[USC02] 18 USC Ch. 203: ARREST AND COMMITMENT
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18 USC Ch. 203: ARREST AND COMMITMENT
From Title 18—CRIMES AND CRIMINAL PROCEDUREPART II—CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

CHAPTER 203—ARREST AND COMMITMENT

Sec.
3041.
Power of courts and magistrates.
3042.
Extraterritorial jurisdiction.
[3043.
Repealed.]
3044.
Complaint—Rule.
3045.
Internal revenue violations.
3046.
Warrants or summons—Rule.1

        

3047.
Multiple warrants unnecessary.
3048.
Commitment to another district; removal—Rule.
3049.
Warrant for removal.
3050.
Bureau of Prisons employees' powers.
3051.
Powers of Special Agents of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives 2

        

3052.
Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation.
3053.
Powers of marshals and deputies.
[3054.
Repealed.]
3055.
Officers' powers to suppress Indian liquor traffic.
3056.
Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service.
3056A.
Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service Uniformed Division.
3057.
Bankruptcy investigations.
3058.
Interned belligerent nationals.
3059.
Rewards and appropriations therefor.3

        

3059A.
Special rewards for information relating to certain financial institution offenses.3
3059B.
General reward authority.3
3060.
Preliminary examination.
3061.
Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel.
3062.
General arrest authority for violation of release conditions.
3063.
Powers of Environmental Protection Agency.
3064.
Powers of Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.

        

Amendments

2006Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §605(b), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 255, added item 3056A.

Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1172(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3123, added item 3051.

2005Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4143(c)(2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1748, added item 3064.

1996Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(n), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510, added item 3059B.

1994Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330010(18), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2144, inserted a period at end of item 3059A.

1990Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3570, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4928, struck out item 3054 "Officer's powers involving animals and birds".

Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2587(b), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4905, as amended, effective as of date section 2587(b) of Pub. L. 101–647 took effect, by Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXIII, §330011(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2144, added item 3059A.

1988Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6251(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4362, substituted "Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel" for "Powers of postal personnel" in item 3061.

Pub. L. 100–582, §4(b), Nov. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2959, added item 3063.

1984Pub. L. 98–587, §1(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3111, substituted "Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service" for "Secret Service powers" in item 3056.

Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(e), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986, substituted "Repealed" for "Security of the peace and good behavior" in item 3043 and added item 3062.

1970Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(B), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 782, substituted "postal personnel" for "postal inspectors" in item 3061.

1968Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §303(b), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1118, struck out reference to "Rule" in item 3060.

Pub. L. 90–560, §5(b), Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 998, added item 3061.

1951—Act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §56(f), 65 Stat. 729, struck out item 3051 "Extradition agent's powers".

1 So in original. Does not conform to section catchline.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

3 Section repealed by Pub. L. 107–273 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

§3041. Power of courts and magistrates

For any offense against the United States, the offender may, by any justice or judge of the United States, or by any United States magistrate judge, or by any chancellor, judge of a supreme or superior court, chief or first judge of the common pleas, mayor of a city, justice of the peace, or other magistrate, of any state where the offender may be found, and at the expense of the United States, be arrested and imprisoned or released as provided in chapter 207 of this title, as the case may be, for trial before such court of the United States as by law has cognizance of the offense. Copies of the process shall be returned as speedily as may be into the office of the clerk of such court, together with the recognizances of the witnesses for their appearances to testify in the case.

A United States judge or magistrate judge shall proceed under this section according to rules promulgated by the Supreme Court of the United States. Any state judge or magistrate acting hereunder may proceed according to the usual mode of procedure of his state but his acts and orders shall have no effect beyond determining, pursuant to the provisions of section 3142 of this title, whether to detain or conditionally release the prisoner prior to trial or to discharge him from arrest.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 89–465, §5(a), June 22, 1966, 80 Stat. 217; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(1), (3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(a), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §591 (R.S. §1014; May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §19, 29 Stat. 184; Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 814, 31 Stat. 956).

This section was completely rewritten to omit all provisions superseded by Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, rules 3, 4, 5, 40 and 54(a) which prescribed the procedure for preliminary proceedings and examinations before United States judges and commissioners and for removal proceedings but not for preliminary examinations before State magistrates.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "determining, pursuant to the provisions of section 3142 of this title, whether to detain or conditionally release the prisoner prior to trial" for "determining to hold the prisoner for trial".

1968Pub. L. 90–578 substituted "United States magistrate" and "magistrate" for "United States commissioner" and "commissioner", respectively.

1966Pub. L. 89–465 substituted "or released as provided in chapter 207 of this title" for "or bailed".

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judge" substituted for "United States magistrate" in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–465 effective ninety days after June 22, 1966, see section 6 of Pub. L. 89–465, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3146 of this title.

§3042. Extraterritorial jurisdiction

Section 3041 of this title shall apply in any country where the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction for the arrest and removal therefrom to the United States of any citizen or national of the United States who is a fugitive from justice charged with or convicted of the commission of any offense against the United States, and shall also apply throughout the United States for the arrest and removal therefrom to the jurisdiction of any officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in any country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction, of any citizen or national of the United States who is a fugitive from justice charged with or convicted of the commission of any offense against the United States in any country where it exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction.

Such fugitive first mentioned may, by any officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in any country in which the United States exercises extraterritorial jurisdiction and agreeably to the usual mode of process against offenders subject to such jurisdiction, be arrested and detained or conditionally released pursuant to section 3142 of this title, as the case may be, pending the issuance of a warrant for his removal, which warrant the principal officer or representative of the United States vested with judicial authority in the country where the fugitive shall be found shall seasonably issue, and the United States marshal or corresponding officer shall execute.

Such marshal or other officer, or the deputies of such marshal or officer, when engaged in executing such warrant without the jurisdiction of the court to which they are attached, shall have all the powers of a marshal of the United States so far as such powers are requisite for the prisoner's safekeeping and the execution of the warrant.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1985.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §662b (Mar. 22, 1934, ch. 73, §1, 48 Stat. 454).

Words "crime or" before "offense" were omitted as unnecessary.

Words "and the Philippine Islands" were deleted in two places as obsolete in view of the independence of the Commonwealth of the Philippines effective July 4, 1946.

Words "its Territories, Districts, or possessions, including the Panama Canal Zone or any other territory governed, occupied, or controlled by it" were omitted as covered by section 5 of this title defining the term "United States".

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–473 substituted "detained or conditionally released pursuant to section 3142 of this title" for "imprisoned or admitted to bail".

[§3043. Repealed. Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(c), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816; Oct. 17, 1968, Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(2), 82 Stat. 1115, related to authority of justices, judges, and magistrates to hold to security of the peace and for good behavior. See section 3142 of this title.

§3044. Complaint—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Contents of complaint; oath, Rule 3.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

§3045. Internal revenue violations

Warrants of arrest for violations of internal revenue laws may be issued by United States magistrate judges upon the complaint of a United States attorney, assistant United States attorney, collector, or deputy collector of internal revenue or revenue agent, or private citizen; but no such warrant of arrest shall be issued upon the complaint of a private citizen unless first approved in writing by a United States attorney.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(2), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §594 (May 28, 1896, ch. 252, §19, 29 Stat. 184; Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 814, 31 Stat. 956).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–578 substituted "United States magistrates" for "United States commissioners".

Change of Name

"United States magistrate judges" substituted for "United States magistrates" in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Abolition of Offices of Collector and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue

Offices of Collector and Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue abolished by Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1952, §1, eff. Mar. 14, 1952, 17 F.R. 2243, 66 Stat. 823, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and the offices of "district commissioner of internal revenue", and so many other offices, with titles to be determined by Secretary of the Treasury, were established by section 2(a) of the Plan.

§3046. Warrant or summons—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Issuance upon complaint, Rule 4.

Issuance upon indictment, Rule 9.

Summons on request of government; form; contents; service; return, Rules 4, 9.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

§3047. Multiple warrants unnecessary

When two or more charges are made, or two or more indictments are found against any person, only one writ or warrant shall be necessary to commit him for trial. It shall be sufficient to state in the writ the name or general character of the offenses, or to refer to them only in general terms.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 816.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §602 (R.S. §1027).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

§3048. Commitment to another district; removal—(Rule)

See Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

Arrest in nearby or distant districts; informative statement by judge or magistrate judge; hearing and removal; warrant; Rule 40.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §301(a)(3), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1115; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117.)

