[USC10] 20 USC CHAPTER 70, SUBCHAPTER II, Part B: National Activities
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20 USC CHAPTER 70, SUBCHAPTER II, Part B: National Activities
From Title 20—EDUCATIONCHAPTER 70—STRENGTHENING AND IMPROVEMENT OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLSSUBCHAPTER II—PREPARING, TRAINING, AND RECRUITING HIGH-QUALITY TEACHERS, PRINCIPALS, OR OTHER SCHOOL LEADERS

Part B—National Activities

§6621. Reservations

From the amounts appropriated under section 6603(b) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve—

(1) to carry out activities authorized under subpart 1—

(A) 49.1 percent for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2019; and

(B) 47 percent for fiscal year 2020;


(2) to carry out activities authorized under subpart 2—

(A) 34.1 percent for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2019; and

(B) 36.8 percent for fiscal year 2020;


(3) to carry out activities authorized under subpart 3, 1.4 percent for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2020; and

(4) to carry out activities authorized under subpart 4—

(A) 15.4 percent for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2019; and

(B) 14.8 percent for fiscal year 2020.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2201, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1930.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 6621 to 6623 were repealed by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Section 6621, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2121, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1627, related to allocations to local educational agencies.

Another prior section 6621, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2101, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3614; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(e) [title VII, §709(b)(3)(A)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–233, 3009-313, authorized professional development program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

A prior section 2201 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 6661 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95.

Another prior section 2201 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 6641 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Another prior section 2201 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 3011 of this title, prior to the general amendment of Pub. L. 89–10 by Pub. L. 103–382.

Section 6622, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2122, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1628, related to local applications and needs assessment.

Another prior section 6622, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2102, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3615, related to authorized professional development activities, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Section 6623, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2123, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1630, related to local use of funds.

Another prior section 6623, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2103, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3617, related to National Teacher Training Project, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

subpart 1—teacher and school leader incentive program

§6631. Purposes; definitions

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this subpart are—

(1) to assist States, local educational agencies, and nonprofit organizations to develop, implement, improve, or expand comprehensive performance-based compensation systems or human capital management systems for teachers, principals, or other school leaders (especially for teachers, principals, or other school leaders in high-need schools) who raise student academic achievement and close the achievement gap between high- and low-performing students; and

(2) to study and review performance-based compensation systems or human capital management systems for teachers, principals, or other school leaders to evaluate the effectiveness, fairness, quality, consistency, and reliability of the systems.

(b) Definitions

In this subpart:

(1) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a local educational agency, including a charter school that is a local educational agency, or a consortium of local educational agencies;

(B) a State educational agency or other State agency designated by the chief executive of a State to participate under this subpart;

(C) the Bureau of Indian Education; or

(D) a partnership consisting of—

(i) 1 or more agencies described in subparagraph (A), (B), or (C); and

(ii) at least 1 nonprofit or for-profit entity.

(2) High-need school

The term "high-need school" means a public elementary school or secondary school that is located in an area in which the percentage of students from families with incomes below the poverty line is 30 percent or more.

(3) Human capital management system

The term "human capital management system" means a system—

(A) by which a local educational agency makes and implements human capital decisions, such as decisions on preparation, recruitment, hiring, placement, retention, dismissal, compensation, professional development, tenure, and promotion; and

(B) that includes a performance-based compensation system.

(4) Performance-based compensation system

The term "performance-based compensation system" means a system of compensation for teachers, principals, or other school leaders—

(A) that differentiates levels of compensation based in part on measurable increases in student academic achievement; and

(B) which may include—

(i) differentiated levels of compensation, which may include bonus pay, on the basis of the employment responsibilities and success of effective teachers, principals, or other school leaders in hard-to-staff schools or high-need subject areas; and

(ii) recognition of the skills and knowledge of teachers, principals, or other school leaders as demonstrated through—

(I) successful fulfillment of additional responsibilities or job functions, such as teacher leadership roles; and

(II) evidence of professional achievement and mastery of content knowledge and superior teaching and leadership skills.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2211, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1931.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6631, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2131, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1633, defined terms in subpart 3 of part A of former subchapter II of this chapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

A prior section 2211 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 6651 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6632. Teacher and school leader incentive fund grants

(a) Grants authorized

From the amounts reserved by the Secretary under section 6621(1) of this title, the Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to enable the eligible entities to develop, implement, improve, or expand performance-based compensation systems or human capital management systems, in schools served by the eligible entity.

(b) Duration of grants

(1) In general

A grant awarded under this subpart shall be for a period of not more than 3 years.

(2) Renewal

The Secretary may renew a grant awarded under this subpart for a period of not more than 2 years if the grantee demonstrates to the Secretary that the grantee is effectively using funds. Such renewal may include allowing the grantee to scale up or replicate the successful program.

(3) Limitation

A local educational agency may receive (whether individually or as part of a consortium or partnership) a grant under this subpart, as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act,1 only twice.

(c) Applications

An eligible entity desiring a grant under this subpart shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require. The application shall include—

(1) a description of the performance-based compensation system or human capital management system that the eligible entity proposes to develop, implement, improve, or expand through the grant;

(2) a description of the most significant gaps or insufficiencies in student access to effective teachers, principals, or other school leaders in high-need schools, including gaps or inequities in how effective teachers, principals, or other school leaders are distributed across the local educational agency, as identified using factors such as data on school resources, staffing patterns, school environment, educator support systems, and other school-level factors;

(3) a description and evidence of the support and commitment from teachers, principals, or other school leaders, which may include charter school leaders, in the school (including organizations representing teachers, principals, or other school leaders), the community, and the local educational agency to the activities proposed under the grant;

(4) a description of how the eligible entity will develop and implement a fair, rigorous, valid, reliable, and objective process to evaluate teacher, principal, or other school leader performance under the system that is based in part on measures of student academic achievement, including the baseline performance against which evaluations of improved performance will be made;

(5) a description of the local educational agencies or schools to be served under the grant, including such student academic achievement, demographic, and socioeconomic information as the Secretary may request;

(6) a description of the effectiveness of teachers, principals, or other school leaders in the local educational agency and the schools to be served under the grant and the extent to which the system will increase the effectiveness of teachers, principals, or other school leaders in such schools;

(7) a description of how the eligible entity will use grant funds under this subpart in each year of the grant, including a timeline for implementation of such activities;

(8) a description of how the eligible entity will continue the activities assisted under the grant after the grant period ends;

(9) a description of the State, local, or other public or private funds that will be used to supplement the grant, including funds under part A, and sustain the activities assisted under the grant after the end of the grant period;

(10) a description of—

(A) the rationale for the project;

(B) how the proposed activities are evidence-based; and

(C) if applicable, the prior experience of the eligible entity in developing and implementing such activities; and


(11) a description of how activities funded under this subpart will be evaluated, monitored, and publically reported.

