[USC02] 12 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER V: MISCELLANEOUS
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12 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER V: MISCELLANEOUS
From Title 12—BANKS AND BANKINGCHAPTER 13—NATIONAL HOUSING

SUBCHAPTER V—MISCELLANEOUS

§1731. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, eff. Sept. 1, 1948

Section, acts June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §512, 48 Stat. 1265; Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §§9, 10, 52 Stat. 24, 25; June 28, 1941, ch. 261, §10, 55 Stat. 365, related to penalties. See sections 493, 657, 709, 1006, and 1008 to 1010 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§1731a. Penalties

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary is authorized to refuse the benefits of participation (either directly as an insured lender or as a borrower, or indirectly as a builder, contractor, or dealer, or salesman or sales agent for a builder, contractor or dealer) under subchapter I, II, VI, VII, VIII, IX–B, or X of this chapter to any person or firm (including but not limited to any individual, partnership, association, trust, or corporation) if the Secretary has determined that such person or firm (1) has knowingly or willfully violated any provision of this chapter or of title III of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended, or of chapter 37 of title 38, or of any regulation issued by the Secretary under this chapter or by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs under said title III, or chapter 37, or (2) has, in connection with any construction, alteration, repair or improvement work financed with assistance under this chapter or under said title III, or chapter 37, or in connection with contracts or financing relating to such work, violated any Federal or State penal statute, or (3) has failed materially to properly carry out contractual obligations with respect to the completion of construction, alteration, repair, or improvement work financed with assistance under this chapter or under title III of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended, or of chapter 37 of title 38. Before any such determination is made any person or firm with respect to whom such a determination is proposed shall be notified in writing by the Secretary and shall be entitled, upon making a written request to the Secretary, to a written notice specifying charges in reasonable detail and an opportunity to be heard and to be represented by counsel. Determinations made by the Secretary under this section shall be based on the preponderance of the evidence. For the purposes of compliance with this section the Secretary's notice of a proposed determination under this section shall be considered to have been received by the interested person or firm if the notice is properly mailed to the last known address of such person or firm.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §512, as added Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §132, 68 Stat. 610; amended Pub. L. 85–857, §13(h), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1265; Pub. L. 86–372, title I, §119, Sept. 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 665; Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1020(e), Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1296; Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), (4), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(17), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §133(d)(3), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(d)(2)(B), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 274.)

References in Text

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, as amended, referred to in text, is act June 22, 1944, ch. 268, 58 Stat. 284, as amended. Title III of the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 was classified generally to subchapter II (§694 et seq.) of chapter 11C of former Title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief, and was repealed by section 14(87) of Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1273, the first section of which reenacted title III of such Act as chapter 37 (§1801 [now 3701] et seq.) of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 512 of act of June 27, 1934, related to offenses and penalties, and was classified to section 1731 of this title, prior to repeal by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862, eff. Sept. 1, 1948. See note under section 1731.

Amendments

1991Pub. L. 102–54 substituted "Secretary of Veterans Affairs" for "Administrator of Veterans' Affairs".

1989Pub. L. 101–235 struck out reference to subchapter IX–A after reference to subchapter VIII.

1984Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "Penalties" for "Denial of benefits in cases of abuses; determination by Secretary; notice and hearing" in section catchline.

1967Pub. L. 90–16 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing, and "Secretary's" for "Commissioner's".

1966Pub. L. 89–754 inserted references to subchapters IX–A and IX–B of this chapter.

1959Pub. L. 86–372 provided that for purposes of compliance with this section the Commissioner's notice of a proposed determination under this section shall be considered to have been received by the interested person or firm if the notice is properly mailed to the last known address of such person or firm.

1958Pub. L. 85–857 inserted references to chapter 37 of title 38.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–857 effective Jan. 1, 1959, see section 2 of Pub. L. 85–857, set out as an Effective Date note preceding part I of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

§1731b. Prohibition against transient housing

(a) Intent of Congress

The Congress declares that it has been its intent since the enactment of this chapter that housing built with the aid of mortgages insured under this chapter is to be used principally for residential use; and that this intent excludes the use of such housing for transient or hotel purposes while such insurance on the mortgage remains outstanding.

(b) Exceptions to prohibition

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, no new, existing, or rehabilitated multifamily housing with respect to which a mortgage is insured under this chapter shall be operated for transient or hotel purposes unless (1) on or before May 28, 1954, the Secretary has agreed in writing to the rental of all or a portion of the accommodations in the project for transient or hotel purposes (in which case no accommodations in excess of the number so agreed to by the Secretary shall be rented on such basis), or (2) the project covered by the insured mortgage is located in an area which the Secretary determines to be a resort area, and the Secretary finds that prior to May 28, 1954, a portion of the accommodations in the project had been made available for rent for transient or hotel purposes (in which case no accommodations in excess of the number which had been made available for such use shall be rented on such basis).

(c) Certification as to use as requisite for insurance; exceptions to prohibition against insuring

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter, no mortgage with respect to multifamily housing shall be insured under this chapter (except pursuant to a commitment to insure issued prior to August 2, 1954), and (except as to housing coming within the provisions of clause (1) or clause (2) of subsection (b)) no mortgage with respect to multifamily housing shall be insured for an additional term, unless (1) the mortgagor certifies under oath that while such insurance remains outstanding he will not rent, or permit the rental of, such housing or any part thereof for transient or hotel purposes, and (2) the Secretary has entered into such contract with, or purchased such stock of, the mortgagor as the Secretary deems necessary to enable him to prevent or terminate any use of such property or project for transient or hotel purposes while the mortgage insurance remains outstanding.

(d) Enforcement by Secretary

The Secretary is authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this section by all appropriate means at his disposal, as to all existing multifamily housing with respect to which a mortgage was insured under this chapter prior to August 2, 1954, as well as to all multifamily housing with respect to which a mortgage is hereafter insured under this chapter: Provided, That no criminal penalty shall, by reason of enactment of this section, be applicable to the rental or operation of any such existing multifamily housing in violation of any provision of subsection (b) of this section at any time prior to August 2, 1954.

(e) Definitions

As used in this section, (1) the term "rental for transient or hotel purposes" shall have such meaning as prescribed by the Secretary but rental for any period less than thirty days shall in any event constitute rental for such purposes, and (2) the term "multifamily housing" shall mean (i) a property held by a mortgagor upon which there are located five or more single family dwellings, or upon which there is located a two-, three-, or four-family dwelling, or (ii) a property or project covered by mortgage insured or to be insured under section 1713 of this title, under section 1715e of this title with respect to any property or project of a corporation or trust of the character described in paragraph (1) of subsection (a) thereof, under section 1715k of this title if the mortgage is within the provisions of paragraph (3) (B) of subsection (d) thereof, under section 1715l of this title if the mortgage is within the provisions of paragraph (3) of subsection (d) thereof, under section 1743, 1748b, or 1750g of this title, or (iii) a project with respect to which an insurance contract pursuant to subchapter VII is outstanding.

(f) Investigation after notice of violation; cease order

Promptly after receipt of written notice that any portion of any building is being rented or operated in violation of any provision of this section or of any rule or regulation lawfully issued thereunder, the Secretary shall investigate the existence of the facts alleged in the written notice and shall order such violation, if found to exist, to cease forthwith.

(g) Prosecution by Attorney General for continued violation

If such violation does not cease in accordance with such order, the Secretary shall forward the complaint to the Attorney General of the United States for prosecution of such civil or criminal action, if any, which the Attorney General may find to be involved in such violation.

(h) Judicial procedure for injunction or other order

Whenever he finds a violation of any provision of this section has occurred or is about to occur, the Attorney General shall petition the district court of the United States or the district court of any Territory or other place subject to United States jurisdiction within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing the acts or practices constituting the alleged violation of this section shall be found, for an order enjoining such acts or practices, and upon a showing by the Attorney General that such acts or practices constituting such violation have been engaged in or are about to be engaged in, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order, with or without such injunction or restraining order, shall be granted without bond.

(i) Injunctive relief for hotel owners

Any person owning or operating a hotel within a radius of fifty miles of a place where a violation of any provision of this section has occurred or is about to occur, or any group or association of hotel owners or operators within said fifty-mile radius, at his or their sole charge or cost, may petition any district court of the United States or the district court or any Territory or other place subject to United States jurisdiction within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing the acts or practices constituting the alleged violation of this section shall be found, for an order enjoining such acts or practices, and, upon a showing that such acts or practices constituting such violation have been engaged in or are about to be engaged in, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order, with or without such injunction or restraining order, shall be granted.

(j) Jurisdiction of district courts

The several district courts of the United States and the several district courts of the Territories of the United States or other place subject to United States jurisdiction, within whose jurisdictional limits the person doing or committing the acts or practices constituting the alleged violation shall be found, shall, wheresoever such acts or practices may have been done or committed, have full power and jurisdiction to hear, try, and determine such matter under subsections (h) and (i) of this section.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §513, as added Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title I, §132, 68 Stat. 610; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(18), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 513 of act June 27, 1934, was renumbered section 513A of act June 27, 1934, and is classified to section 1732 of this title.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "Prohibition against transient housing" for "Prohibition against use of insured multifamily housing for transient or hotel purposes" in section catchline.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing in subsecs. (b) to (d), (e)(1), (f), and (g).

§1732. Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application thereof to any person or circumstances, is held invalid, the remainder of the chapter, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §513A, formerly §513, 48 Stat. 1265; renumbered Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(19), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232.)

References in Other Laws

Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(19), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232, provided in part that: "Any reference in any law, regulation, order, document, record, or other paper of the United States to the section redesignated in this paragraph [this section] hereby is deemed to refer to section 513A of the National Housing Act [this section]."

§1733. Application of other laws

The provisions of section 1430(a)(1) 1 and 1430b of this title; the seventh paragraph of section 24 of this title; section 371 of this title; subsection (n) of section 77B of the Bankruptcy Act, as amended (49 Stat. 664); section 606i of title 15, continuing and extending the functions of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation; and all other provisions of law establishing rights under mortgages insured in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, shall be held to apply to such chapter, as amended.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §514, as added Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §11, 52 Stat. 26.)

References in Text

Section 1430(a) of this title, referred to in text, was amended by Pub. L. 106–102, title VI, §604(a), Nov. 12, 1999, 113 Stat. 1451, and, as so amended, the provisions formerly appearing in section 1430(a)(1) now appear in section 1430(a)(3)(A).

Section 77B of the Bankruptcy Act, referred to in text, was classified to section 207 of former Title 11, Bankruptcy. The Bankruptcy Act (act July 1, 1898, ch. 541, 30 Stat. 544, as amended), which was classified generally to former Title 11, was repealed effective Oct. 1, 1979, by Pub. L. 95–598, §§401(a), 402(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2682, section 101 of which enacted Revised Title 11. See table preceding section 101 of Revised Title 11.

Section 606i of title 15, referred to in text, was omitted from the Code. See note under section 606i of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Abolition of Reconstruction Finance Corporation

See section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, effective June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1734. Amendment, extension, or increase of commitment amounts

At any time prior to final endorsement for insurance, the Secretary, in his discretion, may amend, extend, or increase the amount of any commitment, provided the mortgage, as finally endorsed for insurance is eligible for insurance under the provisions of this chapter and the rules and regulations thereunder, in effect at the time the original commitment to insure was issued.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §515 as added Oct. 25, 1949, ch. 729, §3, 63 Stat. 906; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(20), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232.)

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–479 struck out "; mortgage conditions" after "amounts" in section catchline.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner".

§1735. Payment of certain funds to Treasury

The following funds shall be deemed an indebtedness to the United States of the particular insurance fund involved, and the Secretary is authorized and directed to pay the amount of such indebtedness to the Secretary of the Treasury, with simple interest thereon from the date the funds were advanced to the date of final payment at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average rate on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States from the date the funds were advanced until the date of final payment—

(1) funds made available to the Secretary pursuant to the provisions of sections 1705 and 1708 of this title, exclusive of amounts heretofore refunded, (a) for carrying out this subchapter and section 484d of title 48 with respect to mortgages insured under section 1709 of this title where such funds were credited to the general reinsurance account in the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, and (b) for the payment of salaries and expenses with respect to mortgage insurance under sections 1713 and 1715a of this title where such funds were credited to the Housing Insurance Fund;

(2) funds made available to the Secretary pursuant to sections 1737 and 1748a 1 of this title; and

(3) funds made available to the Secretary by the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to section 1747i 1 of this title.


Payments to the Secretary of the Treasury under this section shall be made in such amounts and at such times as the Secretary determines, after consultations with the Secretary of the Treasury, that funds are available for that purpose, taking into consideration the continued solvency of the funds involved. All payments made pursuant to this section shall be covered into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §516, as added June 30, 1953, ch. 170, §9, 67 Stat. 123; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(21), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2232.)

References in Text

Section 1715a of this title, referred to in par. (1), in the original was a reference to section 210 of the National Housing Act (June 27, 1934, ch. 847, §210, as added Feb. 3, 1938, ch. 13, §3, 52 Stat. 22), which was repealed by act June 3, 1939, ch. 175, §13, 53 Stat. 807. See note set out under section 1715a.