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–578 substituted "magistrate" for "commissioner".

Change of Name

Words "magistrate judge" substituted for "magistrate" in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3049. Warrant for removal

Only one writ or warrant is necessary to remove a prisoner from one district to another. One copy thereof may be delivered to the sheriff or jailer from whose custody the prisoner is taken, and another to the sheriff or jailer to whose custody he is committed, and the original writ, with the marshal's return thereon, shall be returned to the clerk of the district to which he is removed.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §604 (R.S. §1029).

§3050. Bureau of Prisons employees' powers

An officer or employee of the Bureau of Prisons may—

(1) make arrests on or off of Bureau of Prisons property without warrant for violations of the following provisions regardless of where the violation may occur: sections 111 (assaulting officers), 751 (escape), and 752 (assisting escape) of title 18, United States Code, and section 1826(c) (escape) of title 28, United States Code;

(2) make arrests on Bureau of Prisons premises or reservation land of a penal, detention, or correctional facility without warrant for violations occurring thereon of the following provisions: sections 661 (theft), 1361 (depredation of property), 1363 (destruction of property), 1791 (contraband), 1792 (mutiny and riot), and 1793 (trespass) of title 18, United States Code; and

(3) arrest without warrant for any other offense described in title 18 or 21 of the United States Code, if committed on the premises or reservation of a penal or correctional facility of the Bureau of Prisons if necessary to safeguard security, good order, or government property;


if such officer or employee has reasonable grounds to believe that the arrested person is guilty of such offense, and if there is likelihood of such person's escaping before an arrest warrant can be obtained. If the arrested person is a fugitive from custody, such prisoner shall be returned to custody. Officers and employees of the said Bureau of Prisons may carry firearms under such rules and regulations as the Attorney General may prescribe.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 99–646, §65, Nov. 10, 1986, 100 Stat. 3615.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §753k (June 29, 1940, ch. 449, §5, 54 Stat. 693).

Section was broadened to include authority to make arrests for mutiny, riot or traffic in dangerous instrumentalities, by reference to section 1792 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology and provision for taking arrested person before magistrate was omitted as covered by rule 5(a) of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–646 amended first sentence generally and substituted "such prisoner" for "he" in second sentence. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "An officer or employee of the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice may make arrests without warrant for violations of any of the provisions of sections 751, 752, 1791, or 1792 of this title, if he has reasonable grounds to believe that the arrested person is guilty of such offense, and if there is likelihood of his escaping before a warrant can be obtained for his arrest."

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3051. Powers of Special Agents 1 of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

(a) Special agents of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives, as well as any other investigator or officer charged by the Attorney General with the duty of enforcing any of the criminal, seizure, or forfeiture provisions of the laws of the United States, may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.

(b) Any special agent of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives may, in respect to the performance of his or her duties, make seizures of property subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(c)(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), and except to the extent that such provisions conflict with the provisions of section 983 of title 18, United States Code, insofar as section 983 applies, the provisions of the Customs laws relating to—

(A) the seizure, summary and judicial forfeiture, and condemnation of property;

(B) the disposition of such property;

(C) the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture; and

(D) the compromise of claims,


shall apply to seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under any applicable provision of law enforced or administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), duties that are imposed upon a customs officer or any other person with respect to the seizure and forfeiture of property under the customs laws of the United States shall be performed with respect to seizures and forfeitures of property under this section by such officers, agents, or any other person as may be authorized or designated for that purpose by the Attorney General.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the disposition of firearms forfeited by reason of a violation of any law of the United States shall be governed by the provisions of section 5872(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(Added Pub. L. 107–296, title XI, §1113, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2279.)

References in Text

Section 5872(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is classified to section 5872(b) of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3051, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §1, 62 Stat. 817, related to powers of extradition agents, prior to repeal by act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §56(f), 65 Stat. 729. Substantially identical provisions are contained in section 3193 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as a note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

1 So in original. The words "Special Agents" probably should not be capitalized.

§3052. Powers of Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Director, Associate Director, Assistant to the Director, Assistant Directors, inspectors, and agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice may carry firearms, serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States and make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Jan. 10, 1951, ch. 1221, §1, 64 Stat. 1239.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 300a of title 5, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees (June 18, 1934, ch. 595, 48 Stat. 1008; Mar. 22, 1935, ch. 39, title II, 49 Stat. 77).

Language relating to seizures under warrant is in section 3107 of this title.

Minor changes were made in phraseology particularly with respect to omission of provision covered by rule 5(a) of Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

1951—Act Jan. 10, 1951, allowed F. B. I. personnel to make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3053. Powers of marshals and deputies

United States marshals and their deputies may carry firearms and may make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 504a of title 28, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Judicial Code and Judiciary (June 15, 1935, ch. 259, §2, 49 Stat. 378).

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

[§3054. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–79, §9(b)(3), Nov. 16, 1981, 95 Stat. 1079]

Section, acts June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817; Dec. 5, 1969, Pub. L. 91–135, §7(b), 83 Stat. 281, provided for an officer's power to act in enforcing sections 42, 43, and 44 of this title relating to animals and birds. See section 3375 of Title 16, Conservation.

§3055. Officers' powers to suppress Indian liquor traffic

The chief special officer for the suppression of the liquor traffic among Indians and duly authorized officers working under his supervision whose appointments are made or affirmed by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs or the Secretary of the Interior may execute all warrants of arrest and other lawful precepts issued under the authority of the United States and in the execution of his duty he may command all necessary assistance.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 817.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on section 250 of title 25, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Indians (Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 388, §1, 37 Stat. 519).

The only change was to delete the words at the beginning of the section, "The powers conferred by section 504 of title 28 upon marshals and their deputies are conferred upon." and the addition, at the end of the section, of the phrase expressing such powers beginning with the words "may execute all warrants".

§3056. Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service

(a) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Secret Service is authorized to protect the following persons:

(1) The President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, and the Vice President-elect.

(2) The immediate families of those individuals listed in paragraph (1).

(3) Former Presidents and their spouses for their lifetimes, except that protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage.

(4) Children of a former President who are under 16 years of age.

(5) Visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments.

(6) Other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad when the President directs that such protection be provided.

(7) Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and, within 120 days of the general Presidential election, the spouses of such candidates. As used in this paragraph, the term "major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates" means those individuals identified as such by the Secretary of Homeland Security after consultation with an advisory committee consisting of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, the minority leader of the House of Representatives, the majority and minority leaders of the Senate, and one additional member selected by the other members of the committee. The Committee shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2).

(8) Former Vice Presidents, their spouses, and their children who are under 16 years of age, for a period of not more than six months after the date the former Vice President leaves office. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time thereafter if the Secretary of Homeland Security or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection.


The protection authorized in paragraphs (2) through (8) may be declined.

(b) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secret Service is authorized to detect and arrest any person who violates—

(1) section 508, 509, 510, 871, or 879 of this title or, with respect to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, and Federal land bank associations, section 213, 216,1 433, 493, 657, 709, 1006, 1007, 1011, 1013, 1014, 1907, or 1909 of this title;

(2) any of the laws of the United States relating to coins, obligations, and securities of the United States and of foreign governments; or

(3) any of the laws of the United States relating to electronic fund transfer frauds, access device frauds, false identification documents or devices, and any fraud or other criminal or unlawful activity in or against any federally insured financial institution; except that the authority conferred by this paragraph shall be exercised subject to the agreement of the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security and shall not affect the authority of any other Federal law enforcement agency with respect to those laws.


(c)(1) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, officers and agents of the Secret Service are authorized to—

(A) execute warrants issued under the laws of the United States;

(B) carry firearms;

(C) make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony;

(D) offer and pay rewards for services and information leading to the apprehension of persons involved in the violation or potential violation of those provisions of law which the Secret Service is authorized to enforce;

(E) pay expenses for unforeseen emergencies of a confidential nature under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security and accounted for solely on the Secretary's certificate; and

(F) perform such other functions and duties as are authorized by law.


(2) Funds expended from appropriations available to the Secret Service for the purchase of counterfeits and subsequently recovered shall be reimbursed to the appropriations available to the Secret Service at the time of the reimbursement.