(d) Award basis

(1) Priority

In awarding a grant under this subpart, the Secretary shall give priority to an eligible entity that concentrates the activities proposed to be assisted under the grant on teachers, principals, or other school leaders serving in high-need schools.

(2) Equitable distribution

To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall ensure an equitable geographic distribution of grants under this subpart, including the distribution of such grants between rural and urban areas.

(e) Use of funds

(1) In general

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this subpart shall use the grant funds to develop, implement, improve, or expand, in collaboration with teachers, principals, other school leaders, and members of the public, a performance-based compensation system or human capital management system consistent with this subpart.

(2) Authorized activities

Grant funds under this subpart may be used for one or more of the following:

(A) Developing or improving an evaluation and support system, including as part of a human capital management system as applicable, that—

(i) reflects clear and fair measures of teacher, principal, or other school leader performance, based in part on demonstrated improvement in student academic achievement; and

(ii) provides teachers, principals, or other school leaders with ongoing, differentiated, targeted, and personalized support and feedback for improvement, including professional development opportunities designed to increase effectiveness.


(B) Conducting outreach within a local educational agency or a State to gain input on how to construct an evaluation and support system described in subparagraph (A) and to develop support for the evaluation and support system, including by training appropriate personnel in how to observe and evaluate teachers, principals, or other school leaders.

(C) Providing principals or other school leaders with—

(i) balanced autonomy to make budgeting, scheduling, and other school-level decisions in a manner that meets the needs of the school without compromising the intent or essential components of the policies of the local educational agency or State; and

(ii) authority to make staffing decisions that meet the needs of the school, such as building an instructional leadership team that includes teacher leaders or offering opportunities for teams or pairs of effective teachers or candidates to teach or start teaching in high-need schools together.


(D) Implementing, as part of a comprehensive performance-based compensation system, a differentiated salary structure, which may include bonuses and stipends, to—

(i) teachers who—

(I) teach in—

(aa) high-need schools; or

(bb) high-need subjects;


(II) raise student academic achievement; or

(III) take on additional leadership responsibilities; or


(ii) principals or other school leaders who serve in high-need schools and raise student academic achievement in the schools.


(E) Improving the local educational agency's system and process for the recruitment, selection, placement, and retention of effective teachers, principals, or other school leaders in high-need schools, such as by improving local educational agency policies and procedures to ensure that high-need schools are competitive and timely in—

(i) attracting, hiring, and retaining effective educators;

(ii) offering bonuses or higher salaries to effective educators; or

(iii) establishing or strengthening school leader residency programs and teacher residency programs.


(F) Instituting career advancement opportunities characterized by increased responsibility and pay that reward and recognize effective teachers, principals, or other school leaders in high-need schools and enable them to expand their leadership and results, such as through teacher-led professional development, mentoring, coaching, hybrid roles, administrative duties, and career ladders.

(f) Matching requirement

Each eligible entity that receives a grant under this subpart shall provide, from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to 50 percent of the amount of the grant (which may be provided in cash or in kind) to carry out the activities supported by the grant.

(g) Supplement, not supplant

Grant funds provided under this subpart shall be used to supplement, not supplant, other Federal or State funds available to carry out activities described in this subpart.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2212, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1932.)

References in Text

This subpart, as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), probably means this subpart as enacted by Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1931.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6632, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2132, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1633, related to subgrants to eligible partnerships, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§6633. Reports

(a) Activities summary

Each eligible entity receiving a grant under this subpart shall provide to the Secretary a summary of the activities assisted under the grant.

(b) Report

The Secretary shall provide to Congress an annual report on the implementation of the program carried out under this subpart, including—

(1) information on eligible entities that received grant funds under this subpart, including—

(A) information provided by eligible entities to the Secretary in the applications submitted under section 6632(c) of this title;

(B) the summaries received under subsection (a); and

(C) grant award amounts; and


(2) student academic achievement and, as applicable, growth data from the schools participating in the programs supported under the grant.

(c) Evaluation and technical assistance

(1) Reservation of funds

Of the total amount reserved for this subpart for a fiscal year, the Secretary may reserve for such fiscal year not more than 1 percent for the cost of the evaluation under paragraph (2) and for technical assistance in carrying out this subpart.

(2) Evaluation

From amounts reserved under paragraph (1), the Secretary, acting through the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences, shall carry out an independent evaluation to measure the effectiveness of the program assisted under this subpart.

(3) Contents

The evaluation under paragraph (2) shall measure—

(A) the effectiveness of the program in improving student academic achievement;

(B) the satisfaction of the participating teachers, principals, or other school leaders; and

(C) the extent to which the program assisted the eligible entities in recruiting and retaining high-quality teachers, principals, or other school leaders, especially in high-need subject areas.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2213, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1935.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 6633 and 6634 were repealed by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Section 6633, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2133, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1633, related to subgrant applications.

Section 6634, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2134, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1633, related to use of funds.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

subpart 2—literacy education for all, results for the nation

§6641. Purposes; definitions

(a) Purposes

The purposes of this subpart are—

(1) to improve student academic achievement in reading and writing by providing Federal support to States to develop, revise, or update comprehensive literacy instruction plans that, when implemented, ensure high-quality instruction and effective strategies in reading and writing from early education through grade 12; and

(2) for States to provide targeted subgrants to early childhood education programs and local educational agencies and their public or private partners to implement evidence-based programs that ensure high-quality comprehensive literacy instruction for students most in need.

(b) Definitions

In this subpart:

(1) Comprehensive literacy instruction

The term "comprehensive literacy instruction" means instruction that—

(A) includes developmentally appropriate, contextually explicit, and systematic instruction, and frequent practice, in reading and writing across content areas;

(B) includes age-appropriate, explicit, systematic, and intentional instruction in phonological awareness, phonic decoding, vocabulary, language structure, reading fluency, and reading comprehension;

(C) includes age-appropriate, explicit instruction in writing, including opportunities for children to write with clear purposes, with critical reasoning appropriate to the topic and purpose, and with specific instruction and feedback from instructional staff;

(D) makes available and uses diverse, high-quality print materials that reflect the reading and development levels, and interests, of children;

(E) uses differentiated instructional approaches, including individual and small group instruction and discussion;

(F) provides opportunities for children to use language with peers and adults in order to develop language skills, including developing vocabulary;

(G) includes frequent practice of reading and writing strategies;

(H) uses age-appropriate, valid, and reliable screening assessments, diagnostic assessments, formative assessment processes, and summative assessments to identify a child's learning needs, to inform instruction, and to monitor the child's progress and the effects of instruction;

(I) uses strategies to enhance children's motivation to read and write and children's engagement in self-directed learning;

(J) incorporates the principles of universal design for learning;

(K) depends on teachers' collaboration in planning, instruction, and assessing a child's progress and on continuous professional learning; and

(L) links literacy instruction to the challenging State academic standards, including the ability to navigate, understand, and write about, complex print and digital subject matter.

