[USC03] WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE
Result 1 of 1
   
 

TITLE 50—WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSE

Chap.
Sec.
1.
Council of National Defense
1
2.
Board of Ordnance and Fortification [Repealed]
11
3.
Alien Enemies
21
4.
Espionage [Repealed or Transferred]
31
4A.
Photographing, Sketching, Mapping, etc., Defensive Installations [Repealed]
45
4B.
Disclosure of Classified Information [Repealed]
46
4C.
Atomic Weapons and Special Nuclear Materials Information Rewards
47a
5.
Arsenals, Armories, Arms, and War Material Generally
51
6.
Willful Destruction, etc., of War or National-Defense Material [Repealed]
101
7.
Interference With Homing Pigeons Owned by United States [Repealed]
111
8.
Explosives; Manufacture, Distribution, Storage, Use, and Possession Regulated [Repealed]
121
9.
Aircraft [Omitted, Repealed, or Transferred]
151
10.
Helium Gas
161
11.
Acquisition of and Expenditures on Land for National-Defense Purposes [Repealed, Omitted, or Transferred]
171
12.
Vessels in Territorial Waters of United States
191
13.
Insurrection
201
14.
Wartime Voting by Land and Naval Forces [Repealed]
301
15.
National Security [Transferred]
401
16.
Defense Industrial Reserves
451
17.
Arming American Vessels [Repealed]
481
18.
Air-Warning Screen
491
19.
Guided Missiles
501
20.
Wind Tunnels
511
21.
Abacá Production [Omitted]
541
22.
Uniform Code of Military Justice [Repealed or Omitted]
551
22A.
Representation of Armed Forces Personnel Before Foreign Judicial Tribunals [Repealed]
751
23.
Internal Security
781
24.
National Defense Facilities [Repealed]
881
25.
Armed Forces Reserve [Repealed or Omitted]
901
26.
Gifts for Defense Purposes [Repealed]
1151
27.
Reserve Officer Personnel Program [Repealed or Omitted]
1181
28.
Status of Armed Forces Personnel Appointed to Service Academies [Repealed]
1411
29.
National Defense Contracts
1431
30.
Federal Absentee Voting Assistance [Transferred]
1451
31.
Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations [Transferred to Chapter 53 of Title 42]
1501
32.
Chemical and Biological Warfare Program
1511
33.
War Powers Resolution
1541
34.
National Emergencies
1601
35.
International Emergency Economic Powers
1701
36.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance
1801
37.
National Security Scholarships, Fellowships, and Grants
1901
38.
Central Intelligence Agency Retirement and Disability
2001
39.
Spoils of War
2201
40.
Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction
2301
41.
National Nuclear Security Administration
2401
42.
Atomic Energy Defense Provisions
2501
43.
Preventing Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism
2901
44.
National Security
3001
45.
Miscellaneous Intelligence Community Authorities
3301
46.
Central Intelligence Agency
3501
47.
National Security Agency
3601
48.
Department of Defense Cooperative Threat Reduction
3701
49.
Military Selective Service
3801
50.
Servicemembers Civil Relief
3901
51.
War Claims
4101
52.
Restitution for World War II Internment of Japanese-Americans and Aleuts
4201
53.
Trading With the Enemy
4301
54.
Merchant Ship Sales
4401
55.
Defense Production
4501
56.
Export Administration
4601
57.
Claims Under the Clarification Act
4701

        