(d) Whoever knowingly and willfully obstructs, resists, or interferes with a Federal law enforcement agent engaged in the performance of the protective functions authorized by this section or by section 1752 of this title shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(e)(1) When directed by the President, the United States Secret Service is authorized to participate, under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, in the planning, coordination, and implementation of security operations at special events of national significance, as determined by the President.

(2) At the end of each fiscal year, the President through such agency or office as the President may designate, shall report to the Congress—

(A) what events, if any, were designated special events of national significance for security purposes under paragraph (1); and

(B) the criteria and information used in making each designation.


(f) Under the direction of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secret Service is authorized, at the request of any State or local law enforcement agency in conjunction with an investigation, or at the request of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, to provide forensic and investigative assistance.

(g) The United States Secret Service shall be maintained as a distinct entity within the Department of Homeland Security and shall not be merged with any other Department function. No personnel and operational elements of the United States Secret Service shall report to an individual other than the Director of the United States Secret Service, who shall report directly to the Secretary of Homeland Security without being required to report through any other official of the Department.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; July 16, 1951, ch. 226, §4, 65 Stat. 122; Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1143, §2, 68 Stat. 999; Pub. L. 86–168, title I, §104(h), Aug. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 387; Pub. L. 87–791, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 87–829, §3, Oct. 15, 1962, 76 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 89–186, Sept. 15, 1965, 79 Stat. 791; Pub. L. 89–218, Sept. 29, 1965, 79 Stat. 890; Pub. L. 90–608, ch. XI, §1101, Oct. 21, 1968, 82 Stat. 1198; Pub. L. 91–644, title V, §19, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1892; Pub. L. 91–651, §4, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1941; Pub. L. 93–346, §8, July 12, 1974, as added Pub. L. 93–552, title VI, §609(a), Dec. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 1765; Pub. L. 94–408, §2, Sept. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 97–297, §3, Oct. 12, 1982, 96 Stat. 1318; Pub. L. 97–308, §2, Oct. 14, 1982, 96 Stat. 1452; Pub. L. 98–151, §115(b), Nov. 14, 1983, 97 Stat. 977; Pub. L. 98–587, §1(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3110; Pub. L. 103–329, title V, §530, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §605(i), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3510; Pub. L. 106–544, §3, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2716; Pub. L. 107–56, title V, §506(b), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 367; Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1703(a)(1), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2313; Pub. L. 108–21, title III, §322, Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 665; Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §§604, 607, 608(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 253, 256; Pub. L. 110–326, title I, §102, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560; Pub. L. 112–257, §2, Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2413; Pub. L. 115–393, title II, §203, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5271.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §148, and on sections 264(x) and 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking (Dec. 23, 1913, ch. 6, §12B, subsection (x), as added June 16, 1933, ch. 89, §8, 48 Stat. 178; July 17, 1916, ch. 245, §31, sixth paragraph, 39 Stat. 382 (384); Dec. 11, 1926, ch. 2, §3, 44 Stat. 918; Aug. 23, 1935, ch. 614, §101, 49 Stat. 684, 703).

Section consolidates said section 148 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and said sections 264(x) and 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking.

Said section 148 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, was concerned with offenses relating to counterfeiting and passing, etc., of transportation requests and to the unlawful possession or making of plates, stones, etc., used in making such requests, which were defined in sections 146 and 147 of said title 18, now sections 508 and 509 of this title.

Said sections 264(x) and 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking, were concerned with various offenses as defined in sections 981–985, 987 of said title 12, relating to Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks and national farm loan associations, and as defined in section 264 of said title 12 relating to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. All of the provisions of said sections 981–985, 987 of said title 12, and the criminal provisions of said section 264 of said title 12, were transferred to this title where they were, in some instances, consolidated with similar provisions from other sections. Such provisions are now incorporated in sections 218, 221, 433, 493, 657, 709, 1006, 1007, 1011, 1013, 1014, 1907, and 1909 of this title. In most instances, these sections, as the result of the consolidations, relate to other organizations as well as those mentioned above, but, by enumerating the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, Federal land banks, joint-stock land banks, and national farm loan associations in this section, the powers of the Secret Service are not broadened beyond what they were in said sections 264(x) and 986 of said title 12.

In this section, the wording of said section 148 of title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., and section 986 of title 12, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Banks and Banking reading "The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized to direct and use the Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department" was adopted, rather than the wording of said section 264(x) of said title 12, which read "The Secret Service Division of the Treasury Department is authorized."

Words "of the United States marshal having jurisdiction", following "custody" in all three of said sections, were omitted as surplusage.

Changes were made in phraseology.

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(7), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 216 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §1107(b), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2146.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–393 inserted "in conjunction with an investigation" after "local law enforcement agency" and struck out before period at end "in support of any investigation involving missing or exploited children".

2013—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–257, §2(a), struck out provisions limiting protection for certain former Presidents and their spouses to ten years from the date a former President leaves office, with certain exceptions, and authorizing the provision of temporary protection if determined to be warranted by the Secretary of Homeland Security.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 112–257, §2(b), struck out "for a period not to exceed ten years or upon the child becoming 16 years of age, whichever comes first" after "16 years of age".

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–326, §102(2), substituted "(8)" for "(7)" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(8). Pub. L. 110–326, §102(1), added par. (8).

2006—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 109–177, §608(a), which directed amendment of subsec. (a)(7) by inserting "The Committee shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2)." after "other members of the Committee.", was executed by making the insertion after "other members of the committee.", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 109–177, §604, substituted "the Secret Service is" for "officers and agents of the Secret Service are".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–177, §607, added subsec. (g).

2003—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–21 added subsec. (f).

2002—Subsecs. (a) to (c)(1), (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–296 substituted "of Homeland Security" for "of the Treasury" wherever appearing.

2001—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–56 substituted "access device frauds, false identification documents or devices, and any fraud or other criminal or unlawful activity in or against any federally insured financial institution" for "credit and debit card frauds, and false identification documents or devices".

2000—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–544 added subsec. (e).

1996—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–294 redesignated subpars. (1) and (2) as (A) and (B), respectively, and realigned margins.

1994—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 103–329, §530(a), inserted before period at end "unless the former President did not serve as President prior to January 1, 1997, in which case, former Presidents and their spouses for a period of not more than ten years from the date a former President leaves office, except that—

"(1) protection of a spouse shall terminate in the event of remarriage or the divorce from, or death of a former President; and

"(2) should the death of a President occur while in office or within one year after leaving office, the spouse shall receive protection for one year from the time of such death:

Provided, That the Secretary of the Treasury shall have the authority to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for any of these individuals at any time if the Secretary of the Treasury or designee determines that information or conditions warrant such protection".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–329, §530(b), inserted before period at end "for a period not to exceed ten years or upon the child becoming 16 years of age, whichever comes first".

1984Pub. L. 98–587 amended section generally, providing authority for the Secret Service to conduct criminal investigations of, make arrests in, and present for prosecutorial consideration, cases relating to electronic fund transfer frauds, and providing the Secret Service with authority to conduct investigations and make arrests relating to credit and debit card frauds, and false identification documents and devices, to be exercised subject to the agreement of the Attorney General and the Secretary of the Treasury.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–151 inserted reference to section 510 of this section in fifth clause.

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–297, §3(1), substituted "871, and 879 of this title" for "and 871 of this title".

Pub. L. 97–297, §3(2), substituted "and Federal land bank associations are concerned, of sections 213, 216" for ", joint-stock land banks and Federal land bank associations are concerned, of sections 218, 221".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–308 increased the limitation on fines to $1,000 from $300.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–408 substituted ", and the members of their immediate families unless the members decline such protection;" for "; protect the members of the immediate family of the Vice-President, unless such protection is declined;".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–408 inserted reference to other Federal law enforcement agents.

1974—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 93–552 inserted provisions relating to the protection of the immediate family of the Vice President unless declined, and the payment of expenses for unforeseen emergencies of a confidential nature under the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury and accounted for solely on his certificate.

1971Pub. L. 91–651 authorized the Secret Service to protect the person of a visiting head of a foreign state or foreign government and, at the direction of the President, other distinguished foreign visitors to the United States and official representatives of the United States performing special missions abroad, and substituted "Director, Deputy Director, Assistant Directors, Assistants to the Director" for "Chief, Deputy Chief, Assistant Chief".