(2) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means an entity that consists of—

(A) one or more local educational agencies that serve a high percentage of high-need schools and—

(i) have the highest number or proportion of children who are counted under section 6333(c) of this title, in comparison to other local educational agencies in the State;

(ii) are among the local educational agencies in the State with the highest number or percentages of children reading or writing below grade level, based on the most currently available State academic assessment data under section 6311(b)(2) of this title; or

(iii) serve a significant number or percentage of schools that are implementing comprehensive support and improvement activities and targeted support and improvement activities under section 6311(d) of this title;


(B) one or more early childhood education programs serving low-income or otherwise disadvantaged children, which may include home-based literacy programs for preschool-aged children, that have a demonstrated record of providing comprehensive literacy instruction for the age group such program proposes to serve; or

(C) a local educational agency, described in subparagraph (A), or consortium of such local educational agencies, or an early childhood education program, which may include home-based literacy programs for preschool-aged children, acting in partnership with 1 or more public or private nonprofit organizations or agencies (which may include early childhood education programs) that have a demonstrated record of effectiveness in—

(i) improving literacy achievement of children, consistent with the purposes of participation under this subpart, from birth through grade 12; and

(ii) providing professional development in comprehensive literacy instruction.

(3) High-need school

(A) In general

The term "high-need school" means—

(i) an elementary school or middle school in which not less than 50 percent of the enrolled students are children from low-income families; or

(ii) a high school in which not less than 40 percent of the enrolled students are children from low-income families, which may be calculated using comparable data from the schools that feed into the high school.

(B) Low-income family

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "low-income family" means a family—

(i) in which the children are eligible for a free or reduced-price lunch under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.);

(ii) receiving assistance under the program of block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families established under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.); or

(iii) in which the children are eligible to receive medical assistance under the Medicaid program under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2221, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1936.)

References in Text

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(B)(i), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, which is classified generally to chapter 13 (§1751 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii), (iii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title XIX of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6641, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2141, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1634, related to technical assistance and accountability, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Another prior section 6641, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2201, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3621, authorized program for State and local professional development activities, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6642. Comprehensive literacy State development grants

(a) Grants authorized

From the amounts reserved by the Secretary under section 6621(2) of this title and not reserved under subsection (b), the Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to State educational agencies to enable the State educational agencies to—

(1) provide subgrants to eligible entities serving a diversity of geographic areas, giving priority to entities serving greater numbers or percentages of children from low-income families; and

(2) develop or enhance comprehensive literacy instruction plans that ensure high-quality instruction and effective strategies in reading and writing for children from early childhood education through grade 12, including English learners and children with disabilities.

(b) Reservation

From the amounts reserved to carry out this subpart for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall reserve—

(1) not more than a total of 5 percent for national activities, including a national evaluation, technical assistance and training, data collection, and reporting;

(2) one half of 1 percent for the Secretary of the Interior to carry out a program described in this subpart at schools operated or funded by the Bureau of Indian Education; and

(3) one half of 1 percent for the outlying areas to carry out a program under this subpart.

(c) Duration of grants

A grant awarded under this subpart shall be for a period of not more than 5 years total. Such grant may be renewed for an additional 2-year period upon the termination of the initial period of the grant if the grant recipient demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(1) the State has made adequate progress; and

(2) renewing the grant for an additional 2-year period is necessary to carry out the objectives of the grant described in subsection (d).

(d) State applications

(1) In general

A State educational agency desiring a grant under this subpart shall submit an application to the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require. The State educational agency shall collaborate with the State agency responsible for administering early childhood education programs and the State agency responsible for administering child care programs in the State in writing and implementing the early childhood education portion of the grant application under this subsection.

(2) Contents

An application described in paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum, the following:

(A) A needs assessment that analyzes literacy needs across the State and in high-need schools and local educational agencies that serve high-need schools, including identifying the most significant gaps in literacy proficiency and inequities in student access to effective teachers of literacy, considering each of the subgroups of students, as defined in section 6311(c)(2) of this title.

(B) A description of how the State educational agency, in collaboration with the State literacy team, if applicable, will develop a State comprehensive literacy instruction plan or will revise and update an already existing State comprehensive literacy instruction plan.

(C) An implementation plan that includes a description of how the State educational agency will carry out the State activities described in subsection (f).

(D) An assurance that the State educational agency will use implementation grant funds described in subsection (f)(1) for comprehensive literacy instruction programs as follows:

(i) Not less than 15 percent of such grant funds shall be used for State and local programs and activities pertaining to children from birth through kindergarten entry.

(ii) Not less than 40 percent of such grant funds shall be used for State and local programs and activities, allocated equitably among the grades of kindergarten through grade 5.

(iii) Not less than 40 percent of such grant funds shall be used for State and local programs and activities, allocated equitably among grades 6 through 12.


(E) An assurance that the State educational agency will give priority in awarding a subgrant under section 6643 of this title to an eligible entity that—

(i) serves children from birth through age 5 who are from families with income levels at or below 200 percent of the Federal poverty line; or

(ii) is a local educational agency serving a high number or percentage of high-need schools.

(e) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to State educational agencies that will use the grant funds for evidence-based activities, defined for the purpose of this subsection as activities meeting the requirements of section 7801(21)(A)(i) of this title.

(f) State activities

(1) In general

A State educational agency receiving a grant under this section shall use not less than 95 percent of such grant funds to award subgrants to eligible entities, based on their needs assessment and a competitive application process.

(2) Reservation

A State educational agency receiving a grant under this section may reserve not more than 5 percent for activities identified through the needs assessment and comprehensive literacy plan described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (d)(2), including the following activities:

(A) Providing technical assistance, or engaging qualified providers to provide technical assistance, to eligible entities to enable the eligible entities to design and implement literacy programs.