Table I
(Showing disposition of former sections of Title 50)
Title 50

Former Classification

Title 50

New Classification

401 3002
401 note (Act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, §1, 61 Stat. 495) 3001
401 note (Act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title III, §309, 61 Stat. 509) 3076
401 note (Act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title III, §310, 61 Stat. 509) 3077
401 note (Act Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §1, 63 Stat. 578) 3001 note
401 note (Act Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §12(f), 63 Stat. 591) 3001 note
401 note (Act Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §12(g), 63 Stat. 591) 3001 note
401 note (Act Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §12(i), 63 Stat. 592) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 97–200, §1, June 23, 1982, 96 Stat. 122) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 98–477, §1, Oct. 15, 1984, 98 Stat. 2209) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title IX, §907, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1622) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8104, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1898) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 102–496, title VII, §701, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3188) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §801, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3434) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 103–359, title IX, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3456) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §801, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3474) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 106–120, title VII, Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1620) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 107–306, title I, §108, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2388) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 107–306, title IX, §901(a), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432) 3301 note
401 note (Pub. L. 107–306, title X, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2437) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title I, §106, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2604) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §315(b), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2610) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–458, §1(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3638) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1001, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3643) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1081, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3696) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, subtitle H, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3697) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1103, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3700) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–487, title VIII, §802, Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3962) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 108–487, title VIII, §803, Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3962) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title X, §1035, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2450) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title VII, §701(a)(1), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2744) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title VII, §701(a)(2), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2745) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title VII, §701(a)(3), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2745) 3001 note
401 note (Pub. L. 112–235, §1, Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1626) 3001 note
401a 3003
401a note (Pub. L. 111–259, §2, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2656) 3003 note
401a note (Pub. L. 112–87, §2, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1877) 3003 note
402 3021
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §1, as added Pub. L. 96–450, title IV, §402(a)(2), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1978) 3601
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §2, as added Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §433, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2732) 3602
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §4, May 29, 1959, 73 Stat. 63) 3603
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §5, May 29, 1959, 73 Stat. 63) 3604
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §6, May 29, 1959, 73 Stat. 64) 3605
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §7, May 29, 1959, 73 Stat. 64) 3606
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §8 May 29, 1959, 73 Stat. 64) 3604 note
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §9, as added Pub. L. 96–450, §402(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1977) 3607
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §10, as added Pub. L. 96–450, §402(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1978) 3608
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §11, as added Pub. L. 96–450, §402(a)(1), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1978) 3609
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §12, as added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1156) 3610
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §13, as added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1158) 3611
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §14, as added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1158) 3612
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §15, as added Pub. L. 97–89, title VI, §603, Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1158) 3613
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §16, as added Pub. L. 99–569, title V, §505, Oct. 27,1986, 100 Stat. 3200) 3614
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §17, as added Pub. L. 102–88, title V, §503, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 436) 3615
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §18, formerly §17, as added Pub. L. 102–183, title IV, §405, Dec. 4, 1991, 105 Stat. 1267) 3616
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §19, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title V, §501, Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3950) 3617
402 note (Pub. L. 86–36, §20, as added Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §933, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2363) 3618
402 note (Pub. L. 108–375, div. A, title IX, §922, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2029) 3021 note
402–1 3022
402a 3381
402a note (Pub. L. 105–107, title III, §308, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2253) 3381 note
402b 3382
402b note (Pub. L. 107–306, title IX, §901(b), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2432) 3382 note
402c 3383
403 3023
403 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §319, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2614) 3023 note
403 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §357, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2621) 3023 note
403 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1018, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3670) 3023 note
403–1 3024
403–1 note (Pub. L. 103–359, title VI, §603, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3433) 3302
403–1 note (Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §807(c), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3480) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §807(d), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3481) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 105–107, title III, §309, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2253) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 107–306, title III, §352, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2401) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §317, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2611) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1013, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3662) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1017, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3670) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1052(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3683) 3367
403–1 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7201(e), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3813) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VIII, §8101, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3864) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §402(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2709) 3366
403–1 note (Pub. L. 112–18, §2, June 8, 2011, 125 Stat. 224) 3024 note
403–1 note (Pub. L. 112–18, title IV, §402, June 8, 2011, 125 Stat. 227) 3024 note
403–1a 3364
403–1a note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1020, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3672) 3364 note
403–1b 3322
403–1b note (Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §613, Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3959) 3322 note
403–1b note (Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title XI, §1124, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3454) 3322 note
403–1b note (Pub. L. 109–364, div. A, title IX, §944(a)(1), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2366) 3322 note
403–1c 3321
403–2 3329
403–2 note (Pub. L. 112–87, title III, §309, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1883) 3329 note
403–2a 3303
403–2b 3304
403–2b note (Pub. L. 103–359, title VI, §604, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3433) 3304 note
403–3 3025
403–3a 3026
403–3b 3027
403–3c 3028
403–3d 3029
403–3e 3030
403–3f 3031
403–3g 3032
403–3g note (Pub. L. 108–487, title III, §303(b), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3944) 3032 note
403–3h 3033
403–3h note (Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §405(c), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2719) 3033 note
403–3i 3034
403–4 3035
403–4 note (Pub. L. 105–272, title III, §309, Oct. 20, 1998, 112 Stat. 2403) 3501 note
403–4 note (Pub. L. 107–306, title IV, §402, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2403) 3505 note
403–4 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title IV, §405(c), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2633) 3505 note
403–4a 3036
403–4a note (Pub. L. 104–293, title IV, §402, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3468) 3519a note
403–4a note (Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §611(b), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3955) 3036 note
403–4a note (Pub. L. 112–87, title IV, §414, Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1891) 3036 note
403–4b 3506a
403–4b note (Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1011(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3661) 3506a note
403–4c 3037
403–4c note (Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §423(c), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2728) 3037 note
403–5 3038
403–5 note (Pub. L. 106–567, title V, §501, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2850) 3038 note
403–5 note (Pub. L. 109–163, div. A, title IX, §931, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3411) 3038 note
403–5a 3039
403–5b 3040
403–5d 3365
403–6 3041
403–7 3324
403–8 3325
403–9 3308
403a 3501
403a note (Act June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §9, formerly §11, 63 Stat. 212) 3501 note
403a note (Act June 20, 1949, ch. 227, §10, formerly §12, 63 Stat. 212) 3501 note
403b 3502
403c 3503
403c note (Pub. L. 97–269, title V, §502(b), Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1145) 3503 note
403c note (Pub. L. 97–269, title VII, §703, Sept. 27, 1982, 96 Stat. 1155) 3503 note
403d 3504
403e 3505
403e note (Pub. L. 86–707, title III, §301(d), Sept. 6, 1960, 74 Stat. 796) 3505 note
403e–1 3323
403f 3506
403f note (Pub. L. 103–335, title VIII, §8154(b), Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2658) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 104–61, title VIII, §8096(b), Dec. 1, 1995, 109 Stat. 671) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 104–208, div. A, title I, §101(b) [title VIII, §8080(b)], Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–71, 3009-104) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 105–56, title VIII, §8071(b), Oct. 8, 1997, 111 Stat. 1235) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 105–107, title IV, §401(b), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2257) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8065(b), Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2312) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8065(b), Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1244) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8062(b), Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 688) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 106–567, title IV, §405(c), Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2849) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8063(b), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2261) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 107–248, title VIII, §8058(b), Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1550) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8057(b), Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1085) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 108–287, title VIII, §8057(b), Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 983) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 109–148, div. A, title VIII, §8052(b), Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2710) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 109–289, div. A, title VIII, §8045(b), Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1283) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 110–116, div. A, title VIII, §8048(b), Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1325) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 110–329, div. C, title VIII, §8047(b), Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3632) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 111–118, div. A, title VIII, §8047(b), Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3439) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 112–10, div. A, title VIII, §8045(b), Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 67) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 112–74, div. A, title VIII, §8045(b), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 817) 3506 note
403f note (Pub. L. 113–6, div. C, title VIII, §8045(b), Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 308) 3506 note
403g 3507
403h 3508
403i 3509
403j 3510
403j note (Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9130], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-128) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 99–569, title V, §506, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3202) 3510b
403j note (Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8095], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-79) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8074, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–29) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9042, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1137) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8031, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1881) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8030, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1177) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9030, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1907) 3510a note
403j note (Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8104, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1463) 3510a
403k 3511
403l 3512
403m 3513
403n 3514
403n note (Pub. L. 99–569, title III, §302(d), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3194) 3514 note
403o 3515
403p 3516
403p note (Pub. L. 99–569, title III, §303(b), Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3195) 3516 note
403p note (Pub. L. 102–88, title III, §307(d), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 433) 3516 note
403p note (Pub. L. 102–88, title III, §307(e), Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 433) 3516 note
403q 3517
403q note (Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §425(f)(2), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2729) 3517 note
403r 3518
403r–1 3518a
403s 3519
403t 3520
403t note (Pub. L. 104–293, title VIII, §813(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3483) 3520 note
403u 3521
403u note (Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8048, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2307) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 106–79, title VIII, §8048, Oct. 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 1241) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 106–259, title VIII, §8045, Aug. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 684) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 107–117, div. A, title VIII, §8045, Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2257) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 107–248, title VIII, §8042, Oct. 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 1546) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 108–87, title VIII, §8042, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1081) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 108–287, title VIII, §8042, Aug. 5, 2004, 118 Stat. 979) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 109–148, div. A, title VIII, §8038, Dec. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2707) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 109–289, div. A, title VIII, §8033, Sept. 29, 2006, 120 Stat. 1281) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 110–116, div. A, title VIII, §8035, Nov. 13, 2007, 121 Stat. 1322) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 110–329, div. C, title VIII, §8035, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3629) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 111–118, div. A, title VIII, §8035, Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3436) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 112–10, div. A, title VIII, §8033, Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 64) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 112–74, div. A, title VIII, §8032, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 812) 3521 note
403u note (Pub. L. 113–6, div. C, title VIII, §8032, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 304) 3521 note
403v 3522
403w 3523
403x 3519a
404 3042
404a 3043
404a note (Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8132, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1208) 3043 note
404a note (Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1032, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1571) 3043 note
404a note (Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title X, §1072, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1592) 3043 note
404b 3301
404c 3310
404d 3044
404e 3045
404f 3046
404g 3047
404h 3048
404h note (Pub. L. 105–107, title III, §303(d), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2252) 3048 note
404h–1 3049
404i 3050
404i note (Pub. L. 105–272, title III, §307(c), Oct. 20, 1998, 112 Stat. 2402) 3050 note
404i note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §335, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2688) 3050 note
404i–1 3051
404i–1 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §368, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2705) 3051 note
404j 3052
404k 3053
404l 3054
404m 3055
404n 3361
404n–1 3362
404n–2 3363
404n–3 3036 note
404o 3056
404o note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7201(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3809) 3056 note
404o–1 3057
404o–2 3058
405 3073
405 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §410(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2725) 3309
406 3073 note
407 3328
408 3005
409 3004
409a 3071
409b 3072
409b–1 3072a
410 3075
411 3074
412 3006
413 3091
413a 3092
413a note (Pub. L. 102–88, title IV, §405, Aug. 14, 1991, 105 Stat. 434) 3092 note
413b 3093
413c 3307
414 3094
414 note (Pub. L. 99–169, title IV, §401(c), Dec. 4, 1985, 99 Stat. 1006) 3094 note
414 note (Pub. L. 102–496, title III, §303, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3183) 3094 note
414 note (Pub. L. 100–202, §101(b) [title VIII, §8037], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–43, 1329-68) 3327 note
414 note (Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8035, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–23) 3327 note
414 note (Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9022, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1134) 3327 note
414 note (Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8015, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1878) 3327 note
414 note (Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8014, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1174) 3327 note
414 note (Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8089, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1193) 3326
414 note (Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9014, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1903) 3327 note
414 note (Pub. L. 103–139, title VIII, §8107, Nov. 11, 1993, 107 Stat. 1464) 3327
415 3095
415a 3096
415a–1 3097
415a–1 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §312(a), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2606) 3097 note
415a–1 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §312(c), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2609) 3097 note
415a–1 note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §312(d), Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2609) 3097 note
415a–1 note (Pub. L. 112–87, title III, §306(b), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1882) 3097 note
415a–2 3305
415a–2 note (Pub. L. 111–118, div. A, title VIII, §8100, Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3450) 3305 note
415a–2 note (Pub. L. 112–10, div. A, title VIII, §8091, Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 77) 3305 note
415a–2 note (Pub. L. 112–74, div. A, title VIII, §8090, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 827) 3305 note
415a–2 note (Pub. L. 113–6, div. C, title VIII, §8087, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 317) 3305 note
415a–3 3103 note
415a–4 3098
415a–4 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §305(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2661) 3098 note
415a–5 3099
415a–6 3100
415a–6 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §322(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2673) 3100 note
415a–7 3101
415a–7 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §323(a)(2), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2678) 3101 note
415a–7 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §323(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2678) 3101 note
415a–8 3102
415a–9 3103
415a–9 note (Pub. L. 110–329, div. C, title VIII, §8112, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3645) 3103 note
415a–9 note (Pub. L. 111–118, div. A, title VIII, §8104, Dec. 19, 2009, 123 Stat. 3451) 3103 note
415a–9 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §325(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2683) 3103 note
415a–9 note (Pub. L. 112–10, div. A, title VIII, §8094, Apr. 15, 2011, 125 Stat. 77) 3103 note
415a–9 note (Pub. L. 112–74, div. A, title VIII, §8094, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 828) 3103 note
415a–9 note (Pub. L. 113–6, div. C, title VIII, §8091, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 318) 3103 note
415a–10 3104
415a–10 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §367(a)(1)(B), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2704) 3104 note
415a–11 3105
415a–11 note (Pub. L. 112–87, title III, §307(a)(2), Jan. 3, 2012, 125 Stat. 1883) 3105 note
415b 3106
415b note (Pub. L. 107–108, title V, §505, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1406) 3106 note
415b note (Pub. L. 107–306, title I, §109, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2389) 3106 note
415b note (Pub. L. 107–306, title VIII, §801, Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2418) 3106 note
415b note (Pub. L. 108–177, title I, §107, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2604) 3106 note
415b note (Pub. L. 108–487, title I, §107, Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3943) 3106 note
415c 3306
415d 3107
415d note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §332(b), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2687) 3107 note
421 3121
422 3122
423 3123
424 3124
425 3125
426 3126
431 3141
431 note (Pub. L. 98–477, §4, Oct. 15, 1984, 98 Stat. 2212) 3141 note
432 3142
432 note (Pub. L. 106–120, title V, §501(b), Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1619) 3142 note
432a 3143
432b 3144
432c 3145
432d 3146
435 3161
435 note (Pub. L. 100–453, title IV, §404, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1908) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1082, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1480) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title XI, §1152, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1758) 3348
435 note (Pub. L. 103–236, title IX, Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 525) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §802(c), Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3438) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 104–93, title III, §306, Jan. 6, 1996, 109 Stat. 966) 3347
435 note (Pub. L. 104–93, title IV, §402, Jan. 6, 1996, 109 Stat. 969) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1041(c), (d), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 758) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 106–120, title III, §305(c), Dec. 3, 1999, 113 Stat. 1612) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1075(c), (d)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-280) 3346
435 note (Pub. L. 106–567, title VII, Dec. 27, 2000, 114 Stat. 2856) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 111–258, §6, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2651) 3161 note
435 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title VII, §702, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2745) 3161 note
435a 3345
435b 3341
435b note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7601(c), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3857) 3342
435b note (Pub. L. 112–277, title III, §306, Jan. 14, 2013, 126 Stat. 2472) 3341 note
435c 3343
435d 3344
435d note (Pub. L. 111–258, §3, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2648) 3344 note
436 3162
437 3163
438 3164
441 3171
441a 3172
441b 3173
441c 3174
441d 3175
441g 3191
441g note (Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §318, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2613) 3191 note
441g–1 3192
441g–2 3193
441g–2 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §313(b)(2), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2666) 3193 note
441j 3201
441j note (Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §314, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2666) 3201 note
441j–1 3202
441j–2 3203
441j–3 3204
441j–4 3205
441m 3221
441n 3222
441o 3223
441p 3224
442 3231
442a 3232
442b 3233
Table II
(Showing disposition of sections of the former Appendix to Title 50; see also Elimination of Title 50, Appendix note below)
Title 50, Appendix,