Pub. L. 91–644 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1968Pub. L. 90–608 substituted the death or remarriage of a former President's widow and the attainment by his minor children of age 16 for the passage of a period of four years after he leaves or dies in office as the events terminating Secret Service protection for the widow and minor children, respectively, of a former President.

1965Pub. L. 89–218 authorized the Chief, Deputy Chief, Assistant Chief, inspectors, and agents of the Secret Service to make arrests without warrant for offenses committed against the United States in their presence or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing the felony and substituted "508, 509, and 871" for "508 and 509".

Pub. L. 89–186 substituted provision for the protection of the person of a former President and his wife during his lifetime and the person of a widow and minor children of a former President for a period of four years after he leaves or dies in office, unless the protection is declined, for provision calling for the protection of a former President, at his request, for a reasonable period after he leaves office.

1962Pub. L. 87–829 authorized the protection of the Vice President, without requiring his request therefor, and any officer next in the order of succession to the office of President, the Vice-President-elect, and of a former president, at his request, for a reasonable period after he leaves office.

Pub. L. 87–791 required moneys expended from Secret Service appropriations for the purchase of counterfeits and subsequently recovered to be reimbursed to the appropriation current at the time of deposit.

1959Pub. L. 86–168 substituted "Federal land bank associations" for "national farm loan associations".

1954—Act Aug. 31, 1954, struck out "detect, and arrest any person violating any laws of the United States directly concerning official matters administered by and under the direct control of the Treasury Department".

1951—Act July 16, 1951, provided basic authority for the Secret Service to perform certain functions and activities heretofore carried out by virtue of authority contained in appropriation acts.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–326, title I, §103, Sept. 26, 2008, 122 Stat. 3560, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [probably should be "title", meaning title I of Pub. L. 110–326, which amended this section and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1 of this title] shall apply with respect to any Vice President holding office on or after the date of enactment of the Act [Sept. 26, 2008]."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–296, title XVII, §1703(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2314, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and former sections 202 and 208 of Title 3, The President] shall take effect on the date of transfer of the United States Secret Service to the Department [of Homeland Security]."

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Pub. L. 93–552, title VI, §609(b), Dec. 27, 1974, 88 Stat. 1765, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided therein, the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section, former section 202 of Title 3, The President, and provisions set out as a note under section 111 of Title 3] shall become effective July 12, 1974."

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–168 effective Dec. 31, 1959, see section 104(k) of Pub. L. 86–168.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of the functions, personnel, assets, and obligations of the United States Secret Service, including the functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 381, 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Use of Funds for United States Secret Service Protection

Pub. L. 109–295, title V, §517(b), Oct. 4, 2006, 120 Stat. 1380, as amended by Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title V, §517, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2073, provided that: "For fiscal year 2008, and each fiscal year thereafter, the Director of the United States Secret Service may enter into an agreement to perform protection of a Federal official other than a person granted protection under section 3056(a) of title 18, United States Code, on a fully reimbursable basis."

Funds for Training

Pub. L. 108–90, title II, Oct. 1, 2003, 117 Stat. 1145, provided in part: "That in fiscal year 2004 and thereafter, subject to the reimbursement of actual costs to this account, funds appropriated in this account shall be available, at the discretion of the Director, for the following: training United States Postal Service law enforcement personnel and Postal police officers, training Federal law enforcement officers, training State and local government law enforcement officers on a space-available basis, and training private sector security officials on a space-available basis".

Expansion of National Electronic Crime Task Force Initiative

Pub. L. 107–56, title I, §105, Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 277, as amended by Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §608(b), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 256, provided that: "The Director of the United States Secret Service shall take appropriate actions to develop a national network of electronic crime task forces, based on the New York Electronic Crimes Task Force model, throughout the United States, for the purpose of preventing, detecting, and investigating various forms of electronic crimes, including potential terrorist attacks against critical infrastructure and financial payment systems. The electronic crimes task forces shall not be subject to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App. 2) [5 U.S.C. App.]."

National Threat Assessment Center

Pub. L. 106–544, §4, Dec. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 2716, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The United States Secret Service (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Service'), at the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, may establish the National Threat Assessment Center (hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Center') as a unit within the Service.

"(b) Functions.—The Service may provide the following to Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies through the Center:

"(1) Training in the area of threat assessment.

"(2) Consultation on complex threat assessment cases or plans.

"(3) Research on threat assessment and the prevention of targeted violence.

"(4) Facilitation of information sharing among all such agencies with protective or public safety responsibilities.

"(5) Programs to promote the standardization of Federal, State, and local threat assessments and investigations involving threats.

"(6) Any other activities the Secretary determines are necessary to implement a comprehensive threat assessment capability.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2000], the Service shall submit a report to the Committees on the Judiciary of the Senate and the House of Representatives detailing the manner in which the Center will operate."

Telecommunications Support to United States Secret Service by White House Communications Agency

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8100], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009-108, as amended by Pub. L. 106–92, §2, Nov. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1309, provided that: "Beginning in fiscal year 1997 and thereafter, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, fixed and mobile telecommunications support shall be provided by the White House Communications Agency (WHCA) to the United States Secret Service (USSS), without reimbursement, in connection with the Secret Service's duties directly related to the protection of the President or the Vice President or other officer immediately next in order of succession to the office of the President at the White House Security Complex in the Washington, D.C. Metropolitan Area and Camp David, Maryland. For these purposes, the White House Security Complex includes the White House, the White House grounds, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Executive Office Building, the New Executive Office Building, the Blair House, the Treasury Building, and the Vice President's Residence at the Naval Observatory."

Off-Set of Costs of Protecting Former Presidents and Spouses

Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(f) [title V, §509], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–314, 3009-345, provided that: "The United States Secret Service may, during the fiscal year ending September 30, 1997, and hereafter, accept donations of money to off-set costs incurred while protecting former Presidents and spouses of former Presidents when the former President or spouse travels for the purpose of making an appearance or speech for a payment of money or any thing of value."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriations acts:

Pub. L. 104–52, title V, §509, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 492.

Pub. L. 103–329, title V, §514, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2410.

Pub. L. 103–123, title V, §515, Oct. 28, 1993, 107 Stat. 1253.

Pub. L. 102–393, title V, §519, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1759.

Pub. L. 102–141, title V, §522, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 865.

Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §525, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1426.

Former Vice President or Spouse; Protection

Pub. L. 103–1, Jan. 15, 1993, 107 Stat. 3, provided: "That—

"(1) the United States Secret Service, in addition to other duties now provided by law, is authorized to furnish protection to—

"(A) the person occupying the Office of Vice President of the United States immediately preceding January 20, 1993, or

"(B) his spouse,

if the President determines that such person may thereafter be in significant danger; and

"(2) protection of any such person, pursuant to the authority provided in paragraph (1), shall continue only for such period as the President determines, except that such protection shall not continue beyond July 20, 1993, unless otherwise permitted by law."

Pub. L. 96–503, Dec. 5, 1980, 94 Stat. 2740, provided: "That the United States Secret Service, in addition to other duties now provided by law, is authorized to furnish protection to (a) the person occupying the Office of Vice President of the United States immediately preceding January 20, 1981, or (b) his spouse, if the President determines that such person may thereafter be in significant danger: Provided, however, That protection of any such person shall continue only for such period as the President determines and shall not continue beyond July 20, 1981, unless otherwise permitted by law."

Secret Service Protection of Former Federal Officials

Pub. L. 95–1, Jan. 19, 1977, 91 Stat. 3, provided: "That the United States Secret Service, in addition to other duties now provided by law, is authorized to furnish protection to a person who (a) as a Federal Government official has been receiving protection by the United States Secret Service for a period immediately preceding January 20, 1977, or (b) as a member of such official's immediate family has been receiving protection by either the United States Secret Service or other security personnel of the official's department immediately preceding January 20, 1977, if the President determines that such person may thereafter be in significant danger: Provided, however, That protection of any such person shall continue only for such period as the President determines and shall not continue beyond July 20, 1977, unless otherwise permitted by law."

Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976

Pub. L. 94–524, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2475, as amended by Pub. L. 99–190, §143, Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1324; Pub. L. 101–136, title V, §527, Nov. 3, 1989, 103 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 101–509, title V, §531(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1469; Pub. L. 102–141, title V, §533, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 867; Pub. L. 104–52, title V, §529, Nov. 19, 1995, 109 Stat. 496; Pub. L. 104–316, title I, §109(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3832, provided: "That this Act may be cited as the 'Presidential Protection Assistance Act of 1976'.