(B) Coordinating with institutions of higher education in the State to provide recommendations to strengthen and enhance pre-service courses for students preparing to teach children from birth through grade 12 in explicit, systematic, and intensive instruction in evidence-based literacy methods.

(C) Reviewing and updating, in collaboration with teachers and institutions of higher education, State licensure or certification standards in the area of literacy instruction in early education through grade 12.

(D) Making publicly available, including on the State educational agency's website, information on promising instructional practices to improve child literacy achievement.

(E) Administering and monitoring the implementation of subgrants by eligible entities.

(3) Additional uses

After carrying out the activities described in paragraphs (1) and (2), a State educational agency may use any remaining amount to carry out 1 or more of the following activities:

(A) Developing literacy coach training programs and training literacy coaches.

(B) Administration and evaluation of activities carried out under this subpart.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2222, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1938.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6642, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2202, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3621, related to allocation of funds for State and local professional development activities, prior to its omission in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6643. Subgrants to eligible entities in support of birth through kindergarten entry literacy

(a) Subgrants

(1) In general

A State educational agency receiving a grant under this subpart shall, in consultation with the State agencies responsible for administering early childhood education programs and services, including the State agency responsible for administering child care programs, and, if applicable, the State Advisory Council on Early Childhood Education and Care designated or established pursuant to section 9837b(b)(1)(A)(i) of title 42, use a portion of the grant funds, in accordance with section 6642(d)(2)(D)(i) of this title, to award subgrants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to enable the eligible entities to support high-quality early literacy initiatives for children from birth through kindergarten entry.

(2) Duration

The term of a subgrant under this section shall be determined by the State educational agency awarding the subgrant and shall in no case exceed 5 years.

(3) Sufficient size and scope

Each subgrant awarded under this section shall be of sufficient size and scope to allow the eligible entity to carry out high-quality early literacy initiatives for children from birth through kindergarten entry.

(b) Local applications

An eligible entity desiring to receive a subgrant under this section shall submit an application to the State educational agency, at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the State educational agency may require. Such application shall include a description of—

(1) how the subgrant funds will be used to enhance the language and literacy development and school readiness of children, from birth through kindergarten entry, in early childhood education programs, which shall include an analysis of data that support the proposed use of subgrant funds;

(2) how the subgrant funds will be used to prepare and provide ongoing assistance to staff in the programs, including through high-quality professional development;

(3) how the activities assisted under the subgrant will be coordinated with comprehensive literacy instruction at the kindergarten through grade 12 levels; and

(4) how the subgrant funds will be used to evaluate the success of the activities assisted under the subgrant in enhancing the early language and literacy development of children from birth through kindergarten entry.

(c) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the State educational agency shall give priority to an eligible entity that will use the grant funds to implement evidence-based activities, defined for the purpose of this subsection as activities meeting the requirements of section 7801(21)(A)(i) of this title.

(d) Local uses of funds

An eligible entity that receives a subgrant under this section shall use the subgrant funds, consistent with the entity's approved application under subsection (b), to—

(1) carry out high-quality professional development opportunities for early childhood educators, teachers, principals, other school leaders, paraprofessionals, specialized instructional support personnel, and instructional leaders;

(2) train providers and personnel to develop and administer evidence-based early childhood education literacy initiatives; and

(3) coordinate the involvement of families, early childhood education program staff, principals, other school leaders, specialized instructional support personnel (as appropriate), and teachers in literacy development of children served under the subgrant.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2223, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1940.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6643, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2203, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3621, related to within-State allocations, prior to its omission in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6644. Subgrants to eligible entities in support of kindergarten through grade 12 literacy

(a) Subgrants to eligible entities

(1) Subgrants

A State educational agency receiving a grant under this subpart shall use a portion of the grant funds, in accordance with clauses (ii) and (iii) of section 6642(d)(2)(D) of this title, to award subgrants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to enable the eligible entities to carry out the authorized activities described in subsections (c) and (d).

(2) Duration

The term of a subgrant under this section shall be determined by the State educational agency awarding the subgrant and shall in no case exceed 5 years.

(3) Sufficient size and scope

A State educational agency shall award subgrants under this section of sufficient size and scope to allow the eligible entities to carry out high-quality comprehensive literacy instruction in each grade level for which the subgrant funds are provided.

(4) Local applications

An eligible entity desiring to receive a subgrant under this section shall submit an application to the State educational agency at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the State educational agency may require. Such application shall include, for each school that the eligible entity identifies as participating in a subgrant program under this section, the following information:

(A) A description of the eligible entity's needs assessment conducted to identify how subgrant funds will be used to inform and improve comprehensive literacy instruction at the school.

(B) How the school, the local educational agency, or a provider of high-quality professional development will provide ongoing high-quality professional development to all teachers, principals, other school leaders, specialized instructional support personnel (as appropriate), and other instructional leaders served by the school.

(C) How the school will identify children in need of literacy interventions or other support services.

(D) An explanation of how the school will integrate comprehensive literacy instruction into a well-rounded education.

(E) A description of how the school will coordinate comprehensive literacy instruction with early childhood education programs and activities and after-school programs and activities in the area served by the local educational agency.

(b) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the State educational agency shall give priority to an eligible entity that will use funds under subsection (c) or (d) to implement evidence-based activities, defined for the purpose of this subsection as activities meeting the requirements of section 7801(21)(A)(i) of this title.

(c) Local uses of funds for kindergarten through grade 5

An eligible entity that receives a subgrant under this section shall use the subgrant funds to carry out the following activities pertaining to children in kindergarten through grade 5:

(1) Developing and implementing a comprehensive literacy instruction plan across content areas for such children that—

(A) serves the needs of all children, including children with disabilities and English learners, especially children who are reading or writing below grade level;

(B) provides intensive, supplemental, accelerated, and explicit intervention and support in reading and writing for children whose literacy skills are below grade level; and

(C) supports activities that are provided primarily during the regular school day but that may be augmented by after-school and out-of-school time instruction.


(2) Providing high-quality professional development opportunities for teachers, literacy coaches, literacy specialists, English as a second language specialists (as appropriate), principals, other school leaders, specialized instructional support personnel, school librarians, paraprofessionals, and other program staff.

(3) Training principals, specialized instructional support personnel, and other local educational agency personnel to support, develop, administer, and evaluate high-quality kindergarten through grade 5 literacy initiatives.

(4) Coordinating the involvement of early childhood education program staff, principals, other instructional leaders, teachers, teacher literacy teams, English as a second language specialists (as appropriate), special educators, school personnel, and specialized instructional support personnel (as appropriate) in the literacy development of children served under this subsection.