Former Classification

Title 50 (or other location)

New Classification or Disposition

1 note prec. (Joint Res. Apr. 6, 1917, ch. 1, 40 Stat. 1) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. Dec. 7, 1917, ch. 1, 40 Stat. 429) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. Dec. 8, 1941, ch. 561, 55 Stat. 795) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. Dec. 11, 1941, ch. 564, 55 Stat. 796) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. Dec. 11, 1941, ch. 565, 55 Stat. 797) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 323, 56 Stat. 307) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 324, 56 Stat. 307) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 325, 56 Stat. 307) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. Oct. 19, 1951, ch. 519, 65 Stat. 451) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Joint Res. Jan. 29, 1955, ch. 4, 69 Stat. 7) Repealed
1 note prec. (Pub. L. 88–408, Aug. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 384) Repealed
1 note prec. (Pub. L. 92–129, title IV, §401, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 360) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2348, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3809, 54 Stat. 2629) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2350, eff. Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3821, 54 Stat. 2368) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2352, Sept. 8, 1939, 4 F.R. 3851, 54 Stat. 2643) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2353, Sept. 8, 1939, 4 F.R. 3851, 54 Stat. 2643) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2359, Sept. 10, 1939, 4 F.R. 3857, 54 Stat. 2652) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2374, Nov. 4, 1939, 4 F.R. 4493, 54 Stat. 2671) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2398, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1569, 54 Stat. 2698) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2399, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1569, 54 Stat. 2699) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2404, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1689, 54 Stat. 2703) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2405, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1689, 54 Stat. 2704) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2407, June 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 2191, 54 Stat. 2706) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2408, June 10, 1940, 5 F.R. 2191, 54 Stat. 2707) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2443, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4523, 54 Stat. 2763) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2444, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4523, 54 Stat. 2764) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2473, Apr. 10, 1941, 6 F.R. 1905, 55 Stat. 1627) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2477, Apr. 15, 1941, 6 F.R. 1995, 55 Stat. 1631) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2479, Apr. 24, 1941, 6 F.R. 2133, 55 Stat. 1636) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2487, May 27, 1941, 6 F.R. 2617, 55 Stat. 1647) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2563, July 17, 1942, 7 F.R. 5535, 56 Stat. 1970) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2685, Apr. 11, 1946, 11 F.R. 4079, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, p. 1342) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2714, Dec. 31, 1946, 12 F.R. 1, 61 Stat. 1048) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2914, Dec. 16, 1950, 15 F.R. 9029, 64 Stat. a454) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2950, Oct. 25, 1951, 16 F.R. 10915, 66 Stat. c3) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 2974, Apr. 28, 1952, 17 F.R. 3813, 66 Stat. c31) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 3504, Oct. 23, 1962, 27 F.R. 10401, 77 Stat. 958) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Proc. No. 3507, Nov. 21, 1962, 27 F.R. 11525, 77 Stat. 961) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Ex. Ord. No. 8233, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3822) Omitted
1 note prec. (Ex. Ord. No. 8234, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3823) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 note prec. (Ex. Ord. No. 9723, May 14, 1946, 11 F.R. 5345) 50 U.S.C. 1 note prec.
1 50 U.S.C. 4301
2 50 U.S.C. 4302
2 note (Proc. Feb. 5, 1918, 40 Stat. 1745) 50 U.S.C. 4302 note
2 note (Proc. May 31, 1918, 40 Stat. 1786) 50 U.S.C. 4302 note
2 note (Proc. Aug. 10, 1918, 40 Stat. 1833) 50 U.S.C. 4302 note
2 note (Proc. Aug. 14, 1918, 40 Stat. 1837) 50 U.S.C. 4302 note
2 note (Proc. Nov. 29, 1918, 40 Stat. 1899) 50 U.S.C. 4302 note
3 50 U.S.C. 4303
4 50 U.S.C. 4304
4 note (Proc. Apr. 6, 1917, 40 Stat. 1654) 50 U.S.C. 4304 note
4 note (Proc. July 13, 1917, 40 Stat. 1684) 50 U.S.C. 4304 note
5 50 U.S.C. 4305
5 note (Mar. 9, 1933, ch. 1, title I, §1, 48 Stat. 1) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Pub. L. 95–223, title I, §101(b), (c), Dec. 28, 1977, 91 Stat. 1625) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2502(a)(2), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1371) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Pub. L. 103–236, title V, §525(b)(2), Apr. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 474) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Proc. No. 8271, June 26, 2008, 73 F.R. 36785) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 8, 1978, 43 F.R. 40449) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 12, 1979, 44 F.R. 53153) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 8, 1980, 45 F.R. 59549) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 10, 1981, 46 F.R. 45321) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 39797) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 7, 1983, 48 F.R. 40695) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 11, 1984, 49 F.R. 35927) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Sept. 5, 1985, 50 F.R. 36563) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Aug. 20, 1986, 51 F.R. 30201) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, Aug. 27, 1987, 51 F.R. 33397) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 88–22, Sept. 8, 1988, 53 F.R. 35289) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 89–25, Aug. 28, 1989, 54 F.R. 37089) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 90–38, Sept. 5, 1990, 55 F.R. 37309) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 91–52, Sept. 13, 1991, 56 F.R. 48415) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 92–45, Aug. 28, 1992, 57 F.R. 43125) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 93–38, Sept. 13, 1993, 58 F.R. 51209) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 94–46, Sept. 8, 1994, 59 F.R. 47229) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 95–41, Sept. 8, 1995, 60 F.R. 47659) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 96–43, Aug. 27, 1996, 61 F.R. 46529) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 97–32, Sept. 12, 1997, 62 F.R. 48729) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 98–35, Sept. 11, 1998, 63 F.R. 50455) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 99–36, Sept. 10, 1999, 64 F.R. 51885) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2000–29, Sept. 12, 2000, 65 F.R. 55883) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2001–26, Sept. 12, 2001, 66 F.R. 47943) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 02–31, Sept. 13, 2002, 67 F.R. 58681) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2003–36, Sept. 12, 2003, 68 F.R. 54325) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2004–45, Sept. 10, 2004, 69 F.R. 55497) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2005–35, Sept. 12, 2005, 70 F.R. 54607) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2006–23, Sept. 13, 2006, 71 F.R. 54399) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2007–32, Sept. 13, 2007, 72 F.R. 53409) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2008–27, Sept. 12, 2008, 73 F.R. 54055) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2009–27, Sept. 11, 2009, 74 F.R. 47431) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2010–13, Sept. 2, 2010, 75 F.R. 54459) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2011–15, Sept. 13, 2011, 76 F.R. 57623) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2012–14, Sept. 10, 2012, 77 F.R. 56753) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2013–13, Sept. 12, 2013, 78 F.R. 57225) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
5 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 2014–14, Sept. 5, 2014, 79 F.R. 54183) 50 U.S.C. 4305 note
6 50 U.S.C. 4306
6 note (May 16, 1928, ch. 580, §1, 45 Stat. 574) Omitted
6 note (Sept. 29, 1950, ch. 1108, §2, 64 Stat. 1081) Omitted
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9095, Mar. 11, 1942, 7 F.R. 1971) Omitted
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9142, Apr. 21, 1942, 7 F.R. 2985) Omitted
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9325, Apr. 7, 1943, 8 F.R. 1682) Omitted
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9760, July 23, 1946, 11 F.R. 7999) 50 U.S.C. 4306 note
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9788, Oct. 14, 1946, 11 F.R. 11981) 50 U.S.C. 4306 note
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9989, Aug. 20, 1948, 13 F.R. 4891) Omitted
6 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11281, May 13, 1966, 31 F.R. 7215) 50 U.S.C. 4306 note
6a (Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 660, title I, 58 Stat. 855) Omitted
6a note (Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 660, title I, 58 Stat. 855) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 90–470, title II, Aug. 9, 1968, 82 Stat. 673) Omitted
6b (July 20, 1949, ch. 354, title II, 63 Stat. 461) Omitted
6b (Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. III, title II, 64 Stat. 619) Omitted
6b (Oct. 22, 1951, ch. 533, title II, 65 Stat. 585) Omitted