Section 484d of title 48, referred to in text, which authorized the Federal Housing Commissioner to prescribe a higher maximum for the principal obligation of mortgages, was omitted from the Code.

Sections 1737, 1747i, and 1748a of this title, referred to in text, were repealed by Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §1108(aa), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 507.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–479 inserted "Payment of certain funds to Treasury" as section catchline.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735a. Prepayment of mortgages by nonprofit educational institutions; refunds

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no adjusted premium charge shall be collected in connection with the payment in full, prior to maturity, of any mortgage insured under this chapter, if the mortgagor certifies to the Secretary that the loan was paid in full by or on behalf of a nonprofit educational institution which intends to use the property for educational purposes.

(b) The Secretary shall refund any adjusted premium charge collected subsequent to July 1, 1962, and prior to September 2, 1964, in connection with the payment in full, prior to maturity, of any mortgage insured under this chapter, if the mortgagor under such mortgage makes the certification prescribed by subsection (a).

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §517, as added Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §120, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 782; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17.)

Amendments

1967—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

§1735b. Expenditures to correct or reimburse for structural or other major defects in mortgaged homes

(a) Prior to beginning of construction

(1) The Secretary is authorized to make expenditures under this subsection with respect to any property that—

(A) is a condominium unit (including common areas) or is improved by a one-to-four family dwelling;

(B) was approved, before the beginning of construction, for mortgage insurance under this chapter or for guaranty, insurance, or direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 or was less than a year old at the time of insurance of the mortgage and was covered by a consumer protection or warranty plan acceptable to the Secretary; and

(C) the Secretary finds to have structural defects.


(2) Expenditures under this subsection may be made for (A) correcting such defects, (B) paying the claims of the owner of the property arising from such defects, or (C) acquiring title to the property: Provided, That such authority of the Secretary shall exist only (A) if the owner has requested assistance from the Secretary not later than four years (or such shorter time as the Secretary may prescribe) after insurance of the mortgage, and (B) if the property is encumbered by a mortgage which is insured under this chapter after September 2, 1964.

(b) Mortgages insured on or after August 1, 1968, but prior to January 1, 1973; requirements; reimbursement from seller; insurance fund chargeable

The Secretary is authorized to make expenditures to correct, or to reimburse the owner for the correction of, structural or other major defects which so seriously affect use and livability as to create a serious danger to the life or safety of inhabitants of any one, two, three, or four family dwelling which is covered by a mortgage insured under section 1715z of this title or which is located in an older, declining urban area and is covered by a mortgage insured under section 1709 or 1715l of this title on or after August 1, 1968, but prior to January 1, 1973, and which is more than one year old on the date of the issuance of the insurance commitment, if (1) the owner requests assistance from the Secretary not later than one year after the insurance of the mortgage, or, in the case of a dwelling covered by a mortgage insured under section 1709 or 1715l of this title the insurance commitment for which was issued on or after August 1, 1968, but prior to January 1, 1973, not more than four months after August 3, 1976, and (2) the defect is one that existed on the date of the issuance of the insurance commitment and is one that a proper inspection could reasonably be expected to disclose. The Secretary may require from the seller of any such dwelling an agreement to reimburse him for any payments made pursuant to this subsection with respect to such dwelling. Expenditures pursuant to this subsection shall be made from the insurance fund chargeable for insurance benefits on the mortgage covering the structure to which the expenditures relate. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to cover the costs of such expenditures not otherwise provided for.

(c) Regulations; finality of decision

The Secretary shall by regulations prescribe the terms and conditions under which expenditures and payments may be made under the provisions of this section, and his decisions regarding such expenditures or payments, and the terms and conditions under which the same are approved or disapproved, shall be final and conclusive and shall not be subject to judicial review.

(d) Mortgages insured on or after January 1, 1973, but prior to August 1, 1976; requirements; reimbursement from seller; insurance fund chargeable

The Secretary is authorized to make expenditures to correct or to reimburse the owner for the correction of structural or other major defects which so seriously affect use and liveability as to create a serious danger to the life or safety of inhabitants of any one-, two-, three-, or four-family dwelling which is more than one year old on the date of issuance of the insurance commitment, is located in an older, declining urban area, and is covered by a mortgage insured under section 1709 or 1715l of this title on or after January 1, 1973, but prior to August 3, 1976, if (1) the owner requests assistance from the Secretary not more than one year after August 3, 1976, and (2) the defect is one that existed on the date of the issuance of the insurance commitment and is one that a proper inspection could reasonably have been expected to have disclosed. The Secretary may require from the seller of any such dwelling an agreement to reimburse him for any payments made pursuant to this subsection with respect to such dwelling. Expenditures pursuant to this subsection shall be made from the insurance fund chargeable for insurance benefits on the mortgage covering the structure to which the expenditures relate. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to cover the costs of such expenditures not otherwise provided for.

(e) Report to Congress on effective program for protecting home buyers

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized and directed to conduct a full and complete investigation and study and report to Congress, with recommendations, not later than March 1, 1977, with respect to an effective program for protecting home buyers from hidden or undisclosed defects seriously affecting the use and livability of the home, which would be applicable to existing homes financed with mortgages insured under this chapter. In the study and report the Secretary shall particularly investigate the need for, cost and feasible structure of, a national home inspection and warranty program, with respect to such homes, to be operated by the Federal Government out of fees assessed on the home buyer and amortized over a period of two years. The Secretary's report shall also present an analysis of alternative Federal programs to meet these needs, and the cost and means of financing such programs. In the report the Secretary shall also outline administrative steps which can be taken to provide disclosure to purchasers of existing homes financed with mortgages insured under this chapter of the actual condition of the home and the types of repairs or replacements likely to be needed within a period of two years, such as repairs or replacement of furnace, roof or major appliances, based on age and useful life expectancy of such appurtenances.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §518, as added Pub. L. 88–560, title I, §121, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 783; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 91–609, title I, §104, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1771; Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §306, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 678; Pub. L. 94–50, title III, §302, July 2, 1975, 89 Stat. 256; Pub. L. 94–375, §9, Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1072; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §427], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1218; Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §515, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3789.)

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–550 substituted par. (1) and "(2) Expenditures under this subsection may be made for" for "The Secretary is authorized, with respect to any property improved by a one- to four-family dwelling that, before the beginning of construction, was approved for mortgage insurance under this chapter or for guaranty, insurance, or a direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 and that the Secretary finds to have structural defects, to make expenditures for" and redesignated former cls. (1) to (3) appearing before proviso as cls. (A) to (C), respectively, of par. (2).

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–181 substituted "that, before the beginning of construction, was approved for mortgage insurance under this chapter or for guaranty, insurance, or a direct loan under chapter 37 of title 38 and that the Secretary finds" for "approved for mortgage insurance prior to the beginning of construction which he finds".

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–375, §9(a), substituted "not more than four months after August 3, 1976" for "not more than 19 months after August 22, 1974", and provision requiring expenditures be made from the insurance fund chargeable for insurance benefits on the mortgage covering the structure and appropriating sums for expenditures not otherwise covered for provision requiring expenditures be made from the Special Risk Insurance Fund.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 94–375, §9(b), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1975—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–50 substituted "one, two, three, or four" for "one or two", and "not more than 19 months" for "not more than one year".

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–383 substituted provisions relating to authorization of the Secretary to make expenditures to correct, or to reimburse the owner for the correction of structural or other major defects of covered one or two family dwellings, for provisions relating to the authorization of the Secretary to make expenditures to correct, or to compensate the owner for, structural or other defects of covered single-family dwellings.

1970—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 91–609 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1967—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

§1735c. General Insurance Fund

(a) Establishment; purpose; mortgages or loans insurable; transfers to

There is hereby created a General Insurance Fund which shall be used by the Secretary, on and after August 10, 1965, as a revolving fund for carrying out all the insurance provisions of this chapter with the exception of those specified in subsection (e). All mortgages or loans insured under this chapter pursuant to commitments issued on or after August 10, 1965, except those specified in subsection (e), and all loans reported for insurance under section 1703 of this title on or after August 10, 1965, shall be insured under the General Insurance Fund. The Secretary shall transfer to the General Insurance Fund—

(1) the assets and liabilities of all insurance accounts and funds, except the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund, existing under this chapter immediately prior to August 10, 1965;

(2) all outstanding commitments for insurance issued prior to August 10, 1965, except those specified in subsection (e);

(3) the insurance on all mortgages and loans insured prior to August 10, 1965, except insurance specified in subsection (e); and

(4) the insurance of all loans made by approved financial institutions pursuant to section 1703 of this title prior to August 10, 1965.

(b) Expenses chargeable to Fund

The general expenses of the operations of the Department of Housing and Urban Development relating to mortgages and loans which are the obligation of the General Insurance Fund may be charged to the General Insurance Fund.

(c) Deposit or investment of moneys; purchase of debentures

Moneys in the General Insurance Fund not needed for the current operations of the Department of Housing and Urban Development with respect to mortgages and loans which are the obligation of the General Insurance Fund shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of such Fund, or invested in bonds or other obligations of, or in bonds or other obligations guaranteed as to principal and interest by, the United States or any agency of the United States: Provided, That such moneys shall to the maximum extent feasible be invested in such bonds or other obligations the proceeds of which will be used to directly support the residential mortgage market. The Secretary may, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, purchase in the open market debentures issued as obligations of the General Insurance Fund or issued prior to August 10, 1965, under other provisions of this chapter, except debentures issued under the Mutual Mortgage Insurance Fund. Such purchases shall be made at a price which will provide an investment yield of not less than the yield obtainable from other investments authorized by this section. Debentures so purchased shall be canceled and not reissued.

(d) Credits and charges to Fund

Premium charges, adjusted premium charges, and appraisal and other fees received on account of the insurance of any mortgage or loan which is the obligation of the General Insurance Fund, the receipts derived from the property covered by such mortgages and loans and from the claims, debts, contracts, property, and security assigned to the Secretary in connection therewith, and all earnings on the assets of the Fund shall be credited to the General Insurance Fund. The principal of, and interest paid and to be paid on, debentures which are the obligation of such Fund, cash insurance payments and adjustments, and expenses incurred in the handling, management, renovation, and disposal of properties acquired, in connection with mortgages and loans which are the obligation of such Fund, shall be charged to such Fund.

(e) Restrictions on use of Fund

The General Insurance Fund shall not be used for carrying out the provisions of section 1709 of this title, except as determined by the Secretary, or the provisions of section 1715e of this title to the extent that they involve mortgages the insurance for which is the obligation of the Cooperative Management Housing Insurance Fund created by section 1715e(k) of this title, or the provisions of sections 1715n(e), 1715x(a)(2), 1715z, 1715z–1 and 1715z–2 1 of this title; and nothing in this section shall apply to or affect any mortgages, loans, commitments, or insurance under such provisions.

(f) Risk assessment

The Secretary shall undertake an annual assessment of the risks associated with each of the insurance programs comprising the General Insurance Fund, and shall present findings from such review to the Congress in the FHA Annual Management Report.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §519, as added Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §214, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 471; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(1), (3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 90–448, title I, §104(c), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 488; Pub. L. 91–609, title I, §117(e), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1775; Pub. L. 94–375, §10, Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1073; Pub. L. 95–24, title I, §102, Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 95–557, title III, §310, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2098; Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §305, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1112; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §305, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1639; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §334, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 414; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §403], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1208; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §185(c)(2), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3748; Pub. L. 103–233, title I, §§103(g)(2), 105(b), Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 362, 363; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2118(c)(2), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.)

References in Text

Section 1715z–2 of this title, referred to in subsec. (e), was repealed by Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title I, §2120(a)(6), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2835.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–289 substituted "1709 of this title, except as determined by the Secretary" for "1709(b) (except as provided in section 1709(v)), (h), and (i) of this title".

1994—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–233, §105(b), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and struck out former subsec. (f) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to cover losses sustained by the General Insurance Fund."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–233, §105(b)(2), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f).

Pub. L. 103–233, §103(g)(2), added subsec. (g).

1992—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–550 inserted "(except as provided in section 1709(v))" after "1709(b)".

1983—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–181 inserted "such sums as may be necessary" after "appropriated", and struck out "not to exceed $1,738,000,000, which amount shall be increased by $126,673,000 on October 1, 1981" after "Insurance Fund".

1981—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–35 inserted provision increasing authorization on Oct. 1, 1981.

1980—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–399 substituted "$1,738,000,000" for "$1,341,000,000, which amount shall be increased by $165,000,000 on October 1, 1978, which shall be increased by not to exceed $93,000,000 on October 1, 1979".

1979—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–153 provided for an increase of $93,000,000 on October 1, 1979.

1978—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–557 inserted "which amount shall be increased by $165,000,000 on October 1, 1978".

1977—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–24 substituted "$1,341,000,000" for "$500,000,000".

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–375 added subsec. (f).

1970—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–609 provided for guarantee as to principal and interest by any agency of the United States and for investment of moneys in bonds or other obligations the proceeds of which will be used to directly support the residential mortgage market.

