the administration of justice nor to the misbehavior, misconduct, or disobedience, of any officer of the court in respect to the writs, orders, or process of the court.

Nor shall anything herein or in any other provision of law be construed to deprive courts of their power, by civil contempt proceedings, without a jury, to secure compliance with or to prevent obstruction of, as distinguished from punishment for violations of, any lawful writ, process, order, rule, decree, or command of the court in accordance with the prevailing usages of law and equity, including the power of detention.

(Pub. L. 85–315, pt. V, §151, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 638.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 85–315, Sept. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 634, known as the Civil Rights Act of 1957. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

§1996. Protection and preservation of traditional religions of Native Americans

On and after August 11, 1978, it shall be the policy of the United States to protect and preserve for American Indians their inherent right of freedom to believe, express, and exercise the traditional religions of the American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, and Native Hawaiians, including but not limited to access to sites, use and possession of sacred objects, and the freedom to worship through ceremonials and traditional rites.

(Pub. L. 95–341, §1, Aug. 11, 1978, 92 Stat. 469.)

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–344, §1, Oct. 6, 1994, 108 Stat. 3125, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 1996a of this title] may be cited as the 'American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments of 1994'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 95–341, as amended, which enacted this section, section 1996a of this title, and a provision set out as a note under this section, is popularly known as the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.

Federal Implementation of Protective and Preservation Functions Relating to Native American Religious Cultural Rights and Practices; Presidential Report to Congress

Pub. L. 95–341, §2, Aug. 11, 1978, 92 Stat. 470, provided that the President direct the various Federal departments, agencies, and other instrumentalities responsible for administering relevant laws to evaluate their policies and procedures in consultation with native traditional religious leaders to determine changes necessary to preserve Native American religious cultural rights and practices and report to the Congress 12 months after Aug. 11, 1978.

Ex. Ord. No. 13007. Indian Sacred Sites

Ex. Ord. No. 13007, May 24, 1996, 61 F.R. 26771, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States, in furtherance of Federal treaties, and in order to protect and preserve Indian religious practices, it is hereby ordered:

Section 1. Accommodation of Sacred Sites. (a) In managing Federal lands, each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands shall, to the extent practicable, permitted by law, and not clearly inconsistent with essential agency functions, (1) accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites by Indian religious practitioners and (2) avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of such sacred sites. Where appropriate, agencies shall maintain the confidentiality of sacred sites.

(b) For purposes of this order:

(i) "Federal lands" means any land or interests in land owned by the United States, including leasehold interests held by the United States, except Indian trust lands;

(ii) "Indian tribe" means an Indian or Alaska Native tribe, band, nation, pueblo, village, or community that the Secretary of the Interior acknowledges to exist as an Indian tribe pursuant to Public Law No. 103–454, 108 Stat. 4791 [see 25 U.S.C. 5130, 5131], and "Indian" refers to a member of such an Indian tribe; and

(iii) "Sacred site" means any specific, discrete, narrowly delineated location on Federal land that is identified by an Indian tribe, or Indian individual determined to be an appropriately authoritative representative of an Indian religion, as sacred by virtue of its established religious significance to, or ceremonial use by, an Indian religion; provided that the tribe or appropriately authoritative representative of an Indian religion has informed the agency of the existence of such a site.

Sec. 2. Procedures. (a) Each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands shall, as appropriate, promptly implement procedures for the purposes of carrying out the provisions of section 1 of this order, including, where practicable and appropriate, procedures to ensure reasonable notice is provided of proposed actions or land management policies that may restrict future access to or ceremonial use of, or adversely affect the physical integrity of, sacred sites. In all actions pursuant to this section, agencies shall comply with the Executive memorandum of April 29, 1994, "Government-to-Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments" [25 U.S.C. 5301 note].

(b) Within 1 year of the effective date of this order, the head of each executive branch agency with statutory or administrative responsibility for the management of Federal lands shall report to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, on the implementation of this order. Such reports shall address, among other things, (i) any changes necessary to accommodate access to and ceremonial use of Indian sacred sites; (ii) any changes necessary to avoid adversely affecting the physical integrity of Indian sacred sites; and (iii) procedures implemented or proposed to facilitate consultation with appropriate Indian tribes and religious leaders and the expeditious resolution of disputes relating to agency action on Federal lands that may adversely affect access to, ceremonial use of, or the physical integrity of sacred sites.

Sec. 3. Nothing in this order shall be construed to require a taking of vested property interests. Nor shall this order be construed to impair enforceable rights to use of Federal lands that have been granted to third parties through final agency action. For purposes of this order, "agency action" has the same meaning as in the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551(13)).

Sec. 4. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it, create any right, benefit, or trust responsibility, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by any party against the United States, its agencies, officers, or any person.

William J. Clinton.      