6b (July 10, 1952, ch. 651, title II, 66 Stat. 559) Omitted
6b (Aug. 5, 1953, ch. 328, title II, 67 Stat. 375) Omitted
6b (July 2, 1954, ch. 456, title II, 68 Stat. 421) Omitted
6b (July 7, 1955, ch. 279, title II, 69 Stat. 273) Omitted
6b (June 20, 1956, ch. 414, title II, 70 Stat. 308) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 85–49, title II, June 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 63) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 85–474, title II, June 30, 1958, 72 Stat. 252) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 86–84, title II, July 13, 1959, 73 Stat. 189) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 86–678, title II, Aug. 31, 1960, 74 Stat. 564) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 87–264, title II, Sept. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 550) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 87–843, title II, Oct. 18, 1962, 76 Stat. 1085) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 88–245, title II, Dec. 30, 1963, 77 Stat. 781) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 88–527, title II, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 716) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 89–164, title II, Sept. 2, 1965, 79 Stat. 625) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 89–797, title II, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1484) Omitted
6b (Pub. L. 90–133, title II, Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 416) Omitted
7 50 U.S.C. 4307
8 50 U.S.C. 4308
9 50 U.S.C. 4309
10 50 U.S.C. 4310
10 note (Proc. May 24, 1917, 40 Stat. 1669) Omitted
11 50 U.S.C. 4311
11 note (Joint Res. Nov. 19, 1919, ch. 121, 41 Stat. 361) Omitted
11 note (Proc. Nov. 28, 1917, 40 Stat. 1722) Omitted
11 note (Proc. Feb. 14, 1918, 40 Stat. 1748) Omitted
12 50 U.S.C. 4312
12 note (Ex. Ord. No. 6237–A, eff. July 30, 1933) Omitted
12 note (Ex. Ord. No. 7894, eff. May 23, 1938, 3 F.R. 998) Omitted
13 50 U.S.C. 4313
14 50 U.S.C. 4314
15 (Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §15, 40 Stat. 425) Omitted
16 50 U.S.C. 4315
17 50 U.S.C. 4316
18 (Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §18, 40 Stat. 425) Omitted
19 (Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, §19, 40 Stat. 425) Omitted
20 50 U.S.C. 4317
20 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9725, May 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 5381) 50 U.S.C. 4317 note
21 50 U.S.C. 4318
22 50 U.S.C. 4319
23 50 U.S.C. 4320
24 50 U.S.C. 4321
25 50 U.S.C. 4322
26 50 U.S.C. 4323
27 50 U.S.C. 4324
28 50 U.S.C. 4325
29 50 U.S.C. 4326
30 50 U.S.C. 4327
31 50 U.S.C. 4328
32 50 U.S.C. 4329
32 note (Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, 61 Stat. 784) 50 U.S.C. 4329 note
32 note (Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, §1, 61 Stat. 784) 50 U.S.C. 4329 note
32 note (Aug. 5, 1947, ch. 499, §4, 61 Stat. 786) 50 U.S.C. 4329 note
32 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10587, Jan. 13, 1955, 20 F.R. 361) Omitted
33 50 U.S.C. 4330
34 50 U.S.C. 4331
35 50 U.S.C. 4332
36 50 U.S.C. 4333
37 50 U.S.C. 4334
38 50 U.S.C. 4335
39 50 U.S.C. 4336
40 50 U.S.C. 4337
40 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10244, May 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 4639) 50 U.S.C. 4337 note
41 50 U.S.C. 4338
42 50 U.S.C. 4339
43 50 U.S.C. 4340
44 50 U.S.C. 4341
321 note prec (June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §10(a)(4), 62 Stat. 618) Omitted
321 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
322 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
323 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
324 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
325 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
326 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
327 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
328 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
329 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
330 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
451 50 U.S.C. 3801
451 note (June 30, 1950, ch. 445, §4, 64 Stat. 319) 50 U.S.C. 3801 note
451 note (June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §5, 65 Stat. 88) 50 U.S.C. 3801 note
451 note (June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §7, 65 Stat. 89) 50 U.S.C. 3801 note
451 note (June 30, 1955, ch. 250, §1, 69 Stat. 223) 50 U.S.C. 3801 note
451 note (Pub. L. 91–124, §1, Nov. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 220) 50 U.S.C. 3801 note
451 note (Pub. L. 96–107, title VIII, §811, Nov. 9, 1979, 93 Stat. 815) Omitted
452 (June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §2, 62 Stat. 605) Repealed
453 50 U.S.C. 3802
453 note (Proc. No. 2799, July 20, 1948, 13 F.R. 4173, 62 Stat. 1531) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 2937, Aug. 16, 1951, 16 F.R. 8263, 65 Stat. c.27) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 2938, Aug. 16, 1951, 16 F.R. 8265, 65 Stat. c.30) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 2942, Aug. 30, 1951, 16 F.R. 8969, 65 Stat. c.35) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 2972, Apr. 17, 1952, 17 F.R. 3473, 66 Stat. c.28) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 3314, Sept. 14, 1959, 24 F.R. 7517, 73 Stat. c.78) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 4101, Jan. 13, 1972, 37 F.R. 659) Omitted
453 note (Proc. No. 4360, Mar. 29, 1975, 40 F.R. 14567, 89 Stat. 1255) 50 U.S.C. 3802 note
453 note (Proc. No. 4771, July 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 45247, 94 Stat. 3775) 50 U.S.C. 3802 note
454 50 U.S.C. 3803
454 note (Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §7, 64 Stat. 828) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (July 9, 1952, ch. 608, pt. VIII, §813, 66 Stat. 509) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (Pub. L. 85–62, §9, June 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 208) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (Proc. No. 2906, Oct. 6, 1950, 15 F.R. 6845, 64 Stat. Pt. 2, p. A437) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (Proc. No. 2915, Dec. 28, 1950, 15 F.R. 9419, 64 Stat. 494) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10164, Sept. 27, 1950, 15 F.R. 6570) Omitted
454 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10166, Oct. 4, 1950, 15 F.R. 6777) Omitted
454 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10762, Mar. 28, 1958, 23 F.R. 2119) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10776, July 28, 1958, 23 F.R. 5683) 50 U.S.C. 3803 note
454 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11415, June 24, 1968, 33 F.R. 9329) Omitted
454a (Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §4, 64 Stat. 828) Omitted
454a note (Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §7, 64 Stat. 828) Omitted
454b (Sept. 9, 1950, ch. 939, §6, 64 Stat. 828) Omitted
454c (June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §4, 67 Stat. 88) Omitted
454d (June 29, 1953, ch. 158, §5, 67 Stat. 89) Omitted
454e 50 U.S.C. 3804
455 50 U.S.C. 3805
455 note (Proc. No. 3945, Nov. 26, 1969, 34 F.R. 19017, 83 Stat. 972) 50 U.S.C. 3805 note
456 50 U.S.C. 3806
456 note (Pub. L. 88–110, §5, Sept. 3, 1963, 77 Stat. 136) 50 U.S.C. 3806 note
456 note (Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(b), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 354) 50 U.S.C. 3806 note
456 note (Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(d), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 354) 50 U.S.C. 3806 note
456 note (Pub. L. 96–584, §3(b), Dec. 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 3377) 50 U.S.C. 3806 note
456 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10028, Jan. 13, 1949, 14 F.R. 211) 50 U.S.C. 3806 note
457 (June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §7, 62 Stat. 614) Repealed
458 50 U.S.C. 3807
459 50 U.S.C. 3808
459 note (July 9, 1956, ch. 523, §2, 70 Stat. 509) 50 U.S.C. 3808 note
459 note (Pub. L. 86–632, §3, July 12, 1960, 74 Stat. 468) 50 U.S.C. 3808 note
460 50 U.S.C. 3809
460 note (June 5, 1952, ch. 369, Ch. VII, §701, 66 Stat. 109) 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
460 note (Pub. L. 93–176, §2, Dec. 5, 1973, 87 Stat. 693) 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
460 note (Pub. L. 93–176, §4, Dec. 5, 1973, 87 Stat. 694) 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
460 note (Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(l), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1956) 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
460 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11623, Oct. 12, 1971, 36 F.R. 19963) 50 U.S.C. 3809 note
461 50 U.S.C. 3810
462 50 U.S.C. 3811
462 note (Pub. L. 95–79, title VIII, §810, July 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 335) Omitted
462 note (Pub. L. 97–252, title XI, §1113(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 748) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
462 note (Pub. L. 99–129, title II, §222, Oct. 22, 1985, 99 Stat. 544) Omitted
462 note (Proc. No. 4313, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33293, 88 Stat. 2504) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
462 note (Proc. No. 4483, Jan. 21, 1977, 42 F.R. 4391, 91 Stat. 1719) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
462 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11803, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33297) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
462 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11804, Sept. 16, 1974, 39 F.R. 33299) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
462 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11878, Sept. 10, 1975, 40 F.R. 42731) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
462 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11967, Jan. 21, 1977, 42 F.R. 4393) 50 U.S.C. 3811 note
463 50 U.S.C. 3812
464 (June 24, 1948, ch. 625, title I, §14, 62 Stat. 623) Repealed
465 50 U.S.C. 3813
466 50 U.S.C. 3814
467 50 U.S.C. 3815
