[USC07] 33 USC CHAPTER 11, SUBCHAPTER II: ALTERATION OF BRIDGES
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33 USC CHAPTER 11, SUBCHAPTER II: ALTERATION OF BRIDGES
From Title 33—NAVIGATION AND NAVIGABLE WATERSCHAPTER 11—BRIDGES OVER NAVIGABLE WATERS

SUBCHAPTER II—ALTERATION OF BRIDGES

§511. Definitions

When used in this subchapter, unless the context indicates otherwise—

The term "alteration" includes changes of any kind, reconstruction, or removal in whole or in part.

The term "bridge" means a lawful bridge over navigable waters of the United States, including approaches, fenders, and appurtenances thereto, which is used and operated for the purpose of carrying railroad traffic, or both railroad and highway traffic, or if a State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision is the owner or joint owner thereof, which is used and operated for the purpose of carrying highway traffic.

The term "bridge owner" means any State, county, municipality, or other political subdivision, or any corporation, association, partnership, or individual owning, or jointly owning, any bridge, and, when any bridge shall be in the possession or under the control of any trustee, receiver, trustee in a case under title 11, or lessee, such terms shall include both the owner of the legal title and the person or the entity in possession or control of such bridge.

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

The term "United States", when used in a geographical sense, includes the Territories and possessions of the United States.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §1, 54 Stat. 497; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §1, 66 Stat. 732; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §323, Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2679; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(b)(4)(A), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 55.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–120 substituted "Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating" for "Secretary of Transportation".

1983Pub. L. 97–449 substituted provision that the term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Transportation for provision that it meant the Secretary of War acting directly or through the Chief of Engineers.

1978Pub. L. 95–598 substituted in definition of "bridge owner" the phrase "trustee in a case under title 11" for "trustee in bankruptcy".

1952—Act of July 16, 1952, redefined "bridge" and "bridge owner".

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Dates note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Short Title

Sections 511 to 523 of this title are popularly known as the "Hobbs Bridge Act" and also as the "Truman-Hobbs Act".

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to obstructive bridges under this subchapter to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(3).

§512. Obstruction of navigation

No bridge shall at any time unreasonably obstruct the free navigation of any navigable waters of the United States.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §2, 54 Stat. 498.)

§513. Notice, hearings, and findings

Whenever any bridge shall, in the opinion of the Secretary, at any time unreasonably obstruct such navigation, it shall be the duty of the Secretary, after notice to interested parties, to hold a hearing at which the bridge owner, those interested in water navigation thereunder or therethrough, those interested in either railroad or highway traffic thereover, and any other party or parties in interest shall have full opportunity to offer evidence and be heard as to whether any alteration of such bridge is needed, and if so what alterations are needed, having due regard to the necessity of free and unobstructed water navigation and to the necessities of the rail or highway traffic. If, upon such hearing, the Secretary determines that any alterations of such bridge are necessary in order to render navigation through or under it reasonably free, easy, and unobstructed, having due regard also for the necessities of rail or highway traffic thereover, he shall so find and shall issue and cause to be served upon interested parties an order requiring such alterations of such bridge as he finds to be reasonably necessary for the purposes of navigation.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §3, 54 Stat. 498.)

§514. Submission and approval of general plans and specifications

After the service of an order under this subchapter, it shall be the duty of the bridge owner to prepare and submit to the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, within a reasonable time as prescribed by the Secretary, general plans and specifications to provide for the alteration of such bridge in accordance with such order, and for such additional alteration of such bridge as the bridge owner may desire to meet the necessities of railroad or highway traffic, or both. The Secretary may approve or reject such general plans and specifications, in whole or in part, and may require the submission of new or additional plans and specifications, but when the Secretary shall have approved general plans and specifications, they shall be final and binding upon all parties unless changes therein be afterward approved by the Secretary and the bridge owner.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §4, 54 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 94–587, §119, Oct. 22, 1976, 90 Stat. 2924; Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(b)(4)(B), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 55.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–120 substituted "Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating" for "Secretary of Transportation".

1976Pub. L. 94–587 substituted provision for preparation and submission of general plans and specifications within a reasonable time as prescribed by the Secretary after the service of an order for provision for such action within ninety days after service of his order.