1968—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–448 prohibited use of Fund for carrying out provisions of sections 1715n(e), 1715x(a)(2), 1715z, 1715z–1 and 1715z–2 of this title.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Department of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Administration" wherever appearing in subsecs. (b) and (c) of this section and "Secretary" for "Commissioner" in subsecs. (a), (c), and (d) of this section, respectively.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735d. Payment of insurance benefits in cash or debentures; borrowing money from Treasury to make payments

(a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter with respect to the payment of insurance benefits, the Secretary is authorized, in his discretion, to pay in cash or in debentures any insurance claim or part thereof which is paid on or after August 10, 1965, on a mortgage or a loan which was insured under any section of this chapter either before or after such date. If payment is made in cash, it shall be in an amount equivalent to the face amount of the debentures that would otherwise be issued plus an amount equivalent to the interest which the debentures would have earned, computed to a date to be established pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary.

(b) The Secretary is authorized to borrow from the Treasury from time to time such amounts as the Secretary shall determine are necessary (1) to make payments in cash (in lieu of issuing debentures guaranteed by the United States, as provided in this chapter) pursuant to the provisions of this section, and (2) to make payments for reinsured and directly insured losses under subchapter IX–C 1 of this chapter: Provided, however, That borrowings to make payments for reinsured and directly insured losses under subchapter IX–C 1 shall be limited to $250,000,000 or such further sum as the Congress, by joint resolution, may from time to time determine. Notes or other obligations issued by the Secretary in borrowing under this subsection shall be subject to such terms and conditions as the secretary of the Treasury may prescribe. Each sum borrowed pursuant to this subsection shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the issuance of such notes or other obligations.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §520, as added Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §215, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 472; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 90–448, title XI, §1104, Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 566; Pub. L. 91–609, title VI, §604, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1791.)

References in Text

Subchapter IX–C of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was classified to section 1749bbb et seq. of this title and was omitted from the Code.

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–609 provided for making payments for directly insured losses and made limitation provision applicable to such payments.

1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–448 empowered the Secretary to borrow to make payments for reinsured losses under subchapter IX–C of this chapter, and limited such borrowing to $250,000,000 or such further sum as Congress may determine.

1967—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735e. Acceptance of materials or products used in structures

The Secretary shall adopt a uniform procedure for the acceptance of materials and products to be used in structures approved for mortgages or loans insured under this chapter. Under such procedure any material or product which the Secretary finds is technically suitable for the use proposed shall be accepted. Acceptance of a material or product as technically suitable shall not be deemed to restrict the discretion of the Secretary to determine that a structure, with respect to which a mortgage is executed, is economically sound or an acceptable risk.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §521, as added Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §216, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 473; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17.)

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner" wherever appearing.

§1735e–1. Use of American materials and products

In the administration of housing assistance programs, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall encourage the use of materials and products mined and produced in the United States.

(Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §571, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1950.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987, and not as part of the National Housing Act which comprises this chapter.

§1735f. Water and sewerage facilities

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no mortgage which covers new construction shall be approved for insurance under this chapter (except pursuant to a commitment made prior to August 10, 1965) if the mortgaged property includes housing which is not served by a public or adequate community water and sewerage system: Provided, That this limitation shall be applicable only to property which is not served by a system approved by the Secretary pursuant to subchapter IX–A of this chapter, as such subchapter existed immediately before December 15, 1989, and which is situated in an area certified by appropriate local officials to be an area where the establishment of public or adequate community water and sewerage systems is economically feasible: Provided further, That for purposes of this section the economic feasibility of establishing such public or adequate community water and sewerage systems shall be determined without regard to whether such establishment is authorized by law or is subject to approval by one or more local governments or public bodies.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §522, as added Pub. L. 89–117, title II, §217(a), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 473; amended Pub. L. 90–19, §1(a)(3), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 17; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §133(d)(4), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027.)

References in Text

Subchapter IX–A of this chapter, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §133(a), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027.

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–235 inserted ", as such subchapter existed immediately before December 15, 1989," after "subchapter IX–A of this chapter".

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary" for "Commissioner".

§1735f–1. Waiver of deduction on assignment of property to Secretary in lieu of foreclosure

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, from and after November 3, 1966, the Secretary, under such terms and conditions as he may approve, may waive all or a part of the 1 per centum deduction otherwise made from insurance benefits with respect to multifamily housing or land development mortgages assigned to him, where the assignment is made at his request in lieu of foreclosure of the mortgage.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §523, as added Pub. L. 89–754, title III, §312, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1271.)

§1735f–2. Uniform rehabilitation standards for housing within and without urban renewal areas

In determining whether properties should be approved by the Secretary prior to rehabilitation and covered by mortgages insured under subchapter II of this chapter, the Secretary shall apply uniform property standards as between properties located outside urban renewal areas and those located within urban renewal areas.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §524, as added Pub. L. 91–609, title I, §116, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1774.)

§1735f–3. Insurance of mortgage proceeds advanced during construction or rehabilitation or prior to final endorsement of project mortgage

The Secretary is authorized to insure mortgage proceeds advanced during construction or rehabilitation or otherwise prior to final endorsement of a project mortgage for the purpose of (1) financing improvements to the property and the purchase of materials and building components delivered to the property, and (2) providing funds to cover the cost of building components where such components have been assembled and specifically identified for incorporation into the property but are located at a site other than the mortgaged property, with such security as the Secretary may require.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §525, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §301, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 676.)

§1735f–4. Minimum property standards

(a) To the maximum extent feasible, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall promote the use of energy saving techniques through minimum property standards established by him for newly constructed residential housing, other than manufactured homes, subject to mortgages insured under this chapter. Such standards shall establish energy performance requirements that will achieve a significant increase in the energy efficiency of new construction. Such requirements shall be implemented as soon as practicable after November 9, 1978. Following November 30, 1983, the energy performance requirements developed and established by the Secretary under this subsection for newly constructed residential housing, other than manufactured homes, shall be at least as effective in performance as the energy performance requirements incorporated in the minimum property standards that were in effect under this subsection on September 30, 1982.

(b) The Secretary may require that each property, other than a manufactured home, subject to a mortgage insured under this chapter shall, with respect to health and safety, comply with one of the nationally recognized model building codes, or with a State or local building code based on one of the nationally recognized model building codes or their equivalent. The Secretary shall be responsible for determining the comparability of the State and local codes to such model codes and for selecting for compliance purposes an appropriate nationally recognized model building code where no such model code has been duly adopted or where the Secretary determines the adopted code is not comparable.

(c) The Secretary may establish an exception to any minimum property standard established under this section in order to address alternative water systems, including cisterns, which meet requirements of State and local building codes that ensure health and safety standards.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §526, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title III, §305, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 678; amended Pub. L. 95–619, title II, §252(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3236; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §326(e), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1650; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §405], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1210; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, §104(a)(6), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title II, §238, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2897.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–113 added subsec. (c).

1984Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "Minimum property standards" for "Promotion of energy saving techniques by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development of insured housing" in section catchline.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–181 designated existing provision as subsec. (a), inserted ", other than manufactured homes," after "housing", inserted provision that the energy performance requirements developed for newly constructed residential housing, other than manufactured homes, be at least as effective in performance as the energy performance requirements incorporated in the minimum property standards in effect Sept. 30, 1982, and added subsec. (b).

1980Pub. L. 96–399 struck out ", until such time as the energy conservation performance standards required under the Energy Conservation Standards for New Buildings Act of 1976 become effective" in second sentence.

1978Pub. L. 95–619 inserted provision requiring that the minimum property standards established by the Secretary under this section were to contain energy performance requirements to achieve a significant increase in the energy efficiency of new construction.

§1735f–5. Prohibition against discrimination on account of sex in extension of mortgage assistance; consideration of combined income of husband and wife for purpose of extending mortgage credit; definitions

(a) No federally related mortgage loan, or Federal insurance, guaranty, or other assistance in connection therewith (under this chapter or any other Act), shall be denied to any person on account of sex; and every person engaged in making mortgage loans secured by residential real property shall consider without prejudice the combined income of both husband and wife for the purpose of extending mortgage credit in the form of a federally related mortgage loan to a married couple or either member thereof.

(b) For purposes of subsection (a), the term "federally related mortgage loan" means any loan which—

(1) is secured by residential real property designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families; and

(2)(A) is made in whole or in part by any lender the deposits or accounts of which are insured by any agency of the Federal Government, or is made in whole or in part by any lender which is itself regulated by any agency of the Federal Government; or

(B) is made in whole or in part, or insured, guaranteed, supplemented, or assisted in any way, by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or any other officer or agency of the Federal Government or under or in connection with a housing or urban development program administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or a housing or related program administered by any other such officer or agency; or

(C) is eligible for purchase by the Federal National Mortgage Association, the Government National Mortgage Association, or the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation, or from any financial institution from which it could be purchased by the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation; or

(D) is made in whole or in part by any "creditor", as defined in section 1602(f) 1 of title 15, who makes or invests in residential real estate loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §527, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title VIII, §808(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 728; amended Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §204(a)(22), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2233.)

References in Text

Section 1602(f) of title 15, referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(D), was redesignated section 1602(g) of title 15 by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1)(A), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–479 designated first par. as subsec. (a).

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735f–6. Secondary mortgages held by State or local governmental agency on insured properties

In carrying out the provisions of subchapter II of this chapter with respect to insuring mortgages secured by a one- to four-family dwelling unit, the Secretary may not deny such insurance for any such mortgage solely because the dwelling unit which secures such mortgage will be subject to a secondary mortgage or loan made or insured, or other secondary lien held, by any State or local governmental agency or instrumentality under terms and conditions approved by the Secretary.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §528, as added Pub. L. 95–557, title III, §323, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2102.)

§1735f–7. Exemption from State usury laws; applicability

(a) The provisions of the constitution of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved by lenders and the provisions of any State law expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to any loan, mortgage, or advance which is insured under subchapter I or II of this chapter.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall apply to loans, mortgages, or advances made or executed in any State until the effective date (after December 21, 1979) of a provision of law of that State limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges on any such loan, mortgage, or advance.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §529, as added Pub. L. 96–153, title III, §308, Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1113.)

Choice of Highest Applicable Interest Rate

In any case in which one or more provisions of, or amendments made by, title V of Pub. L. 96–221 [enacting sections 86a, 1730g, 1735f–7a, 1785(g), and 1831d of this title and section 687(i) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 86a, 1730g, and 1735f–7 of this title], this section, or any other provisions of law, including section 85 of this title, apply with respect to the same loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance, such loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance may be made at the highest applicable rate, see section 528 of Pub. L. 96–221, set out as a note under section 1735f–7a of this title.

State Constitutions or Laws Limiting Interest, Discount Points, or Other Charges; Exemption Until Close of March 31, 1980

Pub. L. 96–161, title I, §105, Dec. 28, 1979, 93 Stat. 1234, as amended by Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §529, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168, provided that (a)(1) the provisions of the constitution or law of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges which could be charged, taken, received, or reserved were not to apply to any loan, mortgage, or advance which was secured by a first lien on residential real property or by a first lien on stock in a residential cooperative housing corporation where the loan, mortgage, or advance was used to finance the acquisition of such stock; made after Dec. 28, 1979; and described in section 1735f–5(b) of this title, except that the limitation described in section 1735f–5(b)(1) of this title that the property must be designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families was not to apply, the requirement contained in section 1735f(5)(b)(1) of this title that the loan be secured by residential real property was not to apply to a loan secured by stock in a residential cooperative housing corporation, and for the purpose of this section, the term "lender" in section 1735f–5(b)(2)(A) of this title was also to be deemed to include any lender approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for participation in any mortgage insurance program under this chapter; (2) [Repealed by Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §529, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168, eff. at the close of Mar. 31, 1980.]; that (b) the provisions of subsection (a)(1) were to apply to loans, mortgages, and advances made in any State unless and until the State adopted a provision of law (prior to the close of March 31, 1980) limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, or other charges on any such loan, mortgage, or advance, except that at any time after Dec. 28, 1979, any State could adopt a provision of law placing limitations on discount points or such other charges on any such loan, mortgage, or advance; that (c) the Federal Home Loan Bank Board was authorized to issue rules and regulations and to publish interpretations governing the implementation of this section; that (d) the provisions of subsection (a)(1) expired at the close of March 31, 1980, except that such provisions were to continue to apply to any loan, mortgage, or advance described in subsection (a)(1) for the duration of such loan, mortgage, or advance if made prior to such expiration or if made during the two-year period beginning on Dec. 28, 1979, pursuant to a commitment issued prior to such expiration, and that (e) for the purpose of this Act [Pub. L. 96–161] and any amendment made by this Act [see Tables for classification of Pub. L. 96–161], the term "State" included the several States, Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and the Virgin Islands.