467 note (Pub. L. 92–129, title I, §101(a)(35), Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 353) 50 U.S.C. 3815 note
468 50 U.S.C. 3816
469 50 U.S.C. 3817
470 50 U.S.C. 3818
471 50 U.S.C. 3819
471 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10271, July 7, 1951, 16 F.R. 6661) 50 U.S.C. 3819 note
471a 50 U.S.C. 3820
472 (June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §4, 65 Stat. 88) Omitted
473 10 U.S.C. 113 note
501 50 U.S.C. 3901
501 note (Oct. 6, 1942, ch. 581, §1, 56 Stat. 769) 50 U.S.C. 3901 note
501 note (Pub. L. 102–12, §1, Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 34) 50 U.S.C. 3901 note
501 note (Pub. L. 108–189, §3, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2866) 50 U.S.C. 3901 note
501 note (Pub. L. 111–97, §1, Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3007) 50 U.S.C. 3901 note
501 note (Pub. L. 111–346, §1, Dec. 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 3622) 50 U.S.C. 3901 note
501 note (Pub. L. 113–286, §1, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 3093) 50 U.S.C. 3901 note
502 50 U.S.C. 3902
511 50 U.S.C. 3911
512 50 U.S.C. 3912
513 50 U.S.C. 3913
514 50 U.S.C. 3914
515 50 U.S.C. 3915
515a 50 U.S.C. 3916
516 50 U.S.C. 3917
517 50 U.S.C. 3918
518 50 U.S.C. 3919
519 50 U.S.C. 3920
521 50 U.S.C. 3931
522 50 U.S.C. 3932
522 note (Pub. L. 102–12, §6, Mar. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 37) 50 U.S.C. 3932 note
523 50 U.S.C. 3933
524 50 U.S.C. 3934
525 50 U.S.C. 3935
526 50 U.S.C. 3936
527 50 U.S.C. 3937
528 50 U.S.C. 3938
531 50 U.S.C. 3951
532 50 U.S.C. 3952
533 50 U.S.C. 3953
533 note (Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title II, §2203(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2850) 50 U.S.C. 3953 note
533 note (Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(c), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208) 50 U.S.C. 3953 note
533 note (Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(d)(1), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208) 50 U.S.C. 3953 note
533 note (Pub. L. 112–154, title VII, §710(d)(3), Aug. 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 1208) 50 U.S.C. 3953 note
534 50 U.S.C. 3954
535 50 U.S.C. 3955
535a 50 U.S.C. 3956
536 50 U.S.C. 3957
537 50 U.S.C. 3958
538 50 U.S.C. 3959
541 50 U.S.C. 3971
542 50 U.S.C. 3972
543 50 U.S.C. 3973
544 50 U.S.C. 3974
545 50 U.S.C. 3975
546 50 U.S.C. 3976
547 50 U.S.C. 3977
548 50 U.S.C. 3978
549 50 U.S.C. 3979
561 50 U.S.C. 3991
562 50 U.S.C. 3992
563 50 U.S.C. 3993
564 50 U.S.C. 3994
565 50 U.S.C. 3995
566 50 U.S.C. 3996
567 50 U.S.C. 3997
568 50 U.S.C. 3998
568 note (Pub. L. 111–97, §4(b), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3008) 50 U.S.C. 3998 note
569 50 U.S.C. 3999
570 50 U.S.C. 4000
571 50 U.S.C. 4001
571 note (Pub. L. 111–97, §3(b), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3008) 50 U.S.C. 4001 note
581 50 U.S.C. 4011
582 50 U.S.C. 4012
583 50 U.S.C. 4013
591 50 U.S.C. 4021
592 50 U.S.C. 4022
593 50 U.S.C. 4023
594 50 U.S.C. 4024
595 50 U.S.C. 4025
595 note (Pub. L. 111–97, §2(c), Nov. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 3007) 50 U.S.C. 4025 note
596 50 U.S.C. 4026
597 50 U.S.C. 4041
597a 50 U.S.C. 4042
597b 50 U.S.C. 4043
1291 50 U.S.C. 4701
1292 50 U.S.C. 4702
1293 50 U.S.C. 4703
1294 50 U.S.C. 4704
1295 50 U.S.C. 4705
1622 40 U.S.C. 545 note
1735 50 U.S.C. 4401
1735 note (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §1, 60 Stat. 41) 50 U.S.C. 4401 note
1735 note (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §14, 60 Stat. 50) 50 U.S.C. 4401 note
1735 note (Sept. 28, 1950, ch. 1093, §3, 64 Stat. 1078) 50 U.S.C. 4401 note
1736 50 U.S.C. 4402
1737 (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §4, 60 Stat. 43) Repealed
1738 50 U.S.C. 4403
1738 note (Pub. L. 85–721, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 710) 50 U.S.C. 4403 note
1738a (June 29, 1949, ch. 281, §2, 63 Stat. 349) Repealed
1738b (Pub. L. 94–121, title III, Oct. 21, 1975, 89 Stat. 628) Omitted
1738b note (Oct. 10, 1949, ch. 662, title I, 63 Stat. 743) Omitted
1738b note (Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VIII, title I, 64 Stat. 717) Omitted
1738b note (Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, title II, 65 Stat. 286) Omitted
1738b note (July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title II, 66 Stat. 414) Omitted
1738b note (Aug. 5, 1953, ch. 328, title III, 67 Stat. 381) Omitted
1738b note (July 2, 1954, ch. 456, title III, 68 Stat. 426) Omitted
1738b note (June 30, 1955, ch. 253, title I, 69 Stat. 231) Omitted
1738b note (June 20, 1956, ch. 415, title I, 70 Stat. 318) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 85–52, title I, June 13, 1957, 71 Stat. 74) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 85–469, title I, June 25, 1958, 72 Stat. 231) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 86–88, title I, July 13, 1959, 73 Stat. 204) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 86–451, title I, May 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 97) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 87–125, title II, Aug. 3, 1961, 75 Stat. 274) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 87–843, title III, Oct. 18, 1962, 76 Stat. 1093) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 88–245, title III, Dec. 30, 1963, 77 Stat. 791) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 88–527, title III, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 726) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 89–164, title III, Sept. 2, 1965, 79 Stat. 634) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 89–797, title III, Nov. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 1494) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 90–133, title III, Nov. 8, 1967, 81 Stat. 425) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 90–470, title III, Aug. 9, 1968, 82 Stat. 682) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 91–153, title III, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 417) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 91–472, title III, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1054) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 92–77, title III, Aug. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 260) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 92–544, title III, Oct. 25, 1972, 86 Stat. 1124) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 93–162, title III, Nov. 27, 1973, 87 Stat. 649) Omitted
1738b note (Pub. L. 93–433, title III, Oct. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 1199) Omitted
1739 (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §6, 60 Stat. 43) Repealed
1740 (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §7, 60 Stat. 44) Repealed
1741 50 U.S.C. 4404
1742 (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §9, 60 Stat. 46) Repealed
1743 (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §10, 60 Stat. 49) Repealed
1744 50 U.S.C. 4405
1744 note (Pub. L. 102–587, title VI, §6205(a), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5094) 50 U.S.C. 4405 note
1744 note (Pub. L. 104–239, §16, Oct. 8, 1996, 110 Stat. 3138) 50 U.S.C. 4405 note
1745 50 U.S.C. 4406
1745a (Pub. L. 86–315, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 588) Repealed
1746 (Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, §13, 60 Stat. 50) Repealed
1911 15 U.S.C. 713d
1911 note (Ex. Ord. No. 9919, Jan. 3, 1948, 13 F.R. 59) 15 U.S.C. 713d note
1912 (Dec. 30, 1947, ch. 526, §2, 61 Stat. 945) Omitted
1913 (Dec. 30, 1947, ch. 526, §3, 61 Stat. 946) Omitted
1914 (Dec. 30, 1947, ch. 526, §4, 61 Stat. 946) Omitted
1915 (Dec. 30, 1947, ch. 526, §5, 61 Stat. 946) Omitted
1916 15 U.S.C. 713d–1
1917 (Dec. 30, 1947, ch. 526, §7, 61 Stat. 947) Repealed
1918 15 U.S.C. 713d–2
1919 15 U.S.C. 713d–3
1989 50 U.S.C. 4201
1989a 50 U.S.C. 4202
1989b 50 U.S.C. 4211
1989b note (Pub. L. 102–371, §1, Sept. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 1167) 50 U.S.C. 4211 note
1989b–1 50 U.S.C. 4212
1989b–2 50 U.S.C. 4213
1989b–3 50 U.S.C. 4214
1989b–3 note (Pub. L. 101–162, title II, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 996) 50 U.S.C. 4214 note
1989b–4 50 U.S.C. 4215
1989b–4 note (Pub. L. 102–371, §6(b), Sept. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 1168) 50 U.S.C. 4215 note
1989b–5 50 U.S.C. 4216
1989b–6 50 U.S.C. 4217
1989b–7 50 U.S.C. 4218
1989b–8 50 U.S.C. 4219
1989b–9 50 U.S.C. 4220
1989c 50 U.S.C. 4231
1989c–1 50 U.S.C. 4232
1989c–2 50 U.S.C. 4233
1989c–3 50 U.S.C. 4234
1989c–4 50 U.S.C. 4235
1989c–4 note (Pub. L. 103–402, §1(b), (c), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4174) 50 U.S.C. 4235 note
1989c–5 50 U.S.C. 4236
1989c–6 50 U.S.C. 4237
1989c–7 50 U.S.C. 4238
1989c–8 50 U.S.C. 4239
1989d 50 U.S.C. 4251
2001 50 U.S.C. 4101
2001 note (July 3, 1948, ch. 826, title I, §1, 62 Stat. 1240) 50 U.S.C. 4101 note
2001 note (Apr. 5, 1951, ch. 27, 65 Stat. 28) 50 U.S.C. 4101 note
2001 note (Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, §4, 66 Stat. 49) Omitted
2001 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, §1, 68 Stat. 1033) 50 U.S.C. 4101 note
2001 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, §105, 68 Stat. 1037) Omitted
2001 note (Pub. L. 87–846, title I, §104(b), Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1113) Omitted
2001 note (Pub. L. 107–333, Dec. 16, 2002, 116 Stat. 2873) Omitted
2002 50 U.S.C. 4102
2003 50 U.S.C. 4103
2004 50 U.S.C. 4104
2004 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, §101(e), 68 Stat. 1033) Omitted
2004 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, §102(b), 68 Stat. 1034) Omitted
2004 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, §102(c), 68 Stat. 1034) Omitted
2005 50 U.S.C. 4105
2005 note (Apr. 9, 1952, ch. 167, §3, 66 Stat. 49) Omitted
2005 note (May 13, 1954, ch. 202, §§2, 3, 68 Stat. 98) Omitted
2005 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title I, §102(b), 68 Stat. 1034) Omitted
2005 note (Pub. L. 104–201, div. A, title VI, §656, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2584) 50 U.S.C. 4105 note