§1996a. Traditional Indian religious use of peyote

(a) Congressional findings and declarations

The Congress finds and declares that—

(1) for many Indian people, the traditional ceremonial use of the peyote cactus as a religious sacrament has for centuries been integral to a way of life, and significant in perpetuating Indian tribes and cultures;

(2) since 1965, this ceremonial use of peyote by Indians has been protected by Federal regulation;

(3) while at least 28 States have enacted laws which are similar to, or are in conformance with, the Federal regulation which protects the ceremonial use of peyote by Indian religious practitioners, 22 States have not done so, and this lack of uniformity has created hardship for Indian people who participate in such religious ceremonies;

(4) the Supreme Court of the United States, in the case of Employment Division v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990), held that the First Amendment does not protect Indian practitioners who use peyote in Indian religious ceremonies, and also raised uncertainty whether this religious practice would be protected under the compelling State interest standard; and

(5) the lack of adequate and clear legal protection for the religious use of peyote by Indians may serve to stigmatize and marginalize Indian tribes and cultures, and increase the risk that they will be exposed to discriminatory treatment.

(b) Use, possession, or transportation of peyote

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the use, possession, or transportation of peyote by an Indian for bona fide traditional ceremonial purposes in connection with the practice of a traditional Indian religion is lawful, and shall not be prohibited by the United States or any State. No Indian shall be penalized or discriminated against on the basis of such use, possession or transportation, including, but not limited to, denial of otherwise applicable benefits under public assistance programs.

(2) This section does not prohibit such reasonable regulation and registration by the Drug Enforcement Administration of those persons who cultivate, harvest, or distribute peyote as may be consistent with the purposes of this section and section 1996 of this title.

(3) This section does not prohibit application of the provisions of section 481.111(a) of Vernon's Texas Health and Safety Code Annotated, in effect on October 6, 1994, insofar as those provisions pertain to the cultivation, harvest, and distribution of peyote.

(4) Nothing in this section shall prohibit any Federal department or agency, in carrying out its statutory responsibilities and functions, from promulgating regulations establishing reasonable limitations on the use or ingestion of peyote prior to or during the performance of duties by sworn law enforcement officers or personnel directly involved in public transportation or any other safety-sensitive positions where the performance of such duties may be adversely affected by such use or ingestion. Such regulations shall be adopted only after consultation with representatives of traditional Indian religions for which the sacramental use of peyote is integral to their practice. Any regulation promulgated pursuant to this section shall be subject to the balancing test set forth in section 3 of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Public Law 103–141; 42 U.S.C. 2000bb–1).

(5) This section shall not be construed as requiring prison authorities to permit, nor shall it be construed to prohibit prison authorities from permitting, access to peyote by Indians while incarcerated within Federal or State prison facilities.

(6) Subject to the provisions of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Public Law 103–141; 42 U.S.C. 2000bb–1) [42 U.S.C. 2000bb et seq.], this section shall not be construed to prohibit States from enacting or enforcing reasonable traffic safety laws or regulations.

(7) Subject to the provisions of the Religious Freedom Restoration Act (Public Law 103–141; 42 U.S.C. 2000bb–1), this section does not prohibit the Secretary of Defense from promulgating regulations establishing reasonable limitations on the use, possession, transportation, or distribution of peyote to promote military readiness, safety, or compliance with international law or laws of other countries. Such regulations shall be adopted only after consultation with representatives of traditional Indian religions for which the sacramental use of peyote is integral to their practice.

(c) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) the term "Indian" means a member of an Indian tribe;

(2) the term "Indian tribe" means any tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Alaska Native village (as defined in, or established pursuant to, the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.)), which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians;

(3) the term "Indian religion" means any religion—

(A) which is practiced by Indians, and

(B) the origin and interpretation of which is from within a traditional Indian culture or community; and


(4) the term "State" means any State of the United States, and any political subdivision thereof.

(d) Protection of rights of Indians and Indian tribes

Nothing in this section shall be construed as abrogating, diminishing, or otherwise affecting—

(1) the inherent rights of any Indian tribe;

(2) the rights, express or implicit, of any Indian tribe which exist under treaties, Executive orders, and laws of the United States;

(3) the inherent right of Indians to practice their religions; and

(4) the right of Indians to practice their religions under any Federal or State law.

(Pub. L. 95–341, §3, as added Pub. L. 103–344, §2, Oct. 6, 1994, 108 Stat. 3125.)

References in Text

The Religious Freedom Restoration Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(6), (7), probably means the Religious Freedom Restoration Act of 1993, Pub. L. 103–141, Nov. 16, 1993, 107 Stat. 1488, which is classified principally to chapter 21B (§2000bb et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000bb of this title and Tables.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

§1996b. Interethnic adoption

(1) Prohibited conduct

A person or government that is involved in adoption or foster care placements may not—

(A) deny to any individual the opportunity to become an adoptive or a foster parent, on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the individual, or of the child, involved; or

(B) delay or deny the placement of a child for adoption or into foster care, on the basis of the race, color, or national origin of the adoptive or foster parent, or the child, involved.

(2) Enforcement

Noncompliance with paragraph (1) is deemed a violation of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.].

(3) No effect on the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

This subsection shall not be construed to affect the application of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 [25 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.].

(Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1808(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1904.)

References in Text

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, referred to in par. (3), is Pub. L. 95–608, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3069, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 21 (§1901 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of Title 25 and Tables.