§1735f–7a. State constitution or laws limiting mortgage interest, discount points, and finance or other charges; exemption for obligations made after March 31, 1980

(a) Applicability to loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance; applicability to deposit, account, or obligation

(1) The provisions of the constitution or the laws of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest, discount points, finance charges, or other charges which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance which is—

(A) secured by a first lien on residential real property, by a first lien on all stock allocated to a dwelling unit in a residential cooperative housing corporation, or by a first lien on a residential manufactured home;

(B) made after March 31, 1980; and

(C) described in section 527(b) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1735f–5(b)), except that for the purpose of this section—

(i) the limitation described in section 527(b)(1) of such Act that the property must be designed principally for the occupancy of from one to four families shall not apply;

(ii) the requirement contained in section 527(b)(1) of such Act that the loan be secured by residential real property shall not apply to a loan secured by stock in a residential cooperative housing corporation or to a loan or credit sale secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home;

(iii) the term "federally related mortgage loan" in section 527(b) of such Act shall include a credit sale which is secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home and which otherwise meets the definitional requirements of section 527(b) of such Act, as those requirements are modified by this section;

(iv) the term "residential loans" in section 527(b)(2)(D) of such Act shall also include loans or credit sales secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home;

(v) the requirement contained in section 527(b)(2)(D) of such Act that a creditor make or invest in loans aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year shall not apply to a creditor selling residential manufactured homes financed by loans or credit sales secured by first liens on residential manufactured homes if the creditor has an arrangement to sell such loans or credit sales in whole or in part, or if such loans or credit sales are sold in whole or in part to a lender, institution, or creditor described in section 527(b) of such Act or in this section or a creditor, as defined in section 103(f) 1 of the Truth in Lending Act, as such section was in effect on the day preceding March 31, 1980, if such creditor makes or invests in residential real estate loans or loans or credit sales secured by first liens on residential manufactured homes aggregating more than $1,000,000 per year; and

(vi) the term "lender" in section 527(b)(2)(A) of such Act shall also be deemed to include any lender approved by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for participation in any mortgage insurance program under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], and any individual who finances the sale or exchange of residential real property or a residential manufactured home which such individual owns and which such individual occupies or has occupied as his principal residence.


(2) The provisions of the constitution or law of any State expressly limiting the rate or amount of interest which may be charged, taken, received, or reserved shall not apply to any deposit or account held by, or other obligation of a depository institution. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "depository institution" means—

(i) any insured bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813);

(ii) any mutual savings bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813);

(iii) any savings bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1813);

(iv) any insured credit union as defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1752);

(v) any member as defined in section 2 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (12 U.S.C. 1422); and

(vi) any insured institution as defined in section 408 1 of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1730a).

(b) Applicability to loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made in any State after April 1, 1980

(1) Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the provisions of subsection (a)(1) shall apply to any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made in any State on or after April 1, 1980.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the provisions of subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made in any State after the date (on or after April 1, 1980, and before April 1, 1983) on which such State adopts a law or certifies that the voters of such State have voted in favor of any provision, constitutional or otherwise, which states explicitly and by its terms that such State does not want the provisions of subsection (a)(1) to apply with respect to loans, mortgages, credit sales, and advances made in such State.

(3) In any case in which a State takes an action described in paragraph (2), the provisions of subsection (a)(1) shall continue to apply to—

(A) any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance which is made after the date such action was taken pursuant to a commitment therefor which was entered during the period beginning on April 1, 1980, and ending on the date on which such State takes such action; and

(B) any loan, mortgage, or advance which is a rollover of a loan, mortgage, or advance, as described in regulations of the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, which was made or committed to be made during the period beginning on April 1, 1980, and ending on the date on which such State takes any action described in paragraph (2).


(4) At any time after March 31, 1980, any State may adopt a provision of law placing limitations on discount points or such other charges on any loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance described in subsection (a)(1).

(c) Applicability to loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance secured by first lien on residential manufactured home

The provisions of subsection (a)(1) shall not apply to a loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance which is secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home unless the terms and conditions relating to such loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance comply with consumer protection provisions specified in regulations prescribed by the Federal Home Loan Bank Board. Such regulations shall—

(1) include consumer protection provisions with respect to balloon payments, prepayment penalties, late charges, and deferral fees;

(2) require a 30-day notice prior to instituting any action leading to repossession or foreclosure (except in the case of abandonment or other extreme circumstances);

(3) require that upon prepayment in full, the debtor shall be entitled to a refund of the unearned portion of the precomputed finance charge in an amount not less than the amount which would be calculated by the actuarial method, except that the debtor shall not be entitled to a refund which is less than $1; and

(4) include such other provisions as the Federal Home Loan Bank Board may prescribe after a finding that additional protections are required.

(d) Implementation of provisions applicable to residential manufactured home

The provisions of subsection (c) shall not apply to a loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance secured by a first lien on a residential manufactured home until regulations required to be issued pursuant to paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) take effect, except that the provisions of subsection (c) shall apply in the case of such a loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance made prior to the date on which such regulations take effect if the loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance includes a precomputed finance charge and does not provide that, upon prepayment in full, the refund of the unearned portion of the precomputed finance charge is in an amount not less the amount which would be calculated by the actuarial method, except that the debtor shall not be entitled to a refund which is less than $1. The Federal Home Loan Bank Board shall issue regulations pursuant to the provisions of paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) that shall take effect prospectively not less than 30 days after publication in the Federal Register and not later than 120 days from March 31, 1980.

(e) Definitions

For the purpose of this section—

(1) a "prepayment" occurs upon—

(A) the refinancing or consolidation of the indebtedness;

(B) the actual prepayment of the indebtedness by the consumer whether voluntarily or following acceleration of the payment obligation by the creditor; or

(C) the entry of a judgment for the indebtedness in favor of the creditor;


(2) the term "actuarial method" means the method of allocating payments made on a debt between the outstanding balance of the obligation and the precomputed finance charge pursuant to which a payment is applied first to the accrued precomputed finance charge and any remainder is subtracted from, or any deficiency is added to, the outstanding balance of the obligation;

(3) the term "precomputed finance charge" means interest or a time price differential within the meaning of sections 106(a)(1) and (2) of the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1605(a)(1) and (2)) as computed by an add-on or discount method; and

(4) the term "residential manufactured home" means a manufactured home as defined in section 603(6) of the National Mobile Home Construction and Safety Standards Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5402(6)] which is used as a residence.

(f) Rules, regulations, and interpretations

The Federal Home Loan Bank Board is authorized to issue rules and regulations and to publish interpretations governing the implementation of this section.

(g) Effective date

This section takes effect on April 1, 1980.

(Pub. L. 96–221, title II, §207(b)(11), title V, §501, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 144, 161; Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §§308(c)(6), 324(a), (e), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1641, 1647, 1648; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §384, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 432.)

References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). Section 408 of the National Housing Act, which was classified to section 1730a of this title, was repealed by Pub. L. 101–73, title IV, §407, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 363. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of this title and Tables.

Section 103(f) of the Truth in Lending Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C)(v), was redesignated section 103(g) of the Truth in Lending Act by Pub. L. 111–203, title X, §1100A(1)(A), July 21, 2010, 124 Stat. 2107, and is classified to section 1602(g) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980, and not as part of the National Housing Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 97–35 inserted reference to a residential manufactured home.

1980—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 96–399, §324(a), substituted "all stock allocated to a dwelling unit" for first reference to "stock" and struck out "where the loan, mortgage, or advance is used to finance the acquisition of such stock" after "housing corporation".

Subsec. (a)(1)(C)(vi). Pub. L. 96–399, §324(e), inserted reference to any person who finances the sale or exchange of residential real property which such individual owns and which such individual occupies or has occupied as his principal residence.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–221, §207(b)(11), struck out "(A)" after "(2)" and struck out subpar. (B) which provided that this paragraph shall not apply to any such deposit, account, or obligation which is payable only at an office of an insured bank, as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, located in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 96–399, §308(c)(6), substituted "manufactured" for "mobile".

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–221, title II, §207(b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 144, provided in part that the amendment made by that section is effective 6 years after Mar. 31, 1980.

Severability

Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §526, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 167, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [for classification of Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 226 of this title and Tables] or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance shall be held invalid, the remainder of this Act and the application of such provision to any person or circumstance other than that as to which it is held invalid shall not be affected thereby."

Transfer of Functions

Federal Home Loan Bank Board abolished and functions transferred, see sections 401 to 406 of Pub. L. 101–73, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Choice of Highest Applicable Interest Rate

Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §528, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168, provided that: "In any case in which one or more provisions of, or amendments made by, this title [enacting sections 86a, 1730g, 1735f–7a, and 1831d of this title, amending section 1785 of this title and section 687 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 86a, 1730g, and 1735f–7 of this title], section 529 of the National Housing Act [section 1735f–7 of this title], or any other provision of law, including section 5197 of the Revised Statutes (12 U.S.C. 85), apply with respect to the same loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance, such loan, mortgage, credit sale, or advance may be made at the highest applicable rate."

Definition of "State"

Pub. L. 96–221, title V, §527, Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 168, as amended by Pub. L. 96–221, title II, §207(b)(12), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 144, provided that: "For purposes of this title [enacting sections 86a, 1730g, 1735f–7a, and 1831d of this title, amending section 1785 of this title and section 687 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 86a, 1730g, 1735f–7, and 1735f–7a of this title] the term 'State' includes the several States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands."

[Pub. L. 96–221, title II, §207(b), Mar. 31, 1980, 94 Stat. 144, provided that the amendment of above note made by that section is effective 6 years after Mar. 31, 1980.]

[For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.]

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735f–8. Time of payment of premium charges

In carrying out the provisions of subchapters I, II, IV,1 VII, VIII, IX–B, and X pertaining to the payment of loan or mortgage insurance premium charges by a financial institution, other mortgagees, or agent thereof to the Federal Government in connection with a loan or mortgage insurance program established pursuant to any of these subchapters, the Secretary shall require that payment of such premiums be made (1) in the case of loans or mortgages respecting one- to four-family residences, promptly upon their receipt from the borrower, and (2) in any other case, promptly when due to the Secretary; except that the Secretary may approve payment of such premiums within twenty-four months of such receipt or due date, as appropriate, if the financial institution, mortgagee, or agent thereof pays interest, at a rate specified by the Secretary, to the insurance fund for the period beginning twenty days after receipt from the borrower or after the due date, as appropriate, and ending upon payment of the premiums to the Federal Government.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §530, as added Pub. L. 96–399, title III, §320, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1646; amended Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §406], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1210; Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §133(d)(5), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2027.)

References in Text

Subchapter IV of this chapter, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 101–73, title IV, §407, Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 363.

Amendments

1989Pub. L. 101–235 struck out reference to subchapter IX–A after reference to subchapter VIII.

1983Pub. L. 98–181 substituted "(1) in the case of loans or mortgages respecting one- to four-family residences, promptly upon their receipt from the borrower, and (2) in any other case, promptly when due to the Secretary" for "promptly upon their receipt from the borrower", inserted "or due date, as appropriate," after "such receipt", and inserted "or after the due date, as appropriate," before "and ending".

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735f–9. Limitation on commitments to insure loans and mortgages

(a) The authority of the Secretary to enter into commitments to insure loans and mortgages under this chapter shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are or have been provided in appropriation Acts for such fiscal year.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law and subject only to the absence of qualified requests for insurance, to the authority provided in this chapter, and to the limitation in subsection (a), the Secretary shall enter into commitments to insure mortgages under this chapter with an aggregate principal amount of $110,165,000,000 during fiscal year 1993 and $68,673,868,600 during fiscal year 1994.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §531, as added Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §335, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 414; amended Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §402], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1208; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, §104(a)(7), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 99–267, §1(h), Mar. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 73; Pub. L. 100–122, §2(c), Sept. 30, 1987, 101 Stat. 793; Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §402, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1899; Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §321, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4134; Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §501, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3778; Pub. L. 103–120, §9, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1151.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–120 substituted "$110,165,000,000" for "$65,905,824,960".

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–550 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law and subject only to the absence of qualified requests for insurance, to the authority provided in this chapter, and to the limitation in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall enter into commitments to insure mortgages under this chapter with an aggregate principal amount of $76,791,000,000 during fiscal year 1991 and $79,818,000,000 during fiscal year 1992."

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–625 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law and subject only to the absence of qualified requests for insurance, to the authority provided in this chapter, and to the limitation in subsection (a) of this section, the Secretary shall enter into commitments to insure mortgages under this chapter with an aggregate principal amount of $100,000,000,000 during fiscal year 1988, and $104,000,000,000 during fiscal year 1989."

1988Pub. L. 100–242 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1987Pub. L. 100–122 substituted "for any fiscal year" for "for fiscal year 1986".

1986Pub. L. 99–267 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law and subject only to the absence of qualified requests for insurance, to the authority provided in this chapter, and to any funding limitation approved in appropriation Acts, the Secretary shall enter into commitments during each of the fiscal years 1984 and 1985 to insure mortgages under this chapter with an aggregate principal amount of $50,900,000,000."

1984Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "this chapter" for "subchapter II of this chapter" in two places.