2006 50 U.S.C. 4106
2007 (July 3, 1948, ch. 826, title I, §8, 62 Stat. 1245) Omitted
2008 50 U.S.C. 4107
2008 note (Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1162, title II, §§201–203, 68 Stat. 1037) Omitted
2008 note (Pub. L. 89–348, §2(6), Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1312) 50 U.S.C. 4107 note
2009 50 U.S.C. 4108
2010 50 U.S.C. 4109
2011 (July 3, 1948, ch. 826, title I, §12, 62 Stat. 1246) Omitted
2012 50 U.S.C. 4110
2012a (June 29, 1955, ch. 226, title I, 69 Stat. 195) Omitted
2012a note (Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VIII, title I, 64 Stat. 720) Omitted
2012a note (Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, title I, 65 Stat. 282) Omitted
2012a note (July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title I, 66 Stat. 410) Omitted
2012a note (July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title I, 67 Stat. 312) Omitted
2012a note (June 24, 1954, ch. 359, title I, 68 Stat. 293) Omitted
2013 50 U.S.C. 4111
2014 50 U.S.C. 4112
2015 50 U.S.C. 4113
2016 50 U.S.C. 4114
2017 50 U.S.C. 4131
2017 note (Pub. L. 87–846, title III, §301, Oct. 22, 1962, 76 Stat. 1117) 50 U.S.C. 4131 note
2017a 50 U.S.C. 4132
2017b 50 U.S.C. 4133
2017c 50 U.S.C. 4134
2017d 50 U.S.C. 4135
2017e 50 U.S.C. 4136
2017f 50 U.S.C. 4137
2017g 50 U.S.C. 4138
2017h 50 U.S.C. 4139
2017i 50 U.S.C. 4140
2017j 50 U.S.C. 4141
2017k 50 U.S.C. 4142
2017l 50 U.S.C. 4143
2017l note (Pub. L. 91–571, §1(b), Dec. 24, 1970, 84 Stat. 1503) 50 U.S.C. 4143 note
2017m 50 U.S.C. 4144
2017n 50 U.S.C. 4145
2017o 50 U.S.C. 4146
2017p 50 U.S.C. 4147
2061 50 U.S.C. 4501
2061 note (July 31, 1951, ch. 275, §1, 65 Stat. 131) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (June 30, 1952, ch. 530, §1, 66 Stat. 296) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (June 30, 1953, ch. 171, §1, 67 Stat. 129) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 655, §1, 69 Stat. 580) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 93–426, §1, Sept. 30, 1974, 88 Stat. 1166) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 94–152, §1, Dec. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 810) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 95–37, §1, June 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 178) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 96–294, title I, part A (§§101–107), §101, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 617) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 98–265, §1, Apr. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 149) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 99–441, §1, Oct. 3, 1986, 100 Stat. 1117) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 102–99, §1, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 487) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 102–558, §1(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4198) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 104–64, §1, Dec. 18, 1995, 109 Stat. 689) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 107–47, §1, Oct. 5, 2001, 115 Stat. 260) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 108–195, §1, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2892) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 110–49, §1(a), July 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 246) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 110–367, §1, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4026) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2061 note (Pub. L. 111–67, §1(a), Sept. 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 2006) 50 U.S.C. 4501 note
2062 50 U.S.C. 4502
2062 note (Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 655, §11, 69 Stat. 583) 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2062 note (Pub. L. 96–294, title I, §107, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 633) 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2062 note (Pub. L. 102–558, title II, §203, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4220) Omitted
2062 note (Pub. L. 102–558, title III, §304, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4226) 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2062 note (Pub. L. 104–64, §4, Dec. 18, 1995, 109 Stat. 689) Omitted
2062 note (Pub. L. 108–195, §6, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2893) Omitted
2071 50 U.S.C. 4511
2071 note (Pub. L. 94–163, title I, §104(b), Dec. 22, 1975, 89 Stat. 879) 50 U.S.C. 4511 note
2071 note (Pub. L. 102–99, §7, Aug. 17, 1991, 105 Stat. 490) 50 U.S.C. 4511 note
2071 note (Pub. L. 110–53, title X, §1002(b), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 375) 50 U.S.C. 4511 note
2071 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10161, Sept. 9, 1950, 15 F.R. 6105) Omitted
2072 50 U.S.C. 4512
2073 50 U.S.C. 4513
2074 50 U.S.C. 4514
2075 50 U.S.C. 4515
2076 50 U.S.C. 4516
2077 50 U.S.C. 4517
2078 50 U.S.C. 4518
2081 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title II, §201, 64 Stat. 799) Repealed
2091 50 U.S.C. 4531
2091 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10223, Mar. 12, 1951, 16 F.R. 2247) Omitted
2092 50 U.S.C. 4532
2092 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10634, Aug. 31, 1955, 20 F.R. 6433) Omitted
2093 50 U.S.C. 4533
2093 note (Pub. L. 107–314, div. A, title VIII, §829, Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2618) 50 U.S.C. 4533 note
2093 note (Pub. L. 108–195, §3, Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2892) 50 U.S.C. 4533 note
2093 note (Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title VIII, §842, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2418) 50 U.S.C. 4533 note
2093 note (Pub. L. 113–172, §4(b), Sept. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 1897) 50 U.S.C. 4533 note
2093 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10219, Feb. 28, 1951, 16 F.R. 1983) Omitted
2094 50 U.S.C. 4534
2094 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12346, Feb. 8, 1982, 47 F.R. 5993) 50 U.S.C. 4534 note
2101 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §401, 64 Stat. 803) Repealed
2101 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10160, Sept. 9, 1950, 15 F.R. 6103) Omitted
2101 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10434, Feb. 6, 1953, 18 F.R. 809) Omitted
2101 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10494, Oct. 14, 1953, 18 F.R. 6585) Omitted
2102 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §402, 64 Stat. 803) Repealed
2103 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §403, 64 Stat. 807) Repealed
2104 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §404, 64 Stat. 807) Repealed
2105 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, 405, 64 Stat. 807) Repealed
2106 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §406, 64 Stat. 807) Repealed
2107 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §407, 64 Stat. 807) Repealed
2108 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §408, 64 Stat. 808) Repealed
2109 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §409, 64 Stat. 811) Repealed
2110 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §410, 64 Stat. 812) Repealed
2111 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §411, as added June 30, 1952, ch. 530, title I, §114, 66 Stat. 304) Repealed
2112 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title IV, §412, as added June 30, 1952, ch. 530, title I, §114, 66 Stat. 304) Repealed
2121 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title V, §501, 64 Stat. 812) Repealed
2122 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title V, §502, 64 Stat. 812) Repealed
2123 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title V, §503, 64 Stat. 812) Repealed
2131 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §601, 64 Stat. 812) Repealed
2132 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §602, 64 Stat. 813) Repealed
2133 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §603, 64 Stat. 814) Repealed
2134 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §604, 64 Stat. 814) Repealed
2135 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §605, 64 Stat. 814) Repealed
2136 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §606, as added Sept. 1, 1951, ch. 378, title VI, §602(b), 65 Stat. 313) Repealed
2137 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VI, §607, as added June 30, 1952, ch. 530, title I, §116(b), 66 Stat. 305) Repealed
2151 50 U.S.C. 4551
2152 50 U.S.C. 4552
2153 50 U.S.C. 4553
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10193, Dec. 16, 1950, 15 F.R. 9031) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10200, Jan. 3, 1951, 16 F.R. 61) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10224, Mar. 15, 1951, 16 F.R. 2543) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10281, Aug. 28, 1951, 16 F.R. 8789) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10308, Dec. 3, 1951, 16 F.R. 12303) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10433, Feb. 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 761) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10461, June 17, 1953, 18 F.R. 3513) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10480, Aug. 18, 1953, 18 F.R. 4939) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10660, Feb. 15, 1956, 21 F.R. 1117) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11179, Sept. 22, 1964, 29 F.R. 13239) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12919, June 3, 1994, 59 F.R. 29525) Omitted
2153 note (Ex. Ord. No. 13603, Mar. 16, 2012, 77 F.R. 16651) 50 U.S.C. 4553 note
2154 50 U.S.C. 4554
2155 50 U.S.C. 4555
2156 50 U.S.C. 4556
2157 50 U.S.C. 4557
2158 50 U.S.C. 4558
2158 note (Pub. L. 94–152, §4, Dec. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 820) 50 U.S.C. 4558 note
2158 note (Pub. L. 94–152, §9, Dec. 16, 1975, 89 Stat. 821) 50 U.S.C. 4558 note
2158a (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §708A, as added Dec. 16, 1975, Pub. L. 94–152, §3, 89 Stat. 815) Repealed
2159 50 U.S.C. 4559
2159 note (Pub. L. 102–558, title I, §136(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4217) 50 U.S.C. 4559 note