§515. Contracts for project; guaranty of cost

After approval of such general plans and specifications by the Secretary, and after notification of such approval, the bridge owner shall, in such manner and within such times as the Secretary may prescribe, take bids for the alteration of such bridge in accordance with such general plans and specifications. All bids, including any bid for all or part of the project submitted by the bridge owner, shall be submitted to the Secretary, together with a recommendation by the bridge owner as to the most competent bid or bids, and at the same time the bridge owner shall submit to the Secretary a written guaranty that the total cost of the project, including the cost of such work as is to be performed by the bridge owner and not included in the work to be performed by contract, shall not exceed the sum stated in said guaranty. The Secretary may direct the bridge owner to reject all bids and to take new bids, or may authorize the bridge owner to proceed with the project, by contract, or partly by contract and partly by the bridge owner, or wholly by the bridge owner. Upon such authorization and fixing of the proportionate shares of the cost as provided in section 516 of this title, the bridge owner shall, within a reasonable time to be prescribed by the Secretary, proceed with the work of alteration; and the cost thereof shall be borne by the United States and by the bridge owner, as provided in sections 516 and 517 of this title: Provided, That where funds have been appropriated for part only of a project, the bridge owner may take bids for part only of the work. In the event the bridge owner proceeds with the alteration through the taking of successive partial bids, the bridge owner shall, if required by the Secretary, submit a revised guaranty of cost after bids are accepted for successive parts of the work.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §5, 54 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 85–640, §1(a), (b), Aug. 14, 1958, 72 Stat. 595.)

Amendments

1958Pub. L. 85–640 struck out provisions which required bridge owner to take bids within 90 days after notification of approval of general plans and specifications, and inserted provisions permitting the taking of partial bids where funds have been appropriated for part of a project, and requiring the bridge owner, if requested, to submit a revised guaranty of cost.

§516. Apportionment of cost

At the time the Secretary shall authorize the bridge owner to proceed with the project, as provided in section 515 of this title, and after an opportunity to the bridge owner to be heard thereon, the Secretary shall determine and issue an order specifying the proportionate shares of the total cost of the project to be borne by the United States and by the bridge owner. Such apportionment shall be made on the following basis: The bridge owner shall bear such part of the cost as is attributable to the direct and special benefits which will accrue to the bridge owner as a result of the alteration, including the expectable savings in repair or maintenance costs; and that part of the cost attributable to the requirements of traffic by railroad or highway, or both, including any expenditure for increased carrying capacity of the bridge, and including such proportion of the actual capital cost of the old bridge or of such part of the old bridge as may be altered or changed or rebuilt, as the used service life of the whole or a part, as the case may be, bears to the total estimated service life of the whole or such part: Provided, That in the event the alteration or relocation of any bridge may be desirable for the reason that the bridge unreasonably obstructs navigation, but also for some other reason, the Secretary may require equitable contribution from any interested person, firm, association, corporation, municipality, county, or State desiring such alteration or relocation for such other reason, as a condition precedent to the making of an order for such alteration or relocation. The United States shall bear the balance of the cost, including that part attributable to the necessities of navigation: And provided further, That where the bridge owner proceeds with the alteration on a successive partial bid basis the Secretary is authorized to issue an order of apportionment of cost for the entire alteration based on the accepted bid for the first part of the alteration and an estimate of cost for the remainder of the work. The Secretary is authorized to revise the order of apportionment of cost, to the extent he deems reasonable and proper, to meet any changed conditions.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §6, 54 Stat. 499; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §2, 66 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 85–640, §1(c), Aug. 14, 1958, 72 Stat. 595.)

Amendments

1958Pub. L. 85–640 permitted issuance of an order of apportionment of cost for entire alteration based on the accepted bid for first part of alteration and an estimate of cost for remainder of work where bridge owner proceeds with alteration on a successive partial bid basis.

1952—Act July 16, 1952, made railroads share equally with proprietors of highways in bearing cost of alterations necessary to remove obstacles to navigation.

§517. Payment of share of United States

Following service of the order requiring alteration of the bridge, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may make partial payments as the work progresses to the extent that funds have been appropriated. The total payments out of Federal funds shall not exceed the proportionate share of the United States of the total cost of the project paid or incurred by the bridge owner, and, if such total cost exceeds the cost guaranteed by the bridge owner, shall not exceed the proportionate share of the United States of such guaranteed cost, except that if the cost of the work exceeds the guaranteed cost by reason of emergencies, conditions beyond the control of the owner, or unforeseen or undetermined conditions, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may, after full review of all the circumstances, provide for additional payments by the United States to help defray such excess cost to the extent he deems to be reasonable and proper, and shall certify such additional payments to the Secretary of the Treasury for payment. All payments to any bridge owner herein provided for shall be made by the Secretary of the Treasury through the Fiscal Service upon certifications of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §7, 54 Stat. 499; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. III, §1(a)(1), eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2107, 54 Stat. 1231; Pub. L. 85–640, §1(d), Aug. 14, 1958, 72 Stat. 596; Pub. L. 91–605, title I, §118, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1725; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(b)(4)(C), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 55.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–120 substituted "Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating" for "Secretary of Transportation" wherever appearing.