"Sec. 2. As used in this Act the term—

"(1) 'Secret Service' means the United States Secret Service, the Department of the Treasury;

"(2) 'Director' means the Director of the Secret Service;

"(3) 'protectee' means any person eligible to receive the protection authorized by section 3056 of title 18, United States Code, or Public Law 90–331 (82 Stat. 170) [set out as a note above];

"(4) 'Executive departments' has the same meaning as provided in section 101 of title 5, United States Code;

"(5) 'Executive agencies' has the same meaning as provided in section 105 of title 5, United States Code;

"(6) 'Coast Guard' means the United States Coast Guard, Department of Transportation or such other Executive department or Executive agency to which the United States Coast Guard may subsequently be transferred;

"(7) 'duties' means all responsibilities of an Executive department or Executive agency relating to the protection of any protectee; and

"(8) 'non-Governmental property' means any property owned, leased, occupied, or otherwise utilized by a protectee which is not owned or controlled by the Government of the United States of America.

"Sec. 3. (a) Each protectee may designate one non-governmental property to be fully secured by the Secret Service on a permanent basis.

"(b) A protectee may thereafter designate a different non-Governmental property in lieu of the non-Governmental property previously designated under subsection (a) (hereinafter in this Act referred to as the 'previously designated property') as the one non-Governmental property to be fully secured by the Secret Service on a permanent basis under subsection (a). Thereafter, any expenditures by the Secret Service to maintain a permanent guard detail or for permanent facilities, equipment, and services to secure the non-Governmental property previously designated under subsection (a) shall be subject to the limitations imposed under section 4.

"(c) For the purposes of this section, where two or more protectees share the same domicile, such protectees shall be deemed a single protectee.

"Sec. 4. Expenditures by the Secret Service for maintaining a permanent guard detail and for permanent facilities, equipment, and services to secure any non-Governmental property in addition to the one non-Governmental property designated by each protectee under subsection 3(a) or 3(b) may not exceed a cumulative total of $200,000 at each such additional non-Governmental property, unless expenditures in excess of that amount are specifically approved by resolutions adopted by the Committees on Appropriations of the House and Senate, respectively.

"Sec. 5. (a) All improvements and other items acquired by the Federal Government and used for the purpose of securing any non-Governmental property in the performance of the duties of the Secret Service shall be the property of the United States.

"(b) Upon termination of Secret Service protection at any non-Governmental property all such improvements and other items shall be removed from the non-Governmental property unless the Director determines that it would not be economically feasible to do so; except that such improvements and other items shall be removed and the non-Governmental property shall be restored to its original state if the owner of such property at the time of termination requests the removal of such improvements or other items. If any such improvements or other items are not removed, the owner of the non-Governmental property at the time of termination shall compensate the United States for the original cost of such improvements or other items or for the amount by which they have increased the fair market value of the property, as determined by the Director, as of the date of termination, whichever is less.

"(c) In the event that any non-Governmental property becomes a previously designated property and Secret Service protection at that property has not been terminated, all such improvements and other items which the Director determines are not necessary to secure the previously designated property within the limitations imposed under section 4 shall be removed or compensated for in accordance with the procedures set forth under Subsection (b) of this section.

"Sec. 6. Executive departments and Executive agencies shall assist the Secret Service in the performance of its duties by providing services, equipment, and facilities on a temporary and reimbursable basis when requested by the Director and on a permanent and reimbursable basis upon advance written request of the Director; except that the Department of Defense and the Coast Guard shall provide such assistance on a temporary basis without reimbursement when assisting the Secret Service in its duties directly related to the protection of the President or the Vice President or other officer immediately next in order of succession to the office of the President.

"Sec. 7. No services, equipment, or facilities may be ordered, purchased, leased, or otherwise procured for the purposes of carrying out the duties of the Secret Service by persons other than officers or employees of the Federal Government duly authorized by the Director to make such orders, purchases, leases, or procurements.

"Sec. 8. No funds may be expended or obligated for the purpose of carrying out the purposes of section 3056 of title 18, United States Code, and section 1 of Public Law 90–331 [set out as a note above] other than funds specifically appropriated to the Secret Service for those purposes with the exception of—

"(1) expenditures made by the Department of Defense or the Coast Guard from funds appropriated to the Department of Defense or the Coast Guard in providing assistance on a temporary basis to the Secret Service in the performance of its duties directly related to the protection of the President or the Vice President or other officer next in order of succession to the office of the President; and

"(2) expenditures made by Executive departments and agencies, in providing assistance at the request of the Secret Service in the performance of its duties, and which will be reimbursed by the Secret Service under section 6 of this Act.

"Sec. 9. The Director, the Secretary of Defense, and the Commandant of the Coast Guard shall each transmit a detailed semi-annual report of expenditures made pursuant to this Act during the six-month period immediately preceding such report by the Secret Service, the Department of Defense, and the Coast Guard, respectively, to the Committees on Appropriations, Committees on the Judiciary, and Committees on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate] of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively, on March 31 and September 30, of each year.

"Sec. 10. Expenditures made pursuant to this Act shall be subject to audit by the Comptroller General and his authorized representatives, who shall have access to all records relating to such expenditures. The Comptroller General shall transmit a report of the results of any such audit to the Committees on Appropriations, Committees on the Judiciary, and Committees on Government Operations [now Committee on Oversight and Government Reform of the House of Representatives and Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate] of the House of Representatives and the Senate, respectively.

"Sec. 11. Section 2 of Public Law 90–331 (82 Stat. 170) [formerly set out as a note below] is repealed.

"Sec. 12. In carrying out the protection of the President of the United States, pursuant to section 3056(a) of title 18, at the one non-governmental property designated by the President of the United States to be fully secured by the United States Secret Service on a permanent basis, as provided in section 3.(a) of Public Law 94–524 [section 3(a) of this note], or at an airport facility used for travel en route to or from such property[,] the Secretary of the Treasury may utilize, with their consent, the law enforcement services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of the affected State and local governments. Further, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to reimburse such State and local governments for the utilization of such services, personnel, equipment, and facilities. All claims for such reimbursement by the affected governments will be submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury on a quarterly basis. Expenditures for this reimbursement are authorized not to exceed $300,000 at the one nongovernmental property, and $70,000 at the airport facility, in any one fiscal year: Provided, That the designated site is located in a municipality or political subdivision of any State where the permanent resident population is 7,000 or less and where the absence of such Federal assistance would place an undue economic burden on the affected State and local governments: Provided further, That the airport facility is wholly or partially located in a municipality or political subdivison [sic] of any State where the permanent resident population is 7,000 or less, the airport is located within 25 nautical miles of the designated nongovernmental property, and where the absence of such Federal assistance would place an undue economic burden on the affected State and local governments."

[For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.]

Major Presidential or Vice Presidential Candidates and Spouses; Personal Protection

Pub. L. 90–331, June 6, 1968, 82 Stat. 170, as amended by Pub. L. 94–408, §1, Sept. 11, 1976, 90 Stat. 1239; Pub. L. 94–524, §11, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2477; Pub. L. 96–329, Aug. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 1029, which had provided for personal protection of major presidential or vice presidential candidates and had authorized protection of spouses commencing not more than 120 days before the general Presidential election, and appropriated for fiscal year ending June 30, 1968, $400,000 for execution of such provisions, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–587, §2, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 3111. See subsec. (a)(7) of this section.

Extension of Protection of President's Widow and Children

Pub. L. 90–145, Nov. 17, 1967, 81 Stat. 466, extended until Mar. 1, 1969, the authority vested in the United States Secret Service by section 3056 of this title, as it existed prior to the amendment in 1968 by Pub. L. 90–608, to protect the widow and minor children of a former President who were receiving such protection on Nov. 17, 1967.

Applicability of Reorg. Plan No. 26 of 1950

Pub. L. 91–651, §5, Jan. 5, 1971, 84 Stat. 1941, provided that: "Section 3056 of title 18, United States Code, as amended by section 4 of this Act, shall be subject to Reorganization Plan Numbered 26 of 1950 (64 Stat. 1280) [set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees]."