(5) Engaging families and encouraging family literacy experiences and practices to support literacy development.

(d) Local uses of funds for grades 6 through 12

An eligible entity that receives a subgrant under this section shall use subgrant funds to carry out the following activities pertaining to children in grades 6 through 12:

(1) Developing and implementing a comprehensive literacy instruction plan described in subsection (c)(1) for children in grades 6 through 12.

(2) Training principals, specialized instructional support personnel, school librarians, and other local educational agency personnel to support, develop, administer, and evaluate high-quality comprehensive literacy instruction initiatives for grades 6 through 12.

(3) Assessing the quality of adolescent comprehensive literacy instruction as part of a well-rounded education.

(4) Providing time for teachers to meet to plan evidence-based adolescent comprehensive literacy instruction to be delivered as part of a well-rounded education.

(5) Coordinating the involvement of principals, other instructional leaders, teachers, teacher literacy teams, English as a second language specialists (as appropriate), paraprofessionals, special educators, specialized instructional support personnel (as appropriate), and school personnel in the literacy development of children served under this subsection.

(e) Allowable uses

An eligible entity that receives a subgrant under this section may, in addition to carrying out the activities described in subsections (c) and (d), use subgrant funds to carry out the following activities pertaining to children in kindergarten through grade 12:

(1) Recruiting, placing, training, and compensating literacy coaches.

(2) Connecting out-of-school learning opportunities to in-school learning in order to improve children's literacy achievement.

(3) Training families and caregivers to support the improvement of adolescent literacy.

(4) Providing for a multi-tier system of supports for literacy services.

(5) Forming a school literacy leadership team to help implement, assess, and identify necessary changes to the literacy initiatives in 1 or more schools to ensure success.

(6) Providing time for teachers (and other literacy staff, as appropriate, such as school librarians or specialized instructional support personnel) to meet to plan comprehensive literacy instruction.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2224, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1941.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6644, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2204, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3622, related to consortium requirement, prior to its omission in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6645. National evaluation and information dissemination

(a) National evaluation

From funds reserved under section 6642(b)(1) of this title, the Director of the Institute of Education Sciences shall conduct a national evaluation of the grant and subgrant programs assisted under this subpart. Such evaluation shall include high-quality research that applies rigorous and systematic procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to the implementation and effect of the programs and shall directly coordinate with individual State evaluations of the programs' implementation and impact.

(b) Program improvement

The Secretary shall—

(1) provide the findings of the evaluation conducted under this section to State educational agencies and subgrant recipients for use in program improvement;

(2) make such findings publicly available, including on the websites of the Department and the Institute of Education Sciences;

(3) submit such findings to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives; and

(4) make publicly available, in a manner consistent with paragraph (2), best practices for implementing evidence-based activities under this subpart, including evidence-based activities, defined for the purpose of this paragraph as activities meeting the requirements of section 7801(21)(A)(i) of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2225, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1943.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6645, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2205, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3622; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(e) [title VII, §709(b)(3)(A)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–233, 3009-313, related to State applications, prior to its omission in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6646. Innovative approaches to literacy

(a) In general

From amounts reserved under section 6621(2) of this title, the Secretary may award grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities for the purposes of promoting literacy programs that support the development of literacy skills in low-income communities, including—

(1) developing and enhancing effective school library programs, which may include providing professional development for school librarians, books, and up-to-date materials to high-need schools;

(2) early literacy services, including pediatric literacy programs through which, during well-child visits, medical providers trained in research-based methods of early language and literacy promotion provide developmentally appropriate books and recommendations to parents to encourage them to read aloud to their children starting in infancy; and

(3) programs that provide high-quality books on a regular basis to children and adolescents from low-income communities to increase reading motivation, performance, and frequency.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a local educational agency in which 20 percent or more of the students served by the local educational agency are from families with an income below the poverty line;

(B) a consortium of such local educational agencies;

(C) the Bureau of Indian Education; or

(D) an eligible national nonprofit organization.

(2) Eligible national nonprofit organization

The term "eligible national nonprofit organization" means an organization of national scope that—

(A) is supported by staff, which may include volunteers, or affiliates at the State and local levels; and

(B) demonstrates effectiveness or high-quality plans for addressing childhood literacy activities for the population targeted by the grant.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2226, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1944.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 6646 to 6650 were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Section 6646, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2206, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3625; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(b)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-406, related to priority for professional development in mathematics and science.

Section 6647, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2207, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3625, related to State-level activities.

Section 6648, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2208, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3626; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(e) [title VII, §709(b)(3)(A)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–233, 3009-313, related to local plan and application for improving teaching and learning.

Section 6649, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2209, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3628; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(e) [title VII, §709(b)(3)(A)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–233, 3009-313, related to local cost-sharing.

Section 6650, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2210, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3629, related to local allocation of funds and allowable activities.

Prior section 6651, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2151, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1635, related to national activities of demonstrated effectiveness, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Another prior section 6651, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2211, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3632, related to higher education activities, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

subpart 3—american history and civics education

§6661. Program authorized

(a) In general

From the amount reserved by the Secretary under section 6621(3) of this title, the Secretary is authorized to carry out an American history and civics education program to improve—

(1) the quality of American history, civics, and government education by educating students about the history and principles of the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights; and

(2) the quality of the teaching of American history, civics, and government in elementary schools and secondary schools, including the teaching of traditional American history.

(b) Funding allotment

Of the amount available under subsection (a) for a fiscal year, the Secretary—

(1) shall reserve not less than 26 percent for activities under section 6662 of this title; and

(2) may reserve not more than 74 percent for activities under section 6663 of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2231, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1945.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6661, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2201, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1642, set forth purpose of part B of former subchapter II of this chapter and defined terms, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Another prior section 6661, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2251, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-391, set forth purposes of former part relating to reading and literacy grants, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Prior sections 6661a to 6661i were omitted in the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Section 6661a, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2252, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-392; amended Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title XVI, §1606(b)(2)(A)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-335, defined terms for purposes of former part.

Section 6661b, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2253, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-393, related to reading and literacy grants to State educational agencies.

Section 6661c, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2254, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-397, related to use of amounts by State educational agencies.

Section 6661d, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2255, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-397, related to local reading improvement subgrants.

Section 6661e, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2256, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-401, related to tutorial assistance subgrants.

Section 6661f, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2257, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-405, related to national evaluation of programs under former part.

Section 6661g, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2258, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-405, related to information dissemination.