1983Pub. L. 97–449 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of War" wherever appearing, which substitution had previously been made by Pub. L. 91–605. See, also, Transfer of Functions note below.

1970Pub. L. 91–605 substituted provision permitting Secretary of Transportation to make payments for design work performed prior to the actual commencement of bridge alteration but after the order to alter has been issued for provision requiring Secretary of War to approve alteration plans, the cost guaranty, the fixing of proportionate shares as between the United States and bridge owner, and the commencement of the alteration, before the Chief of Engineers may make payments for bridge alteration, inserted reference to Secretary of Transportation in second sentence, and substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of War" in third sentence.

1958Pub. L. 85–640 struck out provisions which required Secretary of War to furnish to Secretary of the Treasury a certified copy of his approval of the plans and specifications and guaranty, and of his order fixing the proportionate shares, and which required the Secretary of the Treasury to set aside the share of the United States for the project.

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to obstructive bridges under this subchapter to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(3).

"Fiscal Service" substituted in text for "Division of Disbursement" on authority of section 1(a)(1) of Reorg. Plan No. III of 1940, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2107, 54 Stat. 1231, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which consolidated such division into Fiscal Service of Department of the Treasury. See section 306 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

§518. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §8, 54 Stat. 500.)

Alteration of Bridges

Pub. L. 108–90, title II, Oct. 1, 2003, 117 Stat. 1144, provided in part: "That in fiscal year 2004 and thereafter, funds for bridge alteration projects conducted pursuant to the Act of June 21, 1940 (33 U.S.C. 511 et seq.) shall be available for such projects only to the extent that the steel, iron, and manufactured products used in such projects are produced in the United States, unless contrary to law or international agreement, or unless the Commandant of the Coast Guard determines such action to be inconsistent with the public interest or the cost unreasonable."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 108–7, div. I, title I, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 389.

§519. Noncompliance with orders; penalties; removal of bridge

Any bridge owner who shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order of the Secretary, made in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter, shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and on conviction thereof shall be punished in any court of competent jurisdiction by a fine not exceeding $5,000, and every month such bridge owner shall remain in default shall be deemed a new offense and subject such bridge owner to additional penalties therefor. In addition to the penalties above prescribed the Secretary may, upon the failure or refusal of any bridge owner to comply with any lawful order issued by the Secretary in regard thereto, cause the removal of any such bridge and accessory works at the expense of the bridge owner; and suit for such expense may be brought in the name of the United States against such bridge owner and recovery had for such expense in any court of competent jurisdiction. The removal of any bridge erected or maintained in violation of the provisions of this subchapter or the order or direction of the Secretary made in pursuance thereof, and compliance with any order of the Secretary made with respect to any bridge in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter, may be enforced by injunction, mandamus, or other summary process upon application to the district court of any district in which such bridge may, in whole or in part, exist, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States at the request of the Secretary.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §9, 54 Stat. 500.)

§520. Review of findings and orders

Any order made or issued under section 516 of this title may be reviewed by the court of appeals for any judicial circuit in which the bridge in question is wholly or partly located, if a petition for such review is filed within three months after the date such order is issued. The judgment of any such court shall be final except that it shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States upon certification or certiorari, in the manner provided in section 1254 of title 28. The review by such Court shall be limited to questions of law, and the findings of fact by the Secretary, if supported by substantial evidence, shall be conclusive. Upon such review, such Court shall have power to affirm or, if the order is not in accordance with law, to modify or to reverse the order, with or without remanding the case for a rehearing as justice may require. Proceedings under this section shall not operate as a stay of any order of the Secretary issued under provisions of this subchapter other than section 516 of this title, or relieve any bridge owner of any liability or penalty under such provisions.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §10, 54 Stat. 501; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §32(a), 62 Stat. 991; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §127, 63 Stat. 107.)

Codification

"Section 1254 of title 28" substituted in text for "sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code, as amended" on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, section 1 of which enacted Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Prior to the enactment of Title 28, sections 239 and 240 of the Judicial Code were classified to sections 346 and 347 of Title 28.

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, as amended by act May 24, 1949, substituted "court of appeals" for "circuit court of appeals".