2160 50 U.S.C. 4560
2160 note (Pub. L. 89–348, §2(11), Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1313) Omitted
2160 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10182, Nov. 21, 1950, 15 F.R. 8013) Omitted
2160 note (Ex. Ord. No. 10647, Nov. 28, 1955, 20 F.R. 8769) Omitted
2161 50 U.S.C. 4561
2162 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §712, 64 Stat. 820) Repealed
2163 50 U.S.C. 4562
2163a (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §714, as added July 31, 1951, ch. 275, title I, §110(a) 65 Stat. 139) Repealed
2163a note (July 16, 1953, ch. 204, §1, 67 Stat. 176) Omitted
2164 50 U.S.C. 4563
2165 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §716, formerly §715, 64 Stat. 821) Repealed
2166 50 U.S.C. 4564
2166 note (Pub. L. 102–193, §2, Dec. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 1593) 50 U.S.C. 4564 note
2167 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §718, as added July 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–370, §3, 82 Stat. 279) Repealed
2168 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §719, as added Aug. 15, 1970, Pub. L. 91–379, title I, §103, 84 Stat. 796) Repealed
2169 (Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, title VII, §720, as added Sept. 30, 1974, Pub. L. 93–426, §5, 88 Stat. 1167) Repealed
2170 50 U.S.C. 4565
2170 note (Pub. L. 110–49, §7(c), July 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 258) 50 U.S.C. 4565 note
2170 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11858, May 7, 1975, 40 F.R. 20263) 50 U.S.C. 4565 note
2170 note (Memorandum of the President of the United States, Oct. 26, 1988, 53 F.R. 43999) 50 U.S.C. 4565 note
2170a 50 U.S.C. 4566
2170b (Pub. L. 103–359, title VIII, §809, Oct. 14, 1994, 108 Stat. 3454) Omitted
2171 50 U.S.C. 4567
2171 note (Memorandum of President of the United States, May 19, 2010, 75 F.R. 32087) 50 U.S.C. 4567 note
2172 50 U.S.C. 4568
2172 note (Pub. L. 102–558, title I, §123, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 4206) 50 U.S.C. 4568 note
2172 note (Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(7) [div. B, title XII, subtitle D], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-500) 50 U.S.C. 4568 note
2172 note (Pub. L. 108–195, §7(a), Dec. 19, 2003, 117 Stat. 2894) 50 U.S.C. 4568 note
2172 note (Ex. Ord. No. 13177, Dec. 4, 2000, 65 F.R. 76558) 50 U.S.C. 4568 note
2181 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2181 note (Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 339, [§1,] 67 Stat. 417) 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2182 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2183 50 U.S.C. 4502 note
2285 6 U.S.C. 765
2371 5 U.S.C. 301 note
2401 50 U.S.C. 4601
2401 note (Pub. L. 96–72, §1, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2401 note (Pub. L. 97–145, §1, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1727) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2401 note (Pub. L. 99–64, §1, July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 120) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2401 note (Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2441, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1364) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2401 note (Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §415, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2727) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2401 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11753, Dec. 20, 1973, 38 F.R. 34983) Omitted
2401 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12131, May 4, 1979, 44 F.R. 26842) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2401 note (Ex. Ord. No. 13558, Nov. 9, 2010, 75 F.R. 69573) 50 U.S.C. 4601 note
2402 50 U.S.C. 4602
2402 note (Pub. L. 101–510, div. A, title XVII, §1701, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1738) 50 U.S.C. 4602 note
2402 note (Pub. L. 103–199, title II, §201(b)(1), Dec. 17, 1993, 107 Stat. 2320) 50 U.S.C. 4602 note
2403 50 U.S.C. 4603
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11533, June 4, 1970, 35 F.R. 8799) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11677, Aug. 1, 1972, 37 F.R. 15483) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11683, Aug. 29, 1972, 37 F.R. 17813) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11798, Aug. 14, 1974, 39 F.R. 29567) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11818, Nov. 5, 1974, 39 F.R. 39429) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 11940, Sept. 30, 1976, 41 F.R. 43707) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12002, July 7, 1977, 42 F.R. 35623) 50 U.S.C. 4603 note
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12214, May 2, 1980, 45 F.R. 29783) 50 U.S.C. 4603 note
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12264, Jan. 15, 1981, 46 F.R. 4659) Omitted
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12290, Feb. 17, 1981, 46 F.R. 12943) 50 U.S.C. 4603 note
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 12981, Dec. 5, 1995, 60 F.R. 62981) 50 U.S.C. 4603 note
2403 note (Ex. Ord. No. 13026, Nov. 15, 1996, 61 F.R. 58767) 50 U.S.C. 4603 note
2403–1 (Pub. L. 93–365, title VII, §709, Aug. 5, 1974, 88 Stat. 408) Repealed
2403–1a (Pub. L. 91–184, §4A, as added Pub. L. 95–52, title II, §201(a), June 22, 1977, 91 Stat. 244) Omitted
2403a (Pub. L. 91–184, §4B, formerly §4A, as added Pub. L. 93–500, §8, Oct. 29, 1974, 88 Stat. 1554) Omitted
2404 50 U.S.C. 4604
2404 note (Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §105(c)(2), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 125) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2433, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1363) Omitted
2404 note (Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, §1322, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 478) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, §1323, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 480) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XIII, §1324(a), (b), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 480, 481) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XII, subtitle B, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1932) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXI, §3157, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2045) Repealed
2404 note (Pub. L. 105–261, div. A, title XV, §1522, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2179) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title XII, §1234(b)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-331) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(2) [title III, §314], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-123) Repealed
2404 note (Pub. L. 108–136, div. A, title XII, §1211, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1650) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2404 note (Determination of President of the United States, No. 97–39, Sept. 30, 1997, 62 F.R. 52477) 50 U.S.C. 4604 note
2405 50 U.S.C. 4605
2405 note (Pub. L. 97–145, §7, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1729) 50 U.S.C. 4605 note
2405 note (Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §108(g)(2), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 135) 50 U.S.C. 4605 note
2405 note (Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §108(j)(2), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 136) 50 U.S.C. 4605 note
2405 note (Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §108(l)(2), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 137) 50 U.S.C. 4605 note
2405 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7102(c)(2), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3777) 50 U.S.C. 4605 note
2405 note (Pub. L. 108–458, title VII, §7102(c)(3), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3777) 50 U.S.C. 4605 note
2406 50 U.S.C. 4606
2406 note (Pub. L. 96–72, §19(b)(2), Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 535) 50 U.S.C. 4606 note
2406 note (Pub. L. 96–126, title III, §308, Nov. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 980) 50 U.S.C. 4606 note
2406 note (Pub. L. 98–411, title V, §514, Aug. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 1575) 50 U.S.C. 4606 note
2406 note (Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2424(b), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1359) Omitted
2406 note (Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2432, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1363) Omitted
2407 50 U.S.C. 4607
2408 50 U.S.C. 4608
2409 50 U.S.C. 4609
2409 note (Pub. L. 96–72, §19(b)(1), Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 535) 50 U.S.C. 4609 note
2410 50 U.S.C. 4610
2410 note (Pub. L. 97–145, §4(d), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1728) 50 U.S.C. 4610 note
2410a 50 U.S.C. 4611
2410a note (Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §§2442, 2443, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1364) Omitted
2410a note (Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title III, §313, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 1951) Omitted
2410a note (Pub. L. 100–463, title VIII, §8092, Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2270–34) Omitted
2410a note (Pub. L. 101–165, title IX, §9087, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1148) Omitted
2410b 50 U.S.C. 4612
2410c 50 U.S.C. 4613
2411 50 U.S.C. 4614
2411 note (Pub. L. 113–276, title II, §209, Dec. 18, 2014, 128 Stat. 2994) 50 U.S.C. 4614 note
2411a (Pub. L. 91–184, §13, as added Pub. L. 95–52, title I, §102, June 22, 1977, 91 Stat. 235) Omitted
2412 50 U.S.C. 4615
2413 50 U.S.C. 4616
2414 50 U.S.C. 4617
2414 note (Pub. L. 99–64, title I, §116(e), July 12, 1985, 99 Stat. 153) 50 U.S.C. 4617 note
2415 50 U.S.C. 4618
2416 50 U.S.C. 4619
2417 50 U.S.C. 4620
2417 note (Pub. L. 97–145, §2(b), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1727) 50 U.S.C. 4620 note
2418 50 U.S.C. 4621
2419 50 U.S.C. 4622
2420 50 U.S.C. 4623