Section 6661h, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2259, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-405, related to State evaluations and performance reports.

Section 6661i, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2260, as added Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §101(a)(2)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-406; amended Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title XVI, §1606(b)(2)(B)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-335, related to authorization of appropriations, reservations from appropriations, and sunset.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6662. Presidential and Congressional Academies for American History and Civics

(a) In general

From the amounts reserved under section 6661(b)(1) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall award not more than 12 grants, on a competitive basis, to—

(1) eligible entities to establish Presidential Academies for the Teaching of American History and Civics (in this section referred to as the "Presidential Academies") in accordance with subsection (e); and

(2) eligible entities to establish Congressional Academies for Students of American History and Civics (in this section referred to as the "Congressional Academies") in accordance with subsection (f).

(b) Application

An eligible entity that desires to receive a grant under subsection (a) shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require.

(c) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" under this section means—

(1) an institution of higher education or nonprofit educational organization, museum, library, or research center with demonstrated expertise in historical methodology or the teaching of American history and civics; or

(2) a consortium of entities described in paragraph (1).

(d) Grant terms

Grants awarded to eligible entities under subsection (a) shall be for a term of not more than 5 years.

(e) Presidential Academies

(1) Use of funds

Each eligible entity that receives a grant under subsection (a)(1) shall use the grant funds to establish a Presidential Academy that offers a seminar or institute for teachers of American history and civics, which—

(A) provides intensive professional development opportunities for teachers of American history and civics to strengthen such teachers' knowledge of the subjects of American history and civics;

(B) is led by a team of primary scholars and core teachers who are accomplished in the field of American history and civics;

(C) is conducted during the summer or other appropriate time; and

(D) is of not less than 2 weeks and not more than 6 weeks in duration.

(2) Selection of teachers

Each year, each Presidential Academy shall select between 50 and 300 teachers of American history and civics from public or private elementary schools and secondary schools to attend the seminar or institute under paragraph (1).

(3) Teacher stipends

Each teacher selected to participate in a seminar or institute under this subsection shall be awarded a fixed stipend based on the length of the seminar or institute to ensure that such teacher does not incur personal costs associated with the teacher's participation in the seminar or institute.

(4) Priority

In awarding grants under subsection (a)(1), the Secretary shall give priority to eligible entities that coordinate or align their activities with the National Park Service National Centennial Parks initiative to develop innovative and comprehensive programs using the resources of the National Parks.

(f) Congressional Academies

(1) Use of funds

Each eligible entity that receives a grant under subsection (a)(2) shall use the grant funds to establish a Congressional Academy that offers a seminar or institute for outstanding students of American history and civics, which—

(A) broadens and deepens such students' understanding of American history and civics;

(B) is led by a team of primary scholars and core teachers who are accomplished in the field of American history and civics;

(C) is conducted during the summer or other appropriate time; and

(D) is of not less than 2 weeks and not more than 6 weeks in duration.

(2) Selection of students

(A) In general

Each year, each Congressional Academy shall select between 100 and 300 eligible students to attend the seminar or institute under paragraph (1).

(B) Eligible students

A student shall be eligible to attend a seminar or institute offered by a Congressional Academy under this subsection if the student—

(i) is recommended by the student's secondary school principal or other school leader to attend the seminar or institute; and

(ii) will be a secondary school junior or senior in the academic year following attendance at the seminar or institute.

(3) Student stipends

Each student selected to participate in a seminar or institute under this subsection shall be awarded a fixed stipend based on the length of the seminar or institute to ensure that such student does not incur personal costs associated with the student's participation in the seminar or institute.

(g) Matching funds

(1) In general

An eligible entity that receives funds under subsection (a) shall provide, toward the cost of the activities assisted under the grant, from non-Federal sources, an amount equal to 100 percent of the amount of the grant.

(2) Waiver

The Secretary may waive all or part of the matching requirement described in paragraph (1) for any fiscal year for an eligible entity if the Secretary determines that applying the matching requirement would result in serious hardship or an inability to carry out the activities described in subsection (e) or (f).

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2232, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1945.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6662, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2202, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1644, related to grants for mathematics and science partnerships, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

A prior section 2202 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 6642 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Another prior section 2202 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 3012 of this title, prior to the general amendment of Pub. L. 89–10 by Pub. L. 103–382.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

American History and Civics Education

Pub. L. 108–474, Dec. 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 3898, as amended by Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(j), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2168, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'American History and Civics Education Act of 2004'.

"SEC. 2. PRESIDENTIAL ACADEMIES FOR TEACHING OF AMERICAN HISTORY AND CIVICS; CONGRESSIONAL ACADEMIES FOR STUDENTS OF AMERICAN HISTORY AND CIVICS.

"(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Education (referred to in this Act as the 'Secretary') may award not more than 12 grants, on a competitive basis—

"(1) to entities to establish Presidential Academies for Teaching of American History and Civics that may offer workshops for both veteran and new teachers of American history and civics; and

"(2) to entities to establish Congressional Academies for Students of American History and Civics.

"(b) Application.—An entity that desires to receive a grant under subsection (a) shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

"(c) Demonstrated Expertise.—The Secretary shall require that each entity, to be eligible to receive a grant under this section, demonstrate expertise in historical methodology or the teaching of history.

"(d) Available Funds.—To carry out this section, the Secretary may use any funds appropriated for fiscal year 2005 or any subsequent fiscal year to carry out section 2232 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 6662].

"SEC. 3. NATIONAL HISTORY DAY PROGRAM.

"The Secretary may award grants to the National History Day Program for the purpose of continuing and expanding its activities to promote the study of history and improve instruction."

[Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(j), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2168, which directed amendment of section 2(d) of Pub. L. 108–474, set out above, by substituting "to carry out section 2232 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965" for "to carry out part D of title V of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965", was executed by making the substitution for "to carry out part D of title V of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7241 et seq.)" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

§6663. National activities

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to promote new and existing evidence-based strategies to encourage innovative American history, civics and government, and geography instruction, learning strategies, and professional development activities and programs for teachers, principals, or other school leaders, particularly such instruction, strategies, activities, and programs that benefit low-income students and underserved populations.

(b) In general

From the amounts reserved by the Secretary under section 6661(b)(2) of this title, the Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities for the purposes of expanding, developing, implementing, evaluating, and disseminating for voluntary use, innovative, evidence-based approaches or professional development programs in American history, civics and government, and geography, which—

(1) shall—

(A) show potential to improve the quality of student achievement in, and teaching of, American history, civics and government, or geography, in elementary schools and secondary schools; and

(B) demonstrate innovation, scalability, accountability, and a focus on underserved populations; and


(2) may include—

(A) hands-on civic engagement activities for teachers and students; and

(B) programs that educate students about the history and principles of the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights.