§521. Regulations and orders

The Secretary is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations, and to make and issue such orders, as may be necessary or appropriate for carrying out the provisions of this subchapter.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §11, 54 Stat. 501.)

§522. Existing provisions of law

(a) Obstructing navigation; criminal penalties

The first sentence of section 494 of this title, and section 502 of this title, shall be inapplicable with respect to any bridge to which the provisions of this subchapter are applicable, except to the extent provided in this section.

(b) Construction, reconstruction, or alteration of bridges not completed on July 1, 1939; apportionment of costs

Any bridge, the construction, reconstruction, or alteration of which was required by an order of the Secretary issued prior to July 1, 1939, and was not completed on such date, and in the case of which no penalties have accrued at the time of the enactment of this subchapter, shall be constructed, reconstructed, or altered as required by such order, and not in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter. In the case of any such bridge, however, the Secretary shall apportion the cost of the project between the bridge owner and the United States, and payment of the share of the United States shall be made, in the same manner as if the provisions of this subchapter applied to such construction, reconstruction, or alteration, subject to the following limitations:

(1) In case such construction, reconstruction, or alteration has not begun on or before April 1, 1940, such apportionment of cost shall be made only if (A) the construction, reconstruction, or alteration is carried out in accordance with plans and specifications, and pursuant to bids, approved by the Secretary, and (B) the bridge owner has submitted to the Secretary a written guaranty of cost as provided for in section 515 of this title.

(2) The Secretary's determination as to such apportionment, and as to such plans and specifications and bids, shall be final.

(3) Such apportionment shall not be made if such construction, reconstruction, or alteration is not completed within the time fixed in such order of the Secretary or within such additional time as the Secretary, for good cause shown, may allow.

(c) Construction, reconstruction, or alteration of bridges not begun on July 1, 1939

Any bridge (except a bridge to which subsection (b) applies) the construction, reconstruction, or alteration of which was required by an order of the Secretary issued prior to July 1, 1939, and was not begun before such date, shall be subject to the provisions of this subchapter as though such order had not been issued, and compliance with the provisions of this subchapter and with such orders as may be issued thereunder shall be considered to constitute compliance with such order issued prior to July 1, 1939, and with the provisions of law under which it was issued.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §12, 54 Stat. 501.)

§523. Relocation of bridges

If the owner of any bridge and the Secretary shall agree that in order to remove an obstruction to navigation, or for any other purpose, a relocation of such bridge or the construction of a new bridge upon a new location would be preferable to an alteration of the existing bridge, such relocation or new construction may be carried out at such new site and upon such terms as may be acceptable to the bridge owner and the Secretary, and the cost of such relocation or new construction, including also any expense of changes in and additions to rights-of-way, stations, tracks, spurs, sidings, switches, signals, and other railroad facilities and property, and relocation of shippers required for railroad connection with the bridge at the new site, shall be apportioned as between the bridge owner and the United States in the manner which is provided for in section 516 of this title in the case of an alteration and the share of the United States paid from the appropriation authorized in section 518 of this title: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the United States to pay any part of the expense of building any bridge across a navigable stream which the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating shall not find to be, in fact, a relocation of an existing bridge.

(June 21, 1940, ch. 409, §13, 54 Stat. 502; July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §4, 66 Stat. 733; Pub. L. 97–449, §2(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2440; Pub. L. 114–120, title III, §306(b)(4)(D), Feb. 8, 2016, 130 Stat. 55.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–120 substituted "Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating" for "Secretary of Transportation".

1983Pub. L. 97–449 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of War". See Transfer of Functions note below.

1952—Act July 16, 1952, struck out "used for railroad traffic" after "owner of any bridge".

Transfer of Functions

Section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670 transferred functions, powers, and duties of Secretary of the Army [formerly War] and other officers and offices of Department of the Army [formerly War] relating to obstructive bridges under this subchapter to Secretary of Transportation. Pub. L. 97–449 amended this section to reflect transfer made by section 6(g)(3) of Pub. L. 89–670, and repealed section 6(g)(3).

§524. Applicability of administrative procedure provisions

In the administration of this Act, hearings and other procedures shall be exempted from the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5, except as to the requirements of section 552 of title 5.

(July 16, 1952, ch. 889, §3, 66 Stat. 733.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act July 16, 1952, ch. 889, 66 Stat. 732, which enacted this section and amended sections 511, 516, and 523 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of act June 21, 1940, ch. 409, 54 Stat. 497, which comprises this subchapter.

"Subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5" and "section 552 of title 5" substituted in text for "the Administrative Procedure Act (60 Stat. 237)" and "section 3 thereof", respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.