1983Pub. L. 98–181 substituted provision authorizing the Secretary, subject to certain qualifications, to enter into commitments during fiscal years 1984 and 1985 to insure mortgages under subchapter II of this chapter with an aggregate principal amount of $50,900,000,000 for provision which directed the Secretary, during fiscal year 1982, not to enter into commitments under this chapter to insure loans and mortgages with an aggregate principal amount in excess of $41,000,000,000.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 3701 of this title.

Authorization To Enter Into Additional Commitments To Insure Loans and Mortgages During Fiscal Year 1986

For increase in the applicable limitation on additional commitments to insure mortgages and loans to carry out this chapter during fiscal year 1986, see Pub. L. 99–349, title I, July 2, 1986, 100 Stat. 728; Pub. L. 99–345, §2, June 24, 1986, 100 Stat. 673; and Pub. L. 99–289, May 2, 1986, 100 Stat. 412, set out as notes under section 1721 of this title.

§1735f–10. Change of mortgagee status

(a) Notification

Upon the occurrence of any action described in subsection (b), an approved mortgagee shall immediately submit to the Secretary, in writing, notification of such occurrence.

(b) Actions

The actions described in this subsection are as follows:

(1) The debarment, suspension or a Limited Denial of Participation (LDP), or application of other sanctions, other exclusions, fines, or penalties applied to the mortgagee or to any officer, partner, director, principal, manager, supervisor, loan processor, loan underwriter, or loan originator of the mortgagee pursuant to applicable provisions of State or Federal law.

(2) The revocation of a State-issued mortgage loan originator license issued pursuant to the S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008 (12 U.S.C. 5101 et seq.) or any other similar declaration of ineligibility pursuant to State law.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §532, as added Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title II, §203(e), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1647.)

References in Text

The S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is title V of div. A of Pub. L. 110–289, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2810, also known as the Secure and Fair Enforcement for Mortgage Licensing Act of 2008, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§5101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5101 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1735f–10, act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §532, as added Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §339G, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 418, which related to purchaser-broker arrangement payments for insurance purposes, was repealed by section 203(e) of Pub. L. 111–22.

§1735f–11. Review of mortgagee performance and authority to terminate

(a) Periodic review of mortgagee performance

To reduce losses in connection with single family mortgage insurance programs under this chapter, at least once a year the Secretary shall review the rate of early defaults and claims for insured single family mortgages originated or underwritten by each mortgagee.

(b) Comparison with other mortgagees

For each mortgagee, the Secretary shall compare the rate of early defaults and claims for insured single family mortgage loans originated or underwritten by the mortgagee in an area with the rate of early defaults and claims for other mortgagees originating or underwriting insured single family mortgage loans in the area. For purposes of this section, the term "area" means each geographic area in which the mortgagee is authorized by the Secretary to originate insured single family mortgages.

(c) Termination of mortgagee origination approval

(1) Notwithstanding section 1708(c) of this title, the Secretary may terminate the approval of a mortgagee to originate or underwrite single family mortgages if the Secretary determines that the mortgage loans originated or underwritten by the mortgagee present an unacceptable risk to the insurance funds. The determination shall be based on the comparison required under subsection (b) and shall be made in accordance with regulations of the Secretary. The Secretary may rely on existing regulations published before this section takes effect.

(2) The Secretary shall give a mortgagee at least 60 days prior written notice of any termination under this subsection. The termination shall take effect at the end of the notice period, unless the Secretary withdraws the termination notice or extends the notice period. If requested in writing by the mortgagee within 30 days of the date of the notice, the mortgagee shall be entitled to an informal conference with the official authorized to issue termination notices on behalf of the Secretary (or a designee of that official). At the informal conference, the mortgagee may present for consideration specific factors that it believes were beyond its control and that caused the excessive default and claim rate.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §533, as added Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §407(b), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1902; amended Pub. L. 107–73, title II, §209, Nov. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 675.)

Amendments

2001Pub. L. 107–73 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) To reduce losses in connection with mortgage insurance programs under this chapter, the Secretary shall review, at least once a year, the rate of early serious defaults and claims involving mortgagees approved under this chapter. On the basis of this review, the Secretary shall notify each mortgagee which, as determined by the Secretary, had a rate of early serious defaults and claims during the preceding year which was higher than the normal rate for the geographic area or areas in which that mortgagee does business. In the notification, the Secretary shall require each mortgagee to submit a report, within a time determined by the Secretary, containing the mortgagee's (1) explanation for the above normal rate of early serious defaults and claims; (2) plan for corrective action, if applicable, both with regard to (A) mortgages in default; and (B) its mortgage-processing system in general; and (3) a timeframe within which this corrective action will be begun and completed. If the Secretary does not agree with this timeframe or plan, a mutually agreeable timeframe and plan will be determined.

"(b) Failure of the mortgagee to submit a report required under subsection (a) of this section within the time determined by the Secretary or to commence or complete the plan for corrective action within the timeframe agreed upon by the Secretary may be cause for suspension of the mortgagee from participation in programs under this chapter."

§1735f–12. Assurance of adequate processing of applications for loan and mortgage insurance

(a) State offices

In order to ensure the adequate processing of applications for insurance of loans and mortgages under this chapter, the Secretary shall maintain not less than one office in each State to carry out the provisions of this chapter.

(b) Expedited procedure for RTC properties

To assist the Resolution Trust Corporation in disposing of the property to which it acquires title and to ensure the timely processing of applications for insurance of loans and mortgages under this chapter that will be used to purchase multifamily residential property from the Resolution Trust Corporation, the Secretary shall establish an expedited procedure for considering such applications.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §534, as added Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §418, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1912; amended Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §512(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3786.)

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–550 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Regulations

Pub. L. 102–550, title V, §512(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3786, provided that: "The procedure referred to in the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be established through interim and final regulations issued by the Secretary. The Secretary shall issue interim regulations implementing the procedure not later than the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], which shall be effective upon issuance. The Secretary shall issue final regulations after notice and opportunity for public comment pursuant to the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code (notwithstanding subsections (a)(2), (b)(B), and (d)(3) of such section)."

§1735f–13. Prohibition of requirement of minimum principal loan amount

A mortgagee or lender may not require, as a condition of providing a loan insured under this chapter or secured by a mortgage insured under this chapter, that the principal amount of the loan exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee or lender.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §535, as added Pub. L. 100–242, title IV, §419(a), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1913.)

§1735f–14. Civil money penalties against mortgagees, lenders, and other participants in FHA programs

(a) In general

(1) Authority

If a mortgagee approved under the 1 chapter, a lender holding a contract of insurance under subchapter I, or a principal, officer, or employee of such mortgagee or lender, or other person or entity participating in either an insured mortgage or subchapter I loan transaction under this chapter or providing assistance to the borrower in connection with any such loan, including sellers of the real estate involved, borrowers, closing agents, title companies, real estate agents, mortgage brokers, appraisers, loan correspondents and dealers, knowingly and materially violates any applicable provision of subsection (b), the Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on the mortgagee or lender, or such other person or entity, in accordance with this section. The penalty under this paragraph shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions. The penalty shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions.

(2) Amount of penalty

The amount of the penalty, as determined by the Secretary, may not exceed $5,000 for each violation, except that the maximum penalty for all violations by any particular mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity during any 1-year period shall not exceed $1,000,000. Each violation of a 2 the provisions of subsection (b)(1) shall constitute a separate violation with respect to each mortgage or loan application. In the case of a continuing violation, as determined by the Secretary, each day shall constitute a separate violation.

In the case of the mortgagee's failure to engage in loss mitigation activities, as provided in subsection (b)(1)(I), the penalty shall be in the amount of three times the amount of any insurance benefits claimed by the mortgagee with respect to any mortgage for which the mortgagee failed to engage in such loss mitigation actions.

(b) Violations for which a penalty may be imposed

(1) Violations

The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty under subsection (a) for any knowing and material violation by a mortgagee or lender or any of its owners, officers, or directors, as follows:

(A) Except where expressly permitted by statute, regulation, or contract approved by the Secretary, transfer of a mortgage insured under this chapter to a mortgagee not approved by the Secretary, or transfer of a loan to a transferee that is not holding a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter.

(B) Failure of a nonsupervised mortgagee, as defined by the Secretary—

(i) to segregate all escrow funds received from a mortgagor for ground rents, taxes, assessments, and insurance premiums; or

(ii) to deposit these funds in a special account with a depository institution whose accounts are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation through the Deposit Insurance Fund, or by the National Credit Union Administration.


(C) Use of escrow funds for any purpose other than that for which they were received.

(D) Submission to the Secretary of information that was false, in connection with any mortgage insured under this chapter, or any loan that is covered by a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter.

(E) With respect to an officer, director, principal, or employee—

(i) hiring such an individual whose duties will involve, directly or indirectly, programs administered by the Secretary, while that person was under suspension or withdrawal by the Secretary; or

(ii) retaining in employment such an individual who continues to be involved, directly or indirectly, in programs administered by the Secretary, while that person was under suspension or withdrawal by the Secretary.


(F) Falsely certifying to the Secretary or submitting to the Secretary a false certification by another person or entity.

(G) Failure to comply with an agreement, certification, or condition of approval set forth on, or applicable to—

(i) the application of a mortgagee or lender for approval by the Secretary; or

(ii) the notification by a mortgagee or lender to the Secretary concerning establishment of a branch office.


(H) Violation of any provisions of subchapter I or II of this chapter, or any implementing regulation, handbook, or mortgagee letter that is issued under this chapter.

(I) Failure to engage in loss mitigation actions as provided in section 1715u(a) of this title.

(J) Failure to perform a required physical inspection of the mortgaged property.

(K) Violation of section 1708(d) of this title.

(L) Use of "Federal Housing Administration", "Department of Housing and Urban Development", "Government National Mortgage Association", "Ginnie Mae", the acronyms "HUD", "FHA", or "GNMA", or any official seal or logo of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, except as authorized by the Secretary.

(2) Additional violations

The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty under subsection (a) for any knowing and material violation by a principal, officer, or employee of a mortgagee or lender, or other participants in either an insured mortgage or subchapter I loan transaction under this chapter or provision of assistance to the borrower in connection with any such loan, including sellers of the real estate involved, borrowers, closing agents, title companies, real estate agents, mortgage brokers, appraisers, loan correspondents, and dealers for—

(A) submission to the Secretary of information that was false, in connection with any mortgage insured under this chapter, or any loan that is covered by a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter;

(B) falsely certifying to the Secretary or submitting to the Secretary a false certification by another person or entity;

(C) failure by a loan correspondent or dealer to submit to the Secretary information which is required by regulations or directives in connection with any loan that is covered by a contract of insurance under subchapter I; or

(D) causing or participating in any of the violations set forth in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) Prohibition against misleading use of Federal entity designation

The Secretary may impose a civil money penalty, as adjusted from time to time, under subsection (a) for any use of "Federal Housing Administration", "Department of Housing and Urban Development", "Government National Mortgage Association", "Ginnie Mae", the acronyms "HUD", "FHA", or "GNMA", or any official seal or logo of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, by any person, party, company, firm, partnership, or business, including sellers of real estate, closing agents, title companies, real estate agents, mortgage brokers, appraisers, loan correspondents, and dealers, except as authorized by the Secretary.

(c) Agency procedures

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish standards and procedures governing the imposition of civil money penalties under subsection (a). These standards and procedures—

(A) shall provide for the Secretary to make the determination to impose the penalty or to use an administrative entity (such as the Mortgagee Review Board, established pursuant to section 1708(c) of this title) to make the determination;

(B) shall provide for the imposition of a penalty only after the mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity has been given an opportunity for a hearing on the record; and

(C) may provide for review by the Secretary of any determination or order, or interlocutory ruling, arising from a hearing.

(2) Final orders

If no hearing is requested within 15 days of receipt of the notice of opportunity for hearing, the imposition of the penalty shall constitute a final and unappealable determination. If the Secretary reviews the determination or order, the Secretary may affirm, modify, or reverse that determination or order. If the Secretary does not review the determination or order within 90 days of the issuance of the determination or order, the determination or order shall be final.

(3) Factors in determining amount of penalty

In determining the amount of a penalty under subsection (a), consideration shall be given to such factors as the gravity of the offense, any history of prior offenses (including those before December 15, 1989), ability to pay the penalty, injury to the public, benefits received, deterrence of future violations, and such other factors as the Secretary may determine in regulations to be appropriate.

(4) Reviewability of imposition of penalty

The Secretary's determination or order imposing a penalty under subsection (a) shall not be subject to review, except as provided in subsection (d).

(d) Judicial review of agency determination

(1) In general

After exhausting all administrative remedies established by the Secretary under subsection (c)(1), a mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity against whom the Secretary has imposed a civil money penalty under subsection (a) may obtain a review of the penalty and such ancillary issues (such as any administrative sanctions under 24 C.F.R. parts 24 and 25) as may be addressed in the notice of determination to impose a penalty under subsection (c)(1)(A) in the appropriate court of appeals of the United States, by filing in such court, within 20 days after the entry of such order or determination, a written petition praying that the Secretary's determination or order be modified or be set aside in whole or in part.