(c) Program periods and diversity of projects

(1) In general

A grant awarded by the Secretary to an eligible entity under this section shall be for a period of not more than 3 years.

(2) Renewal

The Secretary may renew a grant awarded under this section for 1 additional 2-year period.

(3) Diversity of projects

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall ensure that, to the extent practicable, grants are distributed among eligible entities that will serve geographically diverse areas, including urban, suburban, and rural areas.

(d) Applications

In order to receive a grant under this section, an eligible entity shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require.

(e) Eligible entity

In this section, the term "eligible entity" means an institution of higher education or other nonprofit or for-profit organization with demonstrated expertise in the development of evidence-based approaches with the potential to improve the quality of American history, civics and government, or geography learning and teaching.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2233, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1947.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6663, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2203, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1647, authorized appropriations to carry out part B of former subchapter II of this chapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

A prior section 2203 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 6643 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Another prior section 2203 of Pub. L. 89–10 was classified to section 3013 of this title, prior to the general amendment of Pub. L. 89–10 by Pub. L. 103–382.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

subpart 4—programs of national significance

§6671. Funding allotment

From the funds reserved under section 6621(4) of this title, the Secretary—

(1) shall use not less than 74 percent to carry out activities under section 6672 of this title;

(2) shall use not less than 22 percent to carry out activities under section 6673 of this title;

(3) shall use not less than 2 percent to carry out activities under section 6674 of this title; and

(4) may reserve not more than 2 percent to carry out activities under section 6675 of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2241, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1948.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6671, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2301, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1648; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(e)(8), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2315; Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title V, §515(g)(1), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3236, defined terms for division A of subpart 1 of part C of former subchapter II of this chapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §541(d)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1735.

Another prior section 6671, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2301, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3633, set forth findings and purpose of former part relating to professional development demonstration project, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6672. Supporting effective educator development

(a) In general

From the funds reserved by the Secretary under section 6671(1) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities for the purposes of—

(1) providing teachers, principals, or other school leaders from nontraditional preparation and certification routes or pathways to serve in traditionally underserved local educational agencies;

(2) providing evidence-based professional development activities that address literacy, numeracy, remedial, or other needs of local educational agencies and the students the agencies serve;

(3) providing teachers, principals, or other school leaders with professional development activities that enhance or enable the provision of postsecondary coursework through dual or concurrent enrollment programs and early college high school settings across a local educational agency;

(4) making freely available services and learning opportunities to local educational agencies, through partnerships and cooperative agreements or by making the services or opportunities publicly accessible through electronic means; or

(5) providing teachers, principals, or other school leaders with evidence-based professional enhancement activities, which may include activities that lead to an advanced credential.

(b) Program periods and diversity of projects

(1) In general

A grant awarded by the Secretary to an eligible entity under this section shall be for a period of not more than 3 years.

(2) Renewal

The Secretary may renew a grant awarded under this section for 1 additional 2-year period.

(3) Diversity of projects

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall ensure that, to the extent practicable, grants are distributed among eligible entities that will serve geographically diverse areas, including urban, suburban, and rural areas.

(4) Limitation

The Secretary shall not award more than 1 grant under this section to an eligible entity during a grant competition.

(c) Cost-sharing

(1) In general

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section shall provide, from non-Federal sources, not less than 25 percent of the funds for the total cost for each year of activities carried out under this section.

(2) Acceptable contributions

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section may meet the requirement of paragraph (1) by providing contributions in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, and services.

(3) Waivers

The Secretary may waive or modify the requirement of paragraph (1) in cases of demonstrated financial hardship.

(d) Applications

In order to receive a grant under this section, an eligible entity shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require. Such application shall include, at a minimum, a certification that the services provided by an eligible entity under the grant to a local educational agency or to a school served by the local educational agency will not result in direct fees for participating students or parents.

(e) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to an eligible entity that will implement evidence-based activities, defined for the purpose of this subsection as activities meeting the requirements of section 7801(21)(A)(i) of this title.

(f) Definition of eligible entity

In this section, the term "eligible entity" means—

(1) an institution of higher education that provides course materials or resources that are evidence-based in increasing academic achievement, graduation rates, or rates of postsecondary education matriculation;

(2) a national nonprofit entity with a demonstrated record of raising student academic achievement, graduation rates, and rates of higher education attendance, matriculation, or completion, or of effectiveness in providing preparation and professional development activities and programs for teachers, principals, or other school leaders;

(3) the Bureau of Indian Education; or

(4) a partnership consisting of—

(A) 1 or more entities described in paragraph (1) or (2); and

(B) a for-profit entity.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2242, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1948.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6672, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2302, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1648, authorized funding and administration of the Troops-to-Teachers Program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §541(d)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1735.

Another prior section 6672, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2302, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3633, authorized professional development demonstration program, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6673. School leader recruitment and support

(a) In general

From the funds reserved under section 6671(2) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall award grants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to enable such entities to improve the recruitment, preparation, placement, support, and retention of effective principals or other school leaders in high-need schools, which may include—

(1) developing or implementing leadership training programs designed to prepare and support principals or other school leaders in high-need schools, including through new or alternative pathways or school leader residency programs;

(2) developing or implementing programs or activities for recruiting, selecting, and developing aspiring or current principals or other school leaders to serve in high-need schools;

(3) developing or implementing programs for recruiting, developing, and placing school leaders to improve schools implementing comprehensive support and improvement activities and targeted support and improvement activities under section 6311(d) of this title, including through cohort-based activities that build effective instructional and school leadership teams and develop a school culture, design, instructional program, and professional development program focused on improving student learning;

(4) providing continuous professional development for principals or other school leaders in high-need schools;

(5) developing and disseminating information on best practices and strategies for effective school leadership in high-need schools, such as training and supporting principals to identify, develop, and maintain school leadership teams using various leadership models; and

(6) other evidence-based programs or activities described in section 6611(c)(4) of this title or section 6613(b)(3) of this title focused on principals or other school leaders in high-need schools.

(b) Program periods and diversity of projects

(1) In general

A grant awarded by the Secretary to an eligible entity under this section shall be for a period of not more than 5 years.

(2) Renewal

The Secretary may renew a grant awarded under this section for 1 additional 2-year period.