1 See References in Text note below.

§3056A. Powers, authorities, and duties of United States Secret Service Uniformed Division

(a) There is hereby created and established a permanent police force, to be known as the "United States Secret Service Uniformed Division". Subject to the supervision of the Secretary of Homeland Security, the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall perform such duties as the Director, United States Secret Service, may prescribe in connection with the protection of the following:

(1) The White House in the District of Columbia.

(2) Any building in which Presidential offices are located.

(3) The Treasury Building and grounds.

(4) The President, the Vice President (or other officer next in the order of succession to the Office of President), the President-elect, the Vice President-elect, and their immediate families.

(5) Foreign diplomatic missions located in the metropolitan area of the District of Columbia.

(6) The temporary official residence of the Vice President and grounds in the District of Columbia.

(7) Foreign diplomatic missions located in metropolitan areas (other than the District of Columbia) in the United States where there are located twenty or more such missions headed by full-time officers, except that such protection shall be provided only—

(A) on the basis of extraordinary protective need;

(B) upon request of an affected metropolitan area; and

(C) when the extraordinary protective need arises at or in association with a visit to—

(i) a permanent mission to, or an observer mission invited to participate in the work of, an international organization of which the United States is a member; or

(ii) an international organization of which the United States is a member;


except that such protection may also be provided for motorcades and at other places associated with any such visit and may be extended at places of temporary domicile in connection with any such visit.


(8) Foreign consular and diplomatic missions located in such areas in the United States, its territories and possessions, as the President, on a case-by-case basis, may direct.

(9) Visits of foreign government officials to metropolitan areas (other than the District of Columbia) where there are located twenty or more consular or diplomatic missions staffed by accredited personnel, including protection for motorcades and at other places associated with such visits when such officials are in the United States to conduct official business with the United States Government.

(10) Former Presidents and their spouses, as provided in section 3056(a)(3) of title 18.

(11) An event designated under section 3056(e) of title 18 as a special event of national significance.

(12) Major Presidential and Vice Presidential candidates and, within 120 days of the general Presidential election, the spouses of such candidates, as provided in section 3056(a)(7) of title 18.

(13) Visiting heads of foreign states or foreign governments.


(b)(1) Under the direction of the Director of the Secret Service, members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division are authorized to—

(A) carry firearms;

(B) make arrests without warrant for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such felony; and

(C) perform such other functions and duties as are authorized by law.


(2) Members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall possess privileges and powers similar to those of the members of the Metropolitan Police of the District of Columbia.

(c) Members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall be furnished with uniforms and other necessary equipment.

(d) In carrying out the functions pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a), the Secretary of Homeland Security may utilize, with their consent, on a reimbursable basis, the services, personnel, equipment, and facilities of State and local governments, and is authorized to reimburse such State and local governments for the utilization of such services, personnel, equipment, and facilities. The Secretary of Homeland Security may carry out the functions pursuant to paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a) by contract. The authority of this subsection may be transferred by the President to the Secretary of State. In carrying out any duty under paragraphs (7) and (9) of subsection (a), the Secretary of State is authorized to utilize any authority available to the Secretary under title II of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956.

(Added Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §605(a), Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 253.)

References in Text

Title II of the State Department Basic Authorities Act of 1956, referred to in subsec. (d), is title II of act Aug. 1, 1956, ch. 841, as added Aug. 24, 1982, Pub. L. 97–241, title II, §202(b), 96 Stat. 283, known as the Foreign Missions Act, which is classified principally to chapter 53 (§4301 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4301 of Title 22 and Tables.

Change of Name

Pub. L. 95–179, Nov. 15, 1977, 91 Stat. 1371, provided in part that: "Any reference in any other law or in any regulation, document, record, or other paper of the United States to the Executive Protective Service shall be held to be a reference to the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division."

Pub. L. 91–297, title II, §202, June 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 358, provided that: "All laws of the United States in force on the date of enactment of this title [June 30, 1970] in which reference is made to the White House Police force are amended by substituting 'Executive Protective Service' for each such reference."

Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 109–177, title VI, §606, Mar. 9, 2006, 120 Stat. 256, provided that:

"(a) This title [see Tables for classification] does not affect the retirement benefits of current employees or annuitants that existed on the day before the effective date of this Act [probably means Mar. 9, 2006, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–177].

"(b) This title does not affect any Executive order transferring to the Secretary of State the authority of section 208 of title 3 (now section 3056A(d) of title 18) in effect on the day before the effective date of this Act."

Conversion to New Salary Schedule

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title IX, §905], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-306, as amended by Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(4), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043, provided that:

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Determination of rates of basic pay.—Effective on the first day of the 1st pay period beginning 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000], the Secretary of the Interior shall fix the rates of basic pay for officers and members of the United States Park Police, in accordance with this subsection.

"(2) Placement on revised salary schedule.—

"(A) In general.—Each officer and member shall be placed in and receive basic compensation at the corresponding scheduled service step of the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 [Pub. L. 85–584, title V, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 485] (as amended by section 902(a)) in accordance with the member's total years of creditable service, receiving credit for all service step adjustments. If the scheduled rate of pay for the step to which the officer or member would be assigned in accordance with this paragraph is lower than the officer's or member's salary immediately prior to the enactment of this paragraph, the officer or member will be placed in and receive compensation at the next higher service step.

"(B) Credit for increases during transition.—Each member whose position is to be converted to the salary schedule under section 501(b) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by subsection (a)) and who, prior to the effective date of this section [set out below] has earned, but has not been credited with, an increase in his or her rate of pay shall be afforded that increase before such member is placed in the corresponding service step in the salary schedule under section 501(b).

"(C) Creditable service described.—For purposes of this paragraph, an officer's or member's creditable service is any police service in pay status with the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, United States Park Police, or Metropolitan Police Department.

"(b) Hold Harmless for Current Total Compensation.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the total rate of compensation for an officer or employee for any pay period occurring after conversion to the salary schedule pursuant to subsection (a) (determined by taking into account any locality-based comparability adjustments, longevity pay, and other adjustments paid in addition to the rate of basic compensation) is less than the officer's or employee's total rate of compensation (as so determined) on the date of enactment [Dec. 21, 2000], the rate of compensation for the officer or employee for the pay period shall be equal to—

"(1) the rate of compensation on the date of enactment (as so determined); increased by

"(2) a percentage equal to 50 percent of sum of the percentage adjustments made in the rate of basic compensation under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by subsection (a)) for pay periods occurring after the date of enactment and prior to the pay period involved.

"(c) Conversion Not Treated as Transfer or Promotion.—The conversion of positions and individuals to appropriate classes of the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 902(a)) and the initial adjustments of rates of basic pay of those positions and individuals in accordance with subsection (a) shall not be considered to be transfers or promotions within the meaning of section 304 of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 [Pub. L. 85–584, title III, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 484] (sec. 4–413, D.C. Code).

"(d) Transfer of Credit for Satisfactory Service.—Each individual whose position is converted to the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 902(a)) in accordance with subsection (a) shall be granted credit for purposes of such individual's first service step adjustment under the salary schedule in such section 501(c) for all satisfactory service performed by the individual since the individual's last increase in basic pay prior to the adjustment under that section.

"(e) Adjustment To Take Into Account General Schedule Adjustments During Transition.—The rates provided under the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 902(a)) shall be increased by the percentage of any annual adjustment applicable to the General Schedule authorized under section 5303 of title 5, United States Code, which takes effect during the period which begins on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2000] and ends on the first day of the first pay period beginning 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act.

"(f) Conversion Not Treated as Salary Increase for Purposes of Certain Pensions and Allowances.—The conversion of positions and individuals to appropriate classes of the salary schedule under section 501(c) of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1958 (as amended by section 2[902](a)) and the initial adjustments of rates of basic pay of those positions and individuals in accordance with subsection (a) shall not be treated as an increase in salary for purposes of section 3 of the Act entitled 'An Act to provide increased pensions for widows and children of deceased members of the Police Department and the Fire Department of the District of Columbia', approved August 4, 1949 [ch. 394, 63 Stat. 566] (sec. 4–604, D.C. Code), or section 301 of the District of Columbia Police and Firemen's Salary Act of 1953 [June 20, 1953, ch. 146, title III, 67 Stat. 75] (sec. 4–605, D.C. Code)."

[Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(4), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043, which directed amendment of section 1(a)(4) [div. B, title IX, §905(a)(1)] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out above, by striking out "the Secretary of Treasury" and all that followed through "United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, and", was executed by striking out "the Secretary of the Treasury shall fix the rates of basic pay for officers and members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division, and" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

[Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(4) [div. B, title IX, §909], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-310, provided that: "Except as provided in section 908(c) [114 Stat. 2763A–310], this title [enacting provisions set out as notes above and under sections 5301, 5304, and 5305 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 5305 of Title 5] and the amendments made by this title shall become effective on the first day of the first pay period beginning 6 months after the date of enactment [Dec. 21, 2000]."]

Secret Service Uniformed Division Compensation

Pub. L. 105–61, title I, §118, Oct. 10, 1997, 111 Stat. 1285, as amended by Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(3), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043, provided that:

"(a) New Rates of Basic Pay.—[Amended Pub. L. 85–584, title V, §501, Aug. 1, 1958, 72 Stat. 485.]

"(b) [Repealed. Pub. L. 111–282, §4(b)(3), Oct. 15, 2010, 124 Stat. 3043.]

"(c) Limitation on Pay Period Earnings.—[Amended act Aug. 15, 1950, ch. 715, 64 Stat. 477.]

"(d) Savings Provision.—On the effective date of this section, any existing special salary rates authorized for members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division under section 5305 of title 5, United States Code (or any previous similar provision of law) and any special rates of pay or special pay adjustments under section 403, 404, or 405 of the Federal Law Enforcement Pay Reform Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title IV, §§403–405], 5 U.S.C. 5305 note] applicable to members of the United States Secret Service Uniformed Division shall be rendered inapplicable.

"(e) Conforming Amendment.—[Amended Pub. L. 101–509, §529 [title IV, §405], set out as a note under section 5305 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.]

"(f) Effective Date.—The provisions of this section shall become effective on the first day of the first pay period beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 10, 1997]."

Ex. Ord. No. 12478. Transfer of Authority to the Secretary of State To Make Reimbursements for Protection of Foreign Missions to International Organizations

Ex. Ord. No. 12478, May 23, 1984, 49 F.R. 22053, provided:

By authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and statutes of the United States of America, and in accordance with the provisions of the Act of December 31, 1975, Public Law 94–196 (89 Stat. 1109), codified as [former] sections 202(7) and 208(a) of Title 3, United States Code, as amended, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. There is transferred to the Secretary of State authority to determine the need for and to approve terms and conditions of the provision of reimbursable extraordinary protective activities for foreign diplomatic missions pursuant to [former] section 202(7), and the authority to make reimbursements to State and local governments for services, personnel, equipment, and facilities pursuant to [former] section 208(a) of Title 3, United States Code;

Sec. 2. There are transferred to the Secretary of State such unexpended moneys as may have been appropriated to the Department of the Treasury for the purpose of permitting reimbursements to be made under the provisions of [former] section 208(a) of Title 3, United States Code;

Sec. 3. The authority transferred pursuant to this Order shall be exercised in coordination with protective security programs administered by the Secretary of State under the Foreign Missions Act of 1982 [22 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.]; authority available under that Act may also be applied to any foreign mission to which [former] section 202(7) applies; and

Sec. 4. This Order shall be effective on October 1, 1984.

Ronald Reagan.      

§3057. Bankruptcy investigations

(a) Any judge, receiver, or trustee having reasonable grounds for believing that any violation under chapter 9 of this title or other laws of the United States relating to insolvent debtors, receiverships or reorganization plans has been committed, or that an investigation should be had in connection therewith, shall report to the appropriate United States attorney all the facts and circumstances of the case, the names of the witnesses and the offense or offenses believed to have been committed. Where one of such officers has made such report, the others need not do so.

(b) The United States attorney thereupon shall inquire into the facts and report thereon to the judge, and if it appears probable that any such offense has been committed, shall without delay, present the matter to the grand jury, unless upon inquiry and examination he decides that the ends of public justice do not require investigation or prosecution, in which case he shall report the facts to the Attorney General for his direction.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; May 24, 1949, ch. 139, §48, 63 Stat. 96; Pub. L. 95–598, title III, §314(i), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2677.)

Historical and Revision Notes

1948 Act

Based on section 52(e)(1), (2) of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy (July 1, 1898, ch. 541, §29e(1), (2), as added by May 27, 1926, ch. 406, §11, 44 Stat. 665, 666; June 22, 1938, ch. 575, §1, 52 Stat. 840, 856).

Remaining provisions of section 52 of title 11, U.S.C., 1940 ed., Bankruptcy, constitute sections 151–154, and 3284 of this title.

The words "or laws relating to insolvent debtors, receiverships, or reorganization plans" were inserted to avoid reference to "Title 11".

Minor changes were made in phraseology.

1949 Act

This section [section 48] clarifies the meaning of section 3057 of title 18, U.S.C., by expressly limiting to laws "of the United States", violations of laws which are to be reported to the United States attorney.

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–598, §314(i), substituted "judge" for "referee" and "violation under chapter 9 of this title" for "violations of the bankruptcy laws".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–598, §314(i)(1), substituted "judge" for "referee".

1949—Subsec. (a). Act May 24, 1949, substituted "or other laws of the United States" for "or laws".

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 402(a) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–598 not to affect the application of chapter 9 (§151 et seq.), chapter 96 (§1961 et seq.), or section 2516, 3057, or 3284 of this title to any act of any person (1) committed before Oct. 1, 1979, or (2) committed after Oct. 1, 1979, in connection with a case commenced before such date, see section 403(d) of Pub. L. 95–598, set out as a note preceding section 101 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1950, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3058. Interned belligerent nationals

Whoever, belonging to the armed land or naval forces of a belligerent nation or belligerent faction and being interned in the United States, in accordance with the law of nations, leaves or attempts to leave said jurisdiction, or leaves or attempts to leave the limits of internment without permission from the proper official of the United States in charge, or willfully overstays a leave of absence granted by such official, shall be subject to arrest by any marshal or deputy marshal of the United States, or by the military or naval authorities thereof, and shall be returned to the place of internment and there confined and safely kept for such period of time as the official of the United States in charge shall direct.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 101–647, title XXXV, §3571, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4928.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 18, U.S.C., 1940 ed., §37 (June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title V, §7, 40 Stat. 223).

Said section 37 was incorporated in this section and section 756 of this title.

Minor verbal changes were made.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–647 substituted "belligerent" for "beligerent" before "nation".

[§§3059 to 3059B. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–273, div. A, title III, §301(c)(2), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1781]

Section 3059, act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 818; Pub. L. 97–258, §2(d)(2), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1058; Pub. L. 103–322, title XXV, §250004, Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2086, related to rewards and appropriations therefor.

Section 3059A, added Pub. L. 101–647, title XXV, §2587(a), Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4904; amended Pub. L. 103–322, title XXXII, §320607, title XXXIII, §330010(10), (17), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 2120, 2143, 2144; Pub. L. 104–294, title VI, §§601(f)(4), 604(b)(24), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3499, 3508, related to special rewards for information relating to certain financial institution offenses.

Section 3059B, added Pub. L. 104–132, title VIII, §815(e)(1), Apr. 24, 1996, 110 Stat. 1315, set forth general reward authority.

§3060. Preliminary examination

(a) Except as otherwise provided by this section, a preliminary examination shall be held within the time set by the judge or magistrate judge pursuant to subsection (b) of this section, to determine whether there is probable cause to believe that an offense has been committed and that the arrested person has committed it.

(b) The date for the preliminary examination shall be fixed by the judge or magistrate judge at the initial appearance of the arrested person. Except as provided by subsection (c) of this section, or unless the arrested person waives the preliminary examination, such examination shall be held within a reasonable time following initial appearance, but in any event not later than—

(1) the fourteenth day following the date of the initial appearance of the arrested person before such officer if the arrested person is held in custody without any provision for release, or is held in custody for failure to meet the conditions of release imposed, or is released from custody only during specified hours of the day; or

(2) the twentieth day following the date of the initial appearance if the arrested person is released from custody under any condition other than a condition described in paragraph (1) of this subsection.


(c) With the consent of the arrested person, the date fixed by the judge or magistrate judge for the preliminary examination may be a date later than that prescribed by subsection (b), or may be continued one or more times to a date subsequent to the date initially fixed therefor. In the absence of such consent of the accused, the judge or magistrate judge may extend the time limits only on a showing that extraordinary circumstances exist and justice requires the delay.