(2) Objections not raised in hearing

The court shall not consider any objection that was not raised in the hearing conducted pursuant to subsection (c)(1) unless a demonstration is made of extraordinary circumstances causing the failure to raise the objection. If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court that additional evidence not presented at the hearing is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to present such evidence at the hearing, the court shall remand the matter to the Secretary for consideration of the additional evidence.

(3) Scope of review

The decisions, findings, and determinations of the Secretary shall be reviewed pursuant to section 706 of title 5.

(4) Order to pay penalty

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any such review, the court shall have the power to order payment of the penalty imposed by the Secretary.

(e) Action to collect penalty

If any mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity fails to comply with the Secretary's determination or order imposing a civil money penalty under subsection (a), after the determination or order is no longer subject to review as provided by subsections (c)(1) and (d), the Secretary may request the Attorney General of the United States to bring an action in an appropriate United States district court to obtain a monetary judgment against the mortgagee or lender or such other person or entity and such other relief as may be available. The monetary judgment may, in the court's discretion, include the attorneys fees and other expenses incurred by the United States in connection with the action. In an action under this subsection, the validity and appropriateness of the Secretary's determination or order imposing the penalty shall not be subject to review.

(f) Settlement by Secretary

The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit any civil money penalty which may be, or has been, imposed under this section.

(g) "Knowingly" defined

For purposes of this section, a person acts knowingly when a person has actual knowledge of acts or should have known of the acts.

(h) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue such regulations as the Secretary deems appropriate to implement this section.

(i) Deposit of penalties in insurance funds

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all civil money penalties collected under this section shall be deposited in the appropriate insurance fund or funds established under this chapter, as determined by the Secretary.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §536, as added Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §107(a), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2000; amended Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title II, §2704(d)(13)(B), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–490; Pub. L. 105–65, title V, §553, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 105–276, title VI, §601(g), (h), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2674; Pub. L. 108–447, div. I, title II, §219(a), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3319; Pub. L. 109–171, title II, §2102(b), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 9; Pub. L. 109–173, §9(f)(2), Feb. 15, 2006, 119 Stat. 3618; Pub. L. 111–22, div. A, title II, §203(f), May 20, 2009, 123 Stat. 1647.)

Amendments

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(f)(1)(A)(i), inserted "or any of its owners, officers, or directors" after "mortgagee or lender" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(H). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(f)(1)(A)(ii), substituted "subchapter I or II of this chapter, or any implementing regulation, handbook, or mortgagee letter that is issued under this chapter." for "subchapter I, II, or IX–A (as such subchapter existed immediately before December 15, 1989) of this chapter or any implementing regulation or handbook that is issued under this chapter."

Subsec. (b)(1)(K), (L). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(f)(1)(A)(iii), added subpars. (K) and (L).

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(f)(1)(B), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(f)(1)(C), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Before taking action to impose a civil money penalty for a violation under paragraph (1)(D) or (F), or paragraph (2)(A), (B), or (C), the Secretary shall inform the Attorney General of the United States."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–22, §203(f)(2), substituted "For purposes of this section, a person acts knowingly when a person has actual knowledge of acts or should have known of the acts." for "The term 'knowingly' means having actual knowledge of or acting with deliberate ignorance of or reckless disregard for the prohibitions under this section."

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 109–173 substituted "Deposit Insurance Fund" for "Bank Insurance Fund for banks and through the Savings Association Insurance Fund for savings associations".

Pub. L. 109–171 repealed Pub. L. 104–208, §2704(d)(13)(B). See 1996 Amendment note below.

2004—Subsec. (b)(1)(J). Pub. L. 108–447 added subpar. (J).

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §601(g), inserted second paragraph.

Subsec. (b)(1)(I). Pub. L. 105–276, §601(h), which directed the addition of subpar. (I) after subpar. "(h)", was executed by adding subpar. (I) after subpar. (H), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1997Pub. L. 105–65, §553(a), amended section catchline generally, substituting "mortgagees, lenders, and other participants in FHA programs" for "mortgagees and lenders".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(b)(1), substituted "If a mortgagee approved under the chapter, a lender holding a contract of insurance under subchapter I, or a principal, officer, or employee of such mortgagee or lender, or other person or entity participating in either an insured mortgage or subchapter I loan transaction under this chapter or providing assistance to the borrower in connection with any such loan, including sellers of the real estate involved, borrowers, closing agents, title companies, real estate agents, mortgage brokers, appraisers, loan correspondents and dealers, knowingly and materially violates any applicable provision of subsection (b), the Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on the mortgagee or lender, or such other person or entity, in accordance with this section. The penalty under this paragraph shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions." for "Whenever a mortgagee approved under this chapter, or a lender holding a contract of insurance under subchapter I of this chapter, knowingly and materially violates any of the provisions of subsection (b), the Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on the mortgagee or lender in accordance with the provisions of this section."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(b)(2), inserted "or such other person or entity" after "lender" in first sentence and substituted "the provisions of subsection (b)(1)" for "provision of subsection (b)(1)" in second sentence.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(c)(1), (2), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(c)(1), (3), redesignated par. (2) as (3) and substituted "or (F), or paragraph (2)(A), (B), or (C)" for "or paragraph (1)(F)".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(d)(1), inserted "or such other person or entity" after "lender".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(d)(2), inserted "or such other person or entity" after "lender" and substituted "parts 24 and 25" for "part 25".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–65, §553(d)(3), inserted "or such other person or entity" after "lender" in two places.

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–208, §2704(d)(13)(B), which directed the amendment of section 526(b)(1)(B)(ii) of the National Housing Act by substituting "Deposit Insurance Fund" for "Bank Insurance Fund for banks and through the Savings Association Insurance Fund for savings associations" and which substitution was probably intended by Congress to be made in subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii) of this section, section 536 of the National Housing Act, was repealed by Pub. L. 109–171. See Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note below and 2006 Amendment note above.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–173 effective Mar. 31, 2006, see section 9(j) of Pub. L. 109–173, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective no later than the first day of the first calendar quarter that begins after the end of the 90-day period beginning Feb. 8, 2006, see section 2102(c) of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a Merger of BIF and SAIF note under section 1821 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective Jan. 1, 1999, if no insured depository institution is a savings association on that date, see section 2704(c) of Pub. L. 104–208, formerly set out as a note under section 1821 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §107(b), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2003, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall apply only with respect to—

"(1) violations referred to in the amendment that occur on or after the effective date of this section [Dec. 15, 1989]; and

"(2) in the case of a continuing violation (as determined by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development), any portion of a violation referred to in the amendment that occurs on or after such date."

Regulations

Pub. L. 105–65, title V, §541, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1412, provided that:

"(a) Issuance of Necessary Regulations.—Notwithstanding section 7(o) of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act [42 U.S.C. 3535(o)] or part 10 of title 24, Code of Federal Regulations (as in existence on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997]), the Secretary shall issue such regulations as the Secretary determines to be necessary to implement this subtitle [subtitle C (§§541–564) of title V of Pub. L. 105–65, enacting section 1437z–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending this section, sections 1708, 1715z–4a, 1715z–19, and 1735f–15 of this title, section 1516 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 6103 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and sections 503 and 1437z of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1735f–15 of this title and sections 503 and 1437z–1 of Title 42] and the amendments made by this subtitle in accordance with section 552 or 553 of title 5, United States Code, as determined by the Secretary.

"(b) Use of Existing Regulations.—In implementing any provision of this subtitle, the Secretary may, in the discretion of the Secretary, provide for the use of existing regulations to the extent appropriate, without rulemaking."

1 So in original. Probably should be "this".

2 So in original. The word "a" probably should not appear.

§1735f–15. Civil money penalties against multifamily mortgagors

(a) In general

The penalties set forth in this section shall be in addition to any other available civil remedy or any available criminal penalty, and may be imposed whether or not the Secretary imposes other administrative sanctions. The Secretary may not impose penalties under this section for violations a material cause of which are the failure of the Department, an agent of the Department, or a public housing agency to comply with existing agreements.

(b) Penalty for violation of agreement as condition of transfer of physical assets, flexible subsidy loan, capital improvement loan, modification of mortgage terms, or workout agreement

(1) Authority

Whenever a mortgagor of property that includes 5 or more living units and that has a mortgage insured, co-insured, or held pursuant to this chapter, who has agreed in writing, as a condition of a transfer of physical assets, a flexible subsidy loan, a capital improvement loan, a modification of the mortgage terms, or a workout agreement, to use nonproject income to make cash contributions for payments due under the note and mortgage, for payments to the reserve for replacements, to restore the project to good physical condition, or to pay other project liabilities, knowingly and materially fails to comply with any of these commitments, the Secretary may impose a civil money penalty on that mortgagor, on a general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or on any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(2) Amount of penalty

The amount of the penalty, as determined by the Secretary, for a violation of this subsection may not exceed the amount of the loss the Secretary would experience at a foreclosure sale, or a sale after foreclosure, of the property involved.

(c) Other violations

(1)(A) Liable parties

The Secretary may also impose a civil money penalty under this section on—

(i) any mortgagor of a property that includes 5 or more living units and that has a mortgage insured, coinsured, or held pursuant to this chapter;

(ii) any general partner of a partnership mortgagor of such property;

(iii) any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor;

(iv) any agent employed to manage the property that has an identity of interest with the mortgagor, with the general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or with any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor of such property; or

(v) any member of a limited liability company that is the mortgagor of such property or is the general partner of a limited partnership mortgagor or is a partner of a general partnership mortgagor.

(B) Violations

A penalty may be imposed under this section upon any liable party under subparagraph (A) that knowingly and materially takes any of the following actions:

(i) Conveyance, transfer, or encumbrance of any of the mortgaged property, or permitting the conveyance, transfer, or encumbrance of such property, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.

(ii) Assignment, transfer, disposition, or encumbrance of any personal property of the project, including rents, other revenues, or contract rights, or paying out any funds, except for reasonable operating expenses and necessary repairs, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.

(iii) Conveyance, assignment, or transfer of any beneficial interest in any trust holding title to the property, or the interest of any general partner in a partnership owning the property, or any right to manage or receive the rents and profits from the mortgaged property, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.

(iv) Remodeling, adding to, reconstructing, or demolishing any part of the mortgaged property or subtracting from any real or personal property of the project, without the prior written approval of the Secretary.

(v) Requiring, as a condition of the occupancy or leasing of any unit in the project, any consideration or deposit other than the prepayment of the first month's rent, plus a security deposit in an amount not in excess of 1 month's rent, to guarantee the performance of the covenants of the lease.

(vi) Not holding any funds collected as security deposits separate and apart from all other funds of the project in a trust account, the amount of which at all times equals or exceeds the aggregate of all outstanding obligations under the account.

(vii) Payment for services, supplies, or materials which exceeds $500 and substantially exceeds the amount ordinarily paid for such services, supplies, or materials in the area where the services are rendered or the supplies or materials furnished.

(viii) Failure to maintain at any time the mortgaged property, equipment, buildings, plans, offices, apparatus, devices, books, contracts, records, documents, and other related papers (including failure to keep copies of all written contracts or other instruments which affect the mortgaged property) in reasonable condition for proper audit and for examination and inspection at any reasonable time by the Secretary or any duly authorized agents of the Secretary.

(ix) Failure to maintain the books and accounts of the operations of the mortgaged property and of the project in accordance with requirements prescribed by the Secretary.

(x) Failure to furnish the Secretary, by the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the first day after the completion of each fiscal year (unless the Secretary has approved an extension of the 90-day period in writing), with a complete annual financial report, in accordance with requirements prescribed by the Secretary, including requirements that the report be—

(I) based upon an examination of the books and records of the mortgagor;

(II) prepared and certified to by an independent public accountant or a certified public accountant (unless the Secretary has waived this requirement in writing); and

(III) certified to by the mortgagor or an authorized representative of the mortgagor.


The Secretary shall approve an extension where the mortgagor demonstrates that failure to comply with this clause is due to events beyond the control of the mortgagor.

(xi) At the request of the Secretary, the agents of the Secretary, the employees of the Secretary, or the attorneys of the Secretary, failure to furnish monthly occupancy reports or failure to provide specific answers to questions upon which information is sought relative to income, assets, liabilities, contracts, the operation and condition of the property, or the status of the mortgage.

(xii) Failure to make promptly all payments due under the note and mortgage, including mortgage insurance premiums, tax and insurance escrow payments, and payments to the reserve for replacements when there is adequate project income available to make such payments.

(xiii) Failure to maintain the premises, accommodations, any living unit in the project, and the grounds and equipment appurtenant thereto in good repair and condition in accordance with regulations and requirements of the Secretary, except that nothing in this clause shall have the effect of altering the provisions of an existing regulatory agreement or federally insured mortgage on the property.

(xiv) Failure, by a mortgagor, a general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or an officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, to provide management for the project that is acceptable to the Secretary pursuant to regulations and requirements of the Secretary.

(xv) Failure to provide access to the books, records, and accounts related to the operations of the mortgaged property and of the project.


The pay out of surplus cash, as defined by and provided for in the regulatory agreement, shall not constitute a violation of this subsection.