(3) Diversity of projects

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall ensure that, to the extent practicable, grants are distributed among eligible entities that will serve geographically diverse areas, including urban, suburban, and rural areas.

(4) Limitation

The Secretary shall not award more than 1 grant under this section to an eligible entity during a grant competition.

(c) Cost-sharing

(1) In general

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section shall provide, from non-Federal sources, not less than 25 percent of the funds for the total cost for each year of activities carried out under this section.

(2) Acceptable contributions

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section may meet the requirement of paragraph (1) by providing contributions in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, and services.

(3) Waivers

The Secretary may waive or modify the requirement of paragraph (1) in cases of demonstrated financial hardship.

(d) Applications

An eligible entity that desires a grant under this section shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, and in such manner, as the Secretary may require.

(e) Priority

In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to an eligible entity—

(1) with a record of preparing or developing principals who—

(A) have improved school-level student outcomes;

(B) have become principals in high-need schools; and

(C) remain principals in high-need schools for multiple years; and


(2) who will implement evidence-based activities, defined for the purpose of this paragraph as activities meeting the requirements of section 7801(21)(A)(i) of this title.

(f) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a local educational agency, including an educational service agency, that serves a high-need school or a consortium of such agencies;

(B) a State educational agency or a consortium of such agencies;

(C) a State educational agency in partnership with 1 or more local educational agencies, or educational service agencies, that serve a high-need school;

(D) the Bureau of Indian Education; or

(E) an entity described in subparagraph (A), (B), (C), or (D) in partnership with 1 or more nonprofit organizations or institutions of higher education.

(2) High-need school

The term "high-need school" means—

(A) an elementary school in which not less than 50 percent of the enrolled students are from families with incomes below the poverty line; or

(B) a secondary school in which not less than 40 percent of the enrolled students are from families with incomes below the poverty line.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2243, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1949.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6673, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2303, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1649, related to recruitment and selection of Troops-to-Teachers Program participants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §541(d)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1735.

Another prior section 6673, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2303, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3634, related to grants for the implementation of professional development programs, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6674. Technical assistance and national evaluation

(a) In general

From the funds reserved under section 6671(3) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary—

(1) shall establish, in a manner consistent with section 9602 of this title, a comprehensive center on students at risk of not attaining full literacy skills due to a disability that meets the purposes of subsection (b); and

(2) may—

(A) provide technical assistance, which may be carried out directly or through grants or contracts, to States and local educational agencies carrying out activities under this part; and

(B) carry out evaluations of activities by States and local educational agencies under this part, which shall be conducted by a third party or by the Institute of Education Sciences.

(b) Purposes

The comprehensive center established by the Secretary under subsection (a)(1) shall—

(1) identify or develop free or low-cost evidence-based assessment tools for identifying students at risk of not attaining full literacy skills due to a disability, including dyslexia impacting reading or writing, or developmental delay impacting reading, writing, language processing, comprehension, or executive functioning;

(2) identify evidence-based literacy instruction, strategies, and accommodations, including assistive technology, designed to meet the specific needs of such students;

(3) provide families of such students with information to assist such students;

(4) identify or develop evidence-based professional development for teachers, paraprofessionals, principals, other school leaders, and specialized instructional support personnel to—

(A) understand early indicators of students at risk of not attaining full literacy skills due to a disability, including dyslexia impacting reading or writing, or developmental delay impacting reading, writing, language processing, comprehension, or executive functioning;

(B) use evidence-based screening assessments for early identification of such students beginning not later than kindergarten; and

(C) implement evidence-based instruction designed to meet the specific needs of such students; and


(5) disseminate the products of the comprehensive center to regionally diverse State educational agencies, local educational agencies, regional educational agencies, and schools, including, as appropriate, through partnerships with other comprehensive centers established under section 9602 of this title, and regional educational laboratories established under section 9564 of this title.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2244, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1951.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6674, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2304, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1651, related to participation agreements with, and financial assistance for, Troops-to-Teachers Program participants, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §541(d)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1735.

Another prior section 6674, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2304, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3634, related to plan for program to be assisted, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.

§6675. STEM master teacher corps

(a) In general

From the funds reserved under section 6671(4) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary may award grants to—

(1) State educational agencies to enable such agencies to support the development of a State-wide STEM master teacher corps; or

(2) State educational agencies, or nonprofit organizations in partnership with State educational agencies, to support the implementation, replication, or expansion of effective science, technology, engineering, and mathematics professional development programs in schools across the State through collaboration with school administrators, principals, and STEM educators.

(b) STEM master teacher corps

In this section, the term "STEM master teacher corps" means a State-led effort to elevate the status of the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teaching profession by recognizing, rewarding, attracting, and retaining outstanding science, technology, engineering, and mathematics teachers, particularly in high-need and rural schools, by—

(1) selecting candidates to be master teachers in the corps on the basis of—

(A) content knowledge based on a screening examination; and

(B) pedagogical knowledge of and success in teaching;


(2) offering such teachers opportunities to—

(A) work with one another in scholarly communities; and

(B) participate in and lead high-quality professional development; and


(3) providing such teachers with additional appropriate and substantial compensation for the work described in paragraph (2) and in the master teacher community.

(Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2245, as added Pub. L. 114–95, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1952.)

Prior Provisions

Prior sections 6675 to 6677 were repealed by Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title V, §541(d)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1735.

Section 6675, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2305, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1654, related to participation by States in the Troops-to-Teachers Program.

Another prior section 6675, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2305, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3635, related to technical assistance, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Section 6676, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2306, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1654, related to support of innovative preretirement teacher certification programs.

Another prior section 6676, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2306, as added Pub. L. 103–382, title I, §101, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3635, related to matching funds from private sources, prior to the general amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 107–110.

Section 6677, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2307, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1655; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1704(e)(9), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2315, required a report not later than Mar. 31, 2006, on the effectiveness of the Troops-to-Teachers Program.

Prior sections 6681 to 6684 were repealed by Pub. L. 114–95, §5, title II, §2002, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 1806, 1913, effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs.

Section 6681, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2311, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1655, set forth purposes of division B of subpart 1 of part C of former subchapter II of this chapter.

Section 6682, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2312, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1656, defined terms in division B of subpart 1 of part C of former subchapter II of this chapter.

Section 6683, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2313, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1656, related to transition to teaching grant program.

Section 6684, Pub. L. 89–10, title II, §2314, as added Pub. L. 107–110, title II, §201, Jan. 8, 2002, 115 Stat. 1659, related to evaluation and accountability for recruiting and retaining teachers.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 6301 of this title.