(d) Except as provided by subsection (e) of this section, an arrested person who has not been accorded the preliminary examination required by subsection (a) within the period of time fixed by the judge or magistrate judge in compliance with subsections (b) and (c), shall be discharged from custody or from the requirement of bail or any other condition of release, without prejudice, however, to the institution of further criminal proceedings against him upon the charge upon which he was arrested.

(e) No preliminary examination in compliance with subsection (a) of this section shall be required to be accorded an arrested person, nor shall such arrested person be discharged from custody or from the requirement of bail or any other condition of release pursuant to subsection (d), if at any time subsequent to the initial appearance of such person before a judge or magistrate judge and prior to the date fixed for the preliminary examination pursuant to subsections (b) and (c) an indictment is returned or, in appropriate cases, an information is filed against such person in a court of the United States.

(f) Proceedings before United States magistrate judges under this section shall be taken down by a court reporter or recorded by suitable sound recording equipment. A copy of the record of such proceeding shall be made available at the expense of the United States to a person who makes affidavit that he is unable to pay or give security therefor, and the expense of such copy shall be paid by the Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts.

(June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 819; Pub. L. 90–578, title III, §303(a), Oct. 17, 1968, 82 Stat. 1117; Pub. L. 101–650, title III, §321, Dec. 1, 1990, 104 Stat. 5117; Pub. L. 109–162, title XI, §1179, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3126; Pub. L. 111–16, §3(9), May 7, 2009, 123 Stat. 1608.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–16 substituted "fourteenth day" for "tenth day".

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "In the absence of such consent of the accused, the judge or magistrate judge may extend the time limits only on a showing that extraordinary circumstances exist and justice requires the delay." for "In the absence of such consent of the accused, the date fixed for the preliminary hearing may be a date later than that prescribed by subsection (b), or may be continued to a date subsequent to the date initially fixed therefor, only upon the order of a judge of the appropriate United States district court after a finding that extraordinary circumstances exist, and that the delay of the preliminary hearing is indispensable to the interests of justice."

1968Pub. L. 90–578 substituted provisions of subsecs. (a) to (f) of this section detailing preliminary examination content for prior provisions which directed attention to the rule in section catchline, and directed one to see Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, including "Proceedings before commissioner, appearance, advice as to right to counsel, hearing, Rule 5.".

Change of Name

Words "magistrate judge" and "United States magistrate judges" substituted for "magistrate" and "United States magistrates", respectively, wherever appearing in text pursuant to section 321 of Pub. L. 101–650, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–16 effective Dec. 1, 2009, see section 7 of Pub. L. 111–16, set out as a note under section 109 of Title 11, Bankruptcy.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 90–578 effective Oct. 17, 1968, except when a later effective date is applicable, which is the earlier of date when implementation of amendment by appointment of magistrates [now United States magistrate judges] and assumption of office takes place or third anniversary of enactment of Pub. L. 90–578 on Oct. 17, 1968, see section 403 of Pub. L. 90–578, set out as a note under section 631 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§3061. Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel

(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, Postal Inspectors and other agents of the United States Postal Service designated by the Board of Governors to investigate criminal matters related to the Postal Service and the mails may—

(1) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States;

(2) make arrests without warrant for offenses against the United States committed in their presence;

(3) make arrests without warrant for felonies cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony;

(4) carry firearms; and

(5) make seizures of property as provided by law.


(b) The powers granted by subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised only—

(1) in the enforcement of laws regarding property in the custody of the Postal Service, property of the Postal Service, the use of the mails, and other postal offenses; and

(2) to the extent authorized by the Attorney General pursuant to agreement between the Attorney General and the Postal Service, in the enforcement of other laws of the United States, if the Attorney General determines that violations of such laws have a detrimental effect upon the operations of the Postal Service.


(c)(1) The Postal Service may employ police officers for duty in connection with the protection of property owned or occupied by the Postal Service or under the charge and control of the Postal Service, and persons on that property, including duty in areas outside the property to the extent necessary to protect the property and persons on the property.

(2) With respect to such property, such officers shall have the power to—

(A) enforce Federal laws and regulations for the protection of persons and property;

(B) carry firearms; and

(C) make arrests without a warrant for any offense against the Unites 1 States committed in the presence of the officer or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing a felony.


(3) With respect to such property, such officers may have, to such extent as the Postal Service may by regulations prescribe, the power to—

(A) serve warrants and subpoenas issued under the authority of the United States; and

(B) conduct investigations, on and off the property in question, of offenses that may have been committed against property owned or occupied by the Postal Service or persons on the property.


(4)(A) As to such property, the Postmaster General may prescribe regulations necessary for the protection and administration of property owned or occupied by the Postal Service and persons on the property. The regulations may include reasonable penalties, within the limits prescribed in subparagraph (B), for violations of the regulations. The regulations shall be posted and remain posted in a conspicuous place on the property.

(B) A person violating a regulation prescribed under this subsection shall be fined under this title, imprisoned for not more than 30 days, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 90–560, §5(a), Oct. 12, 1968, 82 Stat. 998; amended Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A), Aug. 12, 1970, 84 Stat. 781; Pub. L. 100–690, title VI, §6251(a), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4362; Pub. L. 109–435, title X, §1001, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 3254.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–435 added subsec. (c).

1988Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "Investigative powers of Postal Service personnel" for "Powers of postal personnel" in section catchline, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) Subject to subsection (b) of this section, officers and employees of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters may, to the extent authorized by the Board of Governors—

"(1) serve warrants and subpenas issued under the authority of the United States;

"(2) make arrests without warrant for offenses against the United States committed in their presence; and

"(3) make arrests without warrant for felonies cognizable under the laws of the United States if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony.

"(b) The powers granted by subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised only in the enforcement of laws regarding property of the United States in the custody of the Postal Service, including property of the Postal Service, the use of the mails, and other postal offenses."

1970Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A)(i), substituted "postal personnel" for "postal inspectors" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A)(ii), substituted "officers and employees of the Postal Service performing duties related to the inspection of postal matters may, to the extent authorized by the Board of Governors—" for "postal inspectors may, to the extent authorized by the Postmaster General—".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–375, §6(j)(38)(A)(iii), substituted "Postal Service, including property of the Postal Service," for "postal service".

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–375 effective within 1 year after Aug. 12, 1970, on date established therefor by the Board of Governors of the United States Postal Service and published by it in the Federal Register, see section 15(a) of Pub. L. 91–375, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 101 of Title 39, Postal Service.

1 So in original. Probably should be "United".

§3062. General arrest authority for violation of release conditions

A law enforcement officer, who is authorized to arrest for an offense committed in his presence, may arrest a person who is released pursuant to chapter 207 if the officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person is violating, in his presence, a condition imposed on the person pursuant to section 3142(c)(1)(B)(iv), (v), (viii), (ix), or (xiii), or, if the violation involves a failure to remain in a specified institution as required, a condition imposed pursuant to section 3142(c)(1)(B)(x).

(Added Pub. L. 98–473, title II, §204(d), Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1986; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title VII, §7052, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4401.)

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 substituted "section 3142(c)(1)(B)(iv), (v), (viii), (ix), or (xiii)" for "section 3142(c)(2)(D), (c)(2)(E), (c)(2)(H), (c)(2)(I), or (c)(2)(M)" and "section 3142(c)(1)(B)(x)" for "section 3142(c)(2)(J)".

§3063. Powers of Environmental Protection Agency

(a) Upon designation by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, any law enforcement officer of the Environmental Protection Agency with responsibility for the investigation of criminal violations of a law administered by the Environmental Protection Agency, may—

(1) carry firearms;

(2) execute and serve any warrant or other processes issued under the authority of the United States; and

(3) make arrests without warrant for—

(A) any offense against the United States committed in such officer's presence; or

(B) any felony offense against the United States if such officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing that felony offense.


(b) The powers granted under subsection (a) of this section shall be exercised in accordance with guidelines approved by the Attorney General.

(Added Pub. L. 100–582, §4(a), Nov. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2958.)

§3064. Powers of Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

Authorized employees of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration may direct a driver of a commercial motor vehicle (as defined in section 31132 of title 49) to stop for inspection of the vehicle, driver, cargo, and required records at or in the vicinity of an inspection site.

(Added Pub. L. 109–59, title IV, §4143(b), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1748.)