(2) Amount of penalty

A penalty imposed for a violation under this subsection, as determined by the Secretary, may not exceed $25,000.

(d) Agency procedures

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish standards and procedures governing the imposition of civil money penalties under subsections (b) and (c). These standards and procedures—

(A) shall provide for the Secretary or other department official (such as the Assistant Secretary for Housing) to make the determination to impose a penalty;

(B) shall provide for the imposition of a penalty only after the mortgagor, general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property has been given an opportunity for a hearing on the record; and

(C) may provide for review by the Secretary of any determination or order, or interlocutory ruling, arising from a hearing.

(2) Final orders

If no hearing is requested within 15 days of receipt of the notice of opportunity for hearing, the imposition of the penalty shall constitute a final and unappealable determination. If the Secretary reviews the determination or order, the Secretary may affirm, modify, or reverse that determination or order. If the Secretary does not review the determination or order within 90 days of the issuance of the determination or order, the determination or order shall be final.

(3) Factors in determining amount of penalty

In determining the amount of a penalty under subsection (b) or (c), consideration shall be given to such factors as the gravity of the offense, any history of prior offenses (including offenses occurring before December 15, 1989), ability to pay the penalty, injury to the tenants, injury to the public, benefits received, deterrence of future violations, and such other factors as the Secretary may determine in regulations to be appropriate.

(4) Reviewability of imposition of penalty

The Secretary's determination or order imposing a penalty under subsection (b) or (c) shall not be subject to review, except as provided in subsection (e).

(5) Payment of penalty

No payment of a civil money penalty levied under this section shall be payable out of project income.

(e) Judicial review of agency determination

(1) In general

After exhausting all administrative remedies established by the Secretary under subsection (d)(1), an entity or person against whom the Secretary has imposed a civil money penalty under subsection (b) or (c) may obtain a review of the penalty and such ancillary issues as may be addressed in the notice of determination to impose a penalty under subsection (d)(1)(A) in the appropriate court of appeals of the United States, by filing in such court, within 20 days after the entry of such order or determination, a written petition praying that the Secretary's order or determination be modified or be set aside in whole or in part.

(2) Objections not raised in hearing

The court shall not consider any objection that was not raised in the hearing conducted pursuant to subsection (d)(1) unless a demonstration is made of extraordinary circumstances causing the failure to raise the objection. If any party demonstrates to the satisfaction of the court that additional evidence not presented at such hearing is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to present such evidence at the hearing, the court shall remand the matter to the Secretary for consideration of such additional evidence.

(3) Scope of review

The decisions, findings, and determinations of the Secretary shall be reviewed pursuant to section 706 of title 5.

(4) Order to pay penalty

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any such review, the court shall have the power to order payment of the penalty imposed by the Secretary.

(f) Civil money penalties against multifamily mortgagors, general partners of partnership mortgagors, officers and directors of corporate mortgagors, and certain managing agents

If a mortgagor, general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property fails to comply with the Secretary's determination or order imposing a civil money penalty under subsection (b) or (c), after the determination or order is no longer subject to review as provided by subsections (d)(1) and (e), the Secretary may request the Attorney General of the United States to bring an action in an appropriate United States district court to obtain a monetary judgment against the mortgagor, general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property and such other relief as may be available. The monetary judgment may, in the court's discretion, include the attorneys fees and other expenses incurred by the United States in connection with the action. In an action under this subsection, the validity and appropriateness of the Secretary's determination or order imposing the penalty shall not be subject to review.

(g) Settlement by Secretary

The Secretary may compromise, modify, or remit any civil money penalty which may be, or has been, imposed under this section.

(h) "Knowingly" defined

The term "knowingly" means having actual knowledge of or acting with deliberate ignorance of or reckless disregard for the prohibitions under this section.

(i) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue such regulations as the Secretary deems appropriate to implement this section.

(j) Deposit of penalties in insurance funds

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all civil money penalties collected under this section shall be deposited in the fund established under section 1715z–1a(j) of this title.

(k) Identity of interest managing agent

In this section, the terms "agent employed to manage the property that has an identity of interest" and "identity of interest agent" mean an entity—

(1) that has management responsibility for a project;

(2) in which the ownership entity, including its general partner or partners (if applicable) and its officers or directors (if applicable), has an ownership interest; and

(3) over which the ownership entity exerts effective control.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §537, as added Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §108(a), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2003; amended Pub. L. 105–65, title V, §561(a), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1414; Pub. L. 108–447, div. I, title II, §219(b), (c), Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3319.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 108–447, §219(b), inserted "other revenues, or contract rights," after "rents,".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B)(x). Pub. L. 108–447, §219(c), amended cl. (x) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (x) read as follows: "Failure to furnish the Secretary, by the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the 1st day after the completion of each fiscal year, with a complete annual financial report based upon an examination of the books and records of the mortgagor prepared and certified to by an independent public accountant or a certified public accountant and certified to by an officer of the mortgagor, unless the Secretary has approved an extension of the 60-day period in writing. The Secretary shall approve an extension where the mortgagor demonstrates that failure to comply with this subparagraph is due to events beyond the control of the mortgagor."

1997—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(1), substituted "on that mortgagor, on a general partner of a partnership mortgagor, or on any officer or director of a corporate mortgagor" for "on that mortgagor".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(2)(A), substituted "Other violations" for "Violations of regulatory agreement for which penalty may be imposed" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(2)(B)(i), (iv), substituted "violation of this subsection" for "violation of such agreement" before period at end of closing provisions and struck out heading and introductory provisions. Introductory provisions read as follows: "The Secretary may also impose a civil money penalty under this section on any mortgagor of property that includes 5 or more living units and that has a mortgage insured, co-insured, or held pursuant to this chapter for any knowing and material violation of the regulatory agreement executed by the mortgagor, as follows:".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(2)(B)(i), (ii), added subpar. (A) and redesignated former subpar. (A) as cl. (i) of subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(1)(B) to (L). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(2)(B)(i)–(iii), inserted heading and introductory provisions of subpar. (B), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (L) as cls. (i) to (xii) of subpar. (B), respectively, and added cls. (xiii) to (xv).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(3)(A), inserted ", general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property" after "mortgagor".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(3)(B), added par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(4), substituted "an entity or person" for "a mortgagor".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(5), (6), substituted "Civil money penalties against multifamily mortgagors, general partners of partnership mortgagors, officers and directors of corporate mortgagors, and certain managing agents" for "Action to collect penalty" in heading and inserted ", general partner of a partnership mortgagor, officer or director of a corporate mortgagor, or identity of interest agent employed to manage the property" after "mortgagor" in two places in text.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–65, §561(a)(7), added subsec. (k).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–65, title V, §561(c), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1416, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to—

"(1) violations that occur on or after the effective date of the final regulations implementing the amendments made by this section; and

"(2) in the case of a continuing violation (as determined by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development), any portion of a violation that occurs on or after that date."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §108(b), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2007, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall apply only with respect to violations referred to in the amendment that occur on or after the effective date of this section [Dec. 15, 1989]."

Implementation

Pub. L. 105–65, title V, §561(b), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1416, provided that:

"(1) Public comment.—The Secretary shall implement the amendments made by this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] by regulation issued after notice and opportunity for public comment. The notice shall seek comments primarily as to the definitions of the terms 'ownership interest in' and 'effective control', as those terms are used in the definition of the terms 'agent employed to manage the property that has an identity of interest' and 'identity of interest agent'.

"(2) Timing.—A proposed rule implementing the amendments made by this section shall be published not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997]."

§1735f–16. Annual audited financial statements

With respect to fiscal year 1989 and for every fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary shall make available to the public a financial statement of the insurance funds established under this chapter that will present their financial condition on a cash and accrual basis, consistent with generally accepted accounting principles. Each financial statement shall be audited by an independent accounting firm selected by the Secretary and the results of such audit shall be made available to the public.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §538, as added Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §131, Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2026.)

§1735f–17. Examinations and sanctions for certain violations

(a) Examinations and sanctions

(1) In connection with any examination of a mortgagee approved by the Secretary pursuant to this chapter, the Secretary shall assess the performance of the mortgagee in meeting the requirements of sections 1709(t),1 1715n(a)(7)(B),1 and 1735f–13 of this title. Where the Secretary determines that a mortgagee is not in compliance with these requirements, the Secretary shall refer the matter to the Mortgagee Review Board for investigation and appropriate action.

(2) Not later than 180 days after November 28, 1990, the Secretary shall by notice establish a procedure under which (A) any person may file a request that the Secretary determine whether a mortgagee is in compliance with sections 1709(t),1 1715n(a)(7)(B),1 and 1735f–13 of this title, (B) the Secretary shall inform the person of the disposition of the request, and (C) the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the disposition of any case referred by the Secretary to the Mortgagee Review Board. Such procedures shall be established by regulation under section 553 of title 5. The Secretary shall issue regulations based on the initial notice before the expiration of the 8-month period beginning on the date of the notice.

(3) Omitted.

(b) Monitoring and review

The Secretary shall continually monitor and undertake a thorough review of the implementation of this section to assess the impact of the section on the lending practices of mortgagees and the availability of mortgages insured under this chapter. The Secretary shall monitor the availability of credit, the number and type of lenders participating in the program, whether there is any change in the composition or practices of such lenders and any other factors the Secretary considers appropriate. The Secretary shall submit to the Congress findings detailing the results of such monitoring and review not later than 18 months after November 28, 1990.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §539, as added Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §330(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4139.)

References in Text

Section 1709(t) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2), was redesignated section 1709(u) of this title by Pub. L. 106–377, §1(a)(1) [title II, §209(a)(1)], Oct. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 1441, 1441A-25.

Section 1715n(a)(7)(B) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2), was redesignated section 1715n(a)(7)(A)(ii) of this title by Pub. L. 107–116, title VI, §615(3), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2225.

Codification

Paragraph (3) of subsection (a), which required the Secretary to submit to Congress, not less than annually, a report on actions taken to carry out this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 103 of House Document No. 103–7.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735f–18. Information regarding early defaults and foreclosures on insured mortgages

(a) In general

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall collect and maintain information regarding early defaults on mortgages as provided under this section. The Secretary shall make such information available for public inspection upon request. Information shall be collected quarterly with respect to each applicable collection period (as such term is defined in subsection (c)) and shall be available for inspection not more than 30 days after the conclusion of the calendar quarter relating to each such period. Information shall first be made available under this section for the applicable collection period relating to the first calendar quarter ending more than 180 days after November 28, 1990.

(b) Contents

(1) Mortgage lender analysis

Information collected under this section shall include, for each lender originating mortgages during the applicable collection period that are insured pursuant to section 1709 of this title and secured by property in a designated census tract, the following information with respect to such mortgages:

(A) The name of the lender and the number of each designated census tract in which the lender originated 1 or more such mortgages during the applicable collection period.

(B) The total number of such mortgages originated by such lender during the applicable collection period in each designated census tract and the number of mortgages originated each year in each designated census tract.

(C) The total number of defaults and foreclosures on such mortgages during the applicable collection period in each designated census tract and the number of defaults and foreclosures in each designated census tract in each year of the period.

(D) For each designated census tract, the percentage of such lender's total insured mortgages originated during each year of the applicable collection period (with respect to properties within such census tract) on which defaults or foreclosures have occurred during the applicable collection period.

(E) The total of all such originations, defaults, and foreclosures on insured mortgages originated by such lender during the applicable collection period for all designated census tracts and the percentage of the total number of such lender's insured mortgage originations on which defaults or foreclosures have occurred during the applicable collection period.

(2) Other information

Information collected under this section shall also include the following:

(A) For each lender referred to under paragraph (1), the total number of insured mortgages originated by the lender secured by properties not located in a designated census tract, the total number of defaults and foreclosures on such mortgages, and the percentage of such mortgages originated on which defaults or foreclosures occurred during the applicable collection period.

(B) For each designated census tract, the total number of mortgages originated during the applicable collection period that are insured pursuant to section 1709 of this title, the number of defaults and foreclosures occurring on such mortgages during such period, and the percentage of the total insured mortgage originations during the period on which defaults or foreclosures occurred.

(c) Annual reports

The Secretary shall submit to the Congress annually a report containing the information collected and maintained under subsection (b) for the relevant year.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Applicable collection period

The term "applicable collection period" means the 5-year period ending on the last day of the calendar quarter for which information under this section is collected.

(2) Designated census tract

The term "designated census tract" means a census tract located within a metropolitan statistical area, as defined pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary of Commerce.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §540, as added Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §335(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4142.)

Availability of Information Regarding Default/Claim Rates During Transition

Pub. L. 101–625, title III, §335(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4144, provided that: "During the period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990] and ending on the date of the initial availability of information under section 540 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1735f–18] (as added by subsection (a)), the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall make publicly available all reports regarding Default/Claim Rates per Regional Office for Fiscal Year 1990 Endorsements that are produced by the Department of Housing and Urban Development during such period."

§1735f–19. Partial payment of claims on defaulted mortgages and in connection with mortgage restructuring

(a) Defaulted mortgages

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Secretary is requested to accept assignment of a mortgage insured by the Secretary that covers a multifamily housing project (as such term is defined in section 1701z–11(b) of this title) or a health care facility (including a nursing home, intermediate care facility, or board and care home (as those terms are defined in section 1715w of this title), a hospital (as that term is defined in section 1715z–7 of this title), or a group practice facility (as that term is defined in section 1749aaa–5 of this title)) and the Secretary determines that partial payment would be less costly to the Federal Government than other reasonable alternatives for maintaining the low-income character of the project, or for keeping the health care facility operational to serve community needs, the Secretary may request the mortgagee, in lieu of assignment, to—

(1) accept partial payment of the claim under the mortgage insurance contract; and

(2) recast the mortgage, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine.

(b) Existing mortgages

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary, in connection with a mortgage restructuring under section 514 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, may make a one time, nondefault partial or full payment of claim under one or more mortgage insurance contracts, which shall include a determination by the Secretary or the participating administrative entity, in accordance with the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, of the market value of the project and a restructuring of the mortgage, under such terms and conditions as are permitted by section 517(a) of such Act.

(c) Repayment

As a condition to a partial claim payment under this section, the mortgagor shall agree to repay to the Secretary the amount of such payment and such obligation shall be secured by a second mortgage on the property on such terms and conditions as the Secretary may determine.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §541, as added Pub. L. 103–233, title I, §101(e), Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 357; amended Pub. L. 105–65, title II, §210, title V, §523(b), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1366, 1406; Pub. L. 106–74, title II, §213(a), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1073.)

References in Text

The Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997, referred to in subsec. (b), is title V of Pub. L. 105–65, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1384. Sections 514 and 517(a) of the Act are set out as a note under section 1437f of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1997 Amendment note set out under section 1701 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–74, §213(a)(1), substituted "defaulted mortgages and in connection with mortgage restructuring" for "multifamily housing projects and health care facilities" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–74, §213(a)(2), substituted "partial or full payment of claim under one or more mortgage insurance contracts" for "partial payment of the claim under the mortgage insurance contract".

1997Pub. L. 105–65, §210(1), inserted "and health care facilities" after "housing projects" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–65, §523(b)(1), substituted "Defaulted mortgages" for "Authority" in heading.

Pub. L. 105–65, §210(2)(B), inserted "or for keeping the health care facility operational to serve community needs," after "character of the project," in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 105–65, §210(2)(A), which directed the insertion, in introductory provisions, of "or a health care facility (including a nursing home, intermediate care facility, or board and care home (as those terms are defined in section 1715w of this title), a hospital (as that term is defined in section 1715z–7 of this title), or a group practice facility (as that term is defined in section 1749aaa–5 of this title))" after "section 1701z–11(b) of this title", was executed by inserting the language after "section 1701z–11(b) of this title)" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 105–65, §523(b)(2), (3), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

§1735f–20. Authorization of appropriations for General and Special Risk Insurance Funds

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 1994 and 1995, to be allocated in any manner that the Secretary determines appropriate, for the following costs incurred in conjunction with programs authorized under the General Insurance Fund, as provided by section 1735c of this title, and the Special Risk Insurance Fund, as provided by section 1715z–3 of this title:

(1) The cost to the Government, as defined in section 661a 1 of title 2, of new insurance commitments.

(2) The cost to the Government, as defined in section 661a 1 of title 2, of modifications to existing loans, loan guarantees, or insurance commitments.

(3) The cost to the Government, as defined in section 661a 1 of title 2, of loans provided under section 1701z–11(f) of this title.

(4) The costs of the rehabilitation of multifamily housing projects (as defined in section 1701z–11(b) of this title) upon disposition by the Secretary.

(June 27, 1934, ch. 847, title V, §542, as added Pub. L. 103–233, title I, §105(c), Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 363.)

References in Text

Section 661a of title 2, referred to in pars. (1) to (3), was in the original "section 502 of the Congressional Budget Act", which was translated as meaning "section 502 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1735g. Mortgage relief for homeowners who are unemployed as result of closing of Federal installation

(a) Definitions

For the purposes of this section—

(1) The term "mortgage" means a mortgage which (A) is insured under the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], or (B) secures a home loan guaranteed or insured under the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 or chapter 37 of title 38.

(2) The term "Federal mortgage agency" means—

(A) The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development when used in connection with mortgages insured under the National Housing Act, and

(B) the Secretary of Veterans Affairs when used in connection with mortgages securing home loans guaranteed or insured under the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 or chapter 37 of title 38.


(3) The term "distressed mortgagor" means an individual who—

(A) was employed by the Federal Government at, or was assigned as a serviceman to, a military base or other Federal installation and whose employment or service at such base or installation was terminated subsequent to November 1, 1964, as the result of the closing (in whole or in part) of such base or installation; and

(B) is the owner-occupant of a dwelling situated at or near such base or installation and upon which there is a mortgage securing a loan which is in default because of the inability of such individual to make payments due under such mortgage.

(b) Application for, issuance and expiration of certificate of moratorium

(1) Any distressed mortgagor, for the purpose of avoiding foreclosure of his mortgage, may apply to the appropriate Federal mortgage agency for a determination that suspension of his obligation to make payments due under such mortgage during a temporary period is necessary in order to avoid such foreclosure.

(2) Upon receipt of an application made under this subsection by a distressed mortgagor, the Federal mortgage agency shall issue to such mortgagor a certificate of moratorium if it determines, after consultation with the interested mortgagee, that such action is necessary to avoid foreclosure.

(3) Prior to the issuance to any distressed mortgagor of a certificate of moratorium under paragraph (2), the Federal mortgage agency, the mortgagor, and the mortgagee shall enter into a binding agreement under which—

(A) the mortgagor will be required to make payments to such agency, after the expiration of such certificate, in an aggregate amount equal to the amount paid by such agency on behalf of such mortgagor as provided in subsection (c), together with interest thereon at a rate not to exceed the rate provided in the mortgage; the manner and time in which such payments shall be made to be determined by the Federal mortgage agency having due regard for the purposes sought to be achieved by this section; and

(B) the Federal mortgage agency will be subrogated to the rights of the mortgagee to the extent of payments made pursuant to such certificate, which rights, however, shall be subject to the prior right of the mortgagee to receive the full amount payable under the mortgage.


(4) Any certificate of moratorium issued under this subsection shall expire on whichever of the following dates is the earliest—

(A) two years from the date on which such certificate was issued;

(B) thirty days after the date on which the mortgagor gives notice in writing to the Federal mortgage agency that he is able to resume his obligation to make payments due under his mortgage; or

(C) thirty days after the date on which the Federal mortgage agency determines that the mortgagor to whom such certificate was issued has ceased to be a distressed mortgagor as defined in subsection (a)(3).

(c) Notice to mortgagee of assumption of mortgagor's obligation by agency; amount of payments; suspension of payments by mortgagor; prohibition against further action to enforce or collect payments; liability of mortgagor upon expiration of certificate; notice of expiration of certificate

(1) Whenever a Federal mortgage agency issues a certificate of moratorium to any distressed mortgagor with respect to any mortgage, it shall transmit to the mortgagee a copy of such certificate, together with a notice stating that, while such certificate is in effect, such agency will assume the obligation of such mortgagor to make payments due under the mortgage.

(2) Payments made by any Federal mortgage agency pursuant to a certificate of moratorium issued under this section with respect to the mortgage of any distressed mortgagor may include, in addition to the payments referred to in paragraph (1), an amount equal to the unpaid payments under such mortgage prior to the issuance of such certificate, plus a reasonable allowance for foreclosure costs actually paid by the mortgagee if a foreclosure action was dismissed as a result of the issuance of a moratorium certificate. Payments by the Federal mortgage agency may also include payments of taxes and insurance premiums on the mortgaged property as deemed necessary when these items are not provided for through payments to a tax and insurance account held by the interested mortgagee.

(3) While any certificate of moratorium issued under this section is in effect with respect to the mortgage of any distressed mortgagor, no further payments due under the mortgage shall be required of such mortgagor, and no action (legal or otherwise) shall be taken or maintained by the mortgagee to enforce or collect such payments. Upon the expiration of such certificate, the mortgagor shall again be liable for the payment of all amounts due under the mortgage in accordance with its terms.

(4) Each Federal mortgage agency shall give prompt notice in writing to the interested mortgagor and mortgagee of the expiration of any certificate of moratorium issued by it under this section.

(d) Regulations

The Federal mortgage agencies are authorized to issue such individual and joint regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section and to insure the uniform administration thereof.

(e) Fund for extending financial assistance to distressed mortgagors

There shall be in the Treasury (1) a fund which shall be available to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development for the purpose of extending financial assistance in behalf of distressed mortgagors as provided in subsection (c) and for paying administrative expenses incurred in connection with such assistance, and (2) a fund which shall be available to the Secretary of Veterans Affairs for the same purpose, except administrative expenses. The capital of each such fund shall consist of such sums as may, from time to time, be appropriated thereto, and any sums so appropriated shall remain available until expended. Receipts arising from the programs of assistance under subsection (c) shall be credited to the funds from which such assistance was extended. Moneys in either of such funds not needed for current operations, as determined by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, as the case may be, shall be invested in bonds or other obligations of the United States, or paid into the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts.

(Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §107(a)–(e), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 458, 459; Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1012, Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1288; Pub. L. 102–54, §13(d)(3), June 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 275.)

References in Text

The National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 27, 1934, ch. 847, 48 Stat. 1246, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1701 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1701 of this title and Tables.

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 22, 1944, ch. 268, 58 Stat. 284, as amended, which was classified generally to chapter 11C (§693 to 697g) of former Title 38, Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief, and was repealed by section 14(87) of Pub. L. 85–857, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1273, the first section of which enacted Title 38, Veterans' Benefits. For distribution of sections 693 to 697g of former Title 38 to Title 38, Veterans' Benefits, see Table preceding section 101 of Title 38, Veterans' Benefits.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, and not as part of the National Housing Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1991—Subsecs. (a)(2)(B), (e). Pub. L. 102–54 substituted "Secretary of Veterans Affairs" for "Administrator of Veterans' Affairs" wherever appearing.

1966—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Commissioner".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 89–754 redefined as distressed mortgagor, describing in subpar. (A) such a person as an individual whose employment or military service at a military base or other Federal installation was terminated subsequent to Nov. 1, 1964, as the result of closing of such base or installation, formerly defined as an individual who was unemployed, although willing to work, as the result of the closing of a Federal installation, and providing in subpar. (B) for dwelling situated at or near the base or installation and substituting "payments due under such mortgage" for "payments of principal and/or interest under such mortgage".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted "payments due under such mortgage" for "payments of principal and/or interest under such mortgage".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 89–754 struck out subpar. (A) providing for determination that mortgagor is not in default with respect to any condition or covenant of the mortgage other than requiring the payment of installments of principal and/or interest under the mortgage and incorporated without subpar. designation provision for determination that such action is necessary to avoid foreclosure, formerly providing in subpar. (B) that such action was the only available means of avoiding foreclosure of such mortgage.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted in introductory text "the Federal mortgage agency, the mortgagor, and the mortgagee shall enter into a binding agreement" for "the Federal mortgage agency shall require such mortgagor to enter into a binding agreement", designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), provided for payment of interest at rate not to exceed the rate provided in the mortgage, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 89–754 increased the period from one to two years in subpar. (A), substituted subpar. (B) provision for expiration date as thirty days after date on which mortgagor gives notice in writing to Federal mortgage agency of ability to resume obligation to make payments due under his mortgage for former provision as the date thirty days after date on which mortgagor to whom certificate was issued ceased to be a distressed mortgagor, now incorporated in subpar. (C), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), providing for a determination by the Federal mortgage agency, and struck out former subpar. (C) provision for date on which mortgagor becomes in default with respect to any condition or covenant in his mortgage other than that requiring the payment by him of installments of principal and/or interest under the mortgage.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted "payments due under the mortgage" for "payments of principal, and, if so specified in the certificate, of interest, under the mortgage".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted "may include" for "shall include" and "unpaid payments under such mortgage" for "unpaid principal and interest charges which had accrued and subsequent to the date on which such mortgagor became a distressed mortgagor as defined in subsection (a) of this section", and authorized payments of reasonable allowance for foreclosure costs actually paid by the mortgagee if a foreclosure action was dismissed as result of issuance of moratorium certificate and taxes and insurance premiums on mortgaged property as deemed necessary when not provided for through payments to a tax and insurance account held by the interested mortgagee.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted "payments due under the mortgage" for "payments of principal, and, if so specified in the certificate, of interest, under the mortgage".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 89–754 reenacted subsec. (d) without change.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 89–754 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Commissioner" in two places and made fund available for payment of administrative expenses incurred in connection with assistance to distressed mortgagors and unavailable for payment of administrative expenses of the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs.

§1735h. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1013(j), Nov. 3, 1966, 80 Stat. 1292

Section, Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §108(a)–(d), (f), Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 460, 461, provided for acquisition of property at or near military bases which have been ordered to be closed. See section 3374 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.