Elimination of Title 50, Appendix

Title 50, Appendix, War and National Defense, has been eliminated. The following acts listed below in order of appearance in the former Appendix, with their associated headings and Code citations, have been transferred to Title 50 (however, provisions that have been repealed or eliminated as obsolete are not being transferred):

Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917 (50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.), act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 106, 40 Stat. 411—see 50 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.

Office of Selective Service Records (50 U.S.C. App. 321 et seq.), act Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 26, 61 Stat. 31; Pub. L. 85–844, title I, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 1073—see 50 U.S.C. 3809 note.

Military Selective Service Act (50 U.S.C. App. 451 et seq.), act June 24, 1948, ch. 625, 62 Stat. 604—see 50 U.S.C. 3801 et seq.

Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 U.S.C. App. 501 et seq.), act Oct. 17, 1940, ch. 888, 54 Stat. 1178—see 50 U.S.C. 3901 et seq.

Clarification Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1291 et seq.), act Mar. 24, 1943, ch. 26, 57 Stat. 45—see 50 U.S.C. 4701 et seq.

Sale of Surplus War-Built Vessels (50 U.S.C. App. 1735 et seq.), act Mar. 8, 1946, ch. 82, 60 Stat. 41—see 50 U.S.C. 4401 et seq.

Restitution for World War II Internment of Japanese-Americans and Aleuts (50 U.S.C. App. 1989 et seq.), Pub. L. 100–383, Aug. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 903—see 50 U.S.C. 4201 et seq.

War Claims (50 U.S.C. App. 2001 et seq.), act July 3, 1948, ch. 826, 62 Stat. 1240—see 50 U.S.C. 4101 et seq.

Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2061 et seq.), act Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 932, 64 Stat. 798—see 50 U.S.C. 4501 et seq.

Domestic Minerals Program Extension (50 U.S.C. App. 2181 et seq.), act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 339, 67 Stat. 417—see 50 U.S.C. 4502 note.

Export Regulation (50 U.S.C. App. 2401 et seq.), Pub. L. 96–72, Sept. 29, 1979, 93 Stat. 503—see 50 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.

For disposition of particular provisions that appeared with these acts, see Table II, above. Provisions not repealed or eliminated as obsolete that appeared under the heading "Proclamations, Executive Orders, Joint Resolutions and Treaties Respecting War, Neutrality and Peace" in material preceding section 1 of Title 50, Appendix, can be found under the same heading below.

The following acts, listed below in order of appearance in former Title 50, Appendix, with their associated headings and Code citations, have been omitted from the Code because all of the provisions of such acts have been repealed or omitted from the Code; in addition, any statutory provisions from other acts and executive provisions that were set out or classified with such acts have been omitted (see versions of the Code prior to Supplement III to the 2012 main edition for additional details):

Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1918 (50 U.S.C. App. 101 et seq.), act Mar. 8, 1918, ch. 20, 40 Stat. 440.

Selective Draft Act of 1917 (50 U.S.C. App. 201 et seq.), act May 18, 1917, ch. 15, 40 Stat. 76.

Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 301 et seq.), act Sept. 16, 1940, ch. 720, 54 Stat. 885.

Service Extension Act of 1941 (50 U.S.C. App. 351 et seq.), act Aug. 18, 1941, ch. 362, 55 Stat. 626.

Army Reserve and Retired Personnel Service Law of 1940 (50 U.S.C. App. 401 et seq.), act Aug. 27, 1940, ch. 689, 54 Stat. 858.

First War Powers Act, 1941 (50 U.S.C. App. 601 et seq.), act Dec. 18, 1941, ch. 593, 55 Stat. 838.

Second War Powers Act, 1942 (50 U.S.C. App. 631 et seq.), act Mar. 27, 1942, ch. 199, 56 Stat. 176.

Exportation Restrictions on Certain Articles (50 U.S.C. App. 701 et seq.), acts July 2, 1940, ch. 508, 54 Stat. 714; May 28, 1941, ch. 134, 55 Stat. 206.

Requisition of Military Equipment, Materials and Supplies (50 U.S.C. App. 711 et seq.), acts Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 836, 54 Stat. 1090; Oct. 16, 1941, ch. 445, 55 Stat. 742.

Territorial Use of Army and Extension of Service Period (50 U.S.C. App. 731 et seq.), act Dec. 13, 1941, ch. 571, 55 Stat. 799.

Civilian Protection From War Hazards (50 U.S.C. App. 741 et seq.), act Jan. 27, 1942, ch. 20, 56 Stat. 19.

Decorations, etc., for Merchant Marine (50 U.S.C. App. 751 et seq.), Joint Res. Apr. 11, 1942, ch. 241, 56 Stat. 217; acts May 10, 1943, ch. 96, 57 Stat. 81; Aug. 8, 1946, ch. 918, 60 Stat. 960.

Use of Public Lands for War Purposes (50 U.S.C. App. 756 et seq.), act June 5, 1942, ch. 346, 56 Stat. 323.

Miscellaneous Provisions Affecting Military Establishment (50 U.S.C. App. 761 et seq.), acts June 5, 1942, ch. 340, 56 Stat. 314; June 28, 1944, ch. 306, 58 Stat. 624; Feb. 21, 1946, ch. 34, §3, 60 Stat. 27.

Photographing, Mapping or Other Representation of Military or Defense Properties (50 U.S.C. App. 781 et seq.), act June 25, 1942, ch. 447, 56 Stat. 390.

Exemption of Certain Articles From Import Duties and Taxes (50 U.S.C. App. 791 et seq.), Joint Res. June 27, 1942, ch. 455, 56 Stat. 461; Act June 27, 1942, ch. 453, 56 Stat. 461.

Temporary Appointments, Promotions, etc., of Navy, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard Officers (50 U.S.C. App. 806 et seq.), act June 30, 1942, ch. 462, 56 Stat. 463.

Jurisdiction of Prizes and Prize Proceedings (50 U.S.C. App. 821 et seq.), act Aug. 18, 1942, ch. 553, 56 Stat. 746.

Certain Allowance Assistance for Civilian and Military Personnel (50 U.S.C. App. 831 et seq.), acts Oct. 14, 1942, ch. 603, 56 Stat. 786; Nov. 28, 1943, ch. 330, 57 Stat. 593; Oct. 26, 1942, ch. 624, 56 Stat. 987; July 16, 1953, ch. 197, §1, 67 Stat. 172; Dec. 1, 1942, ch. 651, 56 Stat. 1024.

Free Entry of Gifts From Members of Armed Forces (50 U.S.C. App. 846 et seq.), act Dec. 5, 1942, ch. 680, 56 Stat. 1041.

Free Postage for Armed Forces Personnel (50 U.S.C. App. 891 et seq.), act July 12, 1950, ch. 460, 64 Stat. 336.

Emergency Price Control Act of 1942 (50 U.S.C. App. 901 et seq.), act Jan. 30, 1942, ch. 26, 56 Stat. 23.

Stabilization Act of 1942 (50 U.S.C. App. 961 et seq.), act Oct. 2, 1942, ch. 578, 56 Stat. 765.

Extension of Sugar Controls (50 U.S.C. App. 981 et seq.), act Mar. 31, 1947, ch. 30, 61 Stat. 35.

Missing Persons Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1001 et seq.), act Mar. 7, 1942, ch. 166, 56 Stat. 143.

Small Business Mobilization Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1101 et seq.), act June 11, 1942, ch. 404, 56 Stat. 351.

War and Defense Contract Acts (50 U.S.C. App. 1151 et seq.), acts June 28, 1940, ch. 440, 54 Stat. 676; July 2, 1940, ch. 508, 54 Stat. 712; July 11, 1941, ch. 290, §3, 55 Stat. 585; Apr. 28, 1942, ch. 247, title IV, §403, 56 Stat. 245; Dec. 17, 1942, ch. 739, 56 Stat. 1053; Feb. 25, 1944, ch. 63, title VIII, §801, 58 Stat. 92; May 21, 1948, ch. 333, §3, 62 Stat. 259; Mar. 23, 1951, ch. 15, 65 Stat. 7; July 17, 1953, ch. 221, 67 Stat. 177.

National Emergency and War Shipping Acts (50 U.S.C. App. 1251 et seq.), acts June 11, 1940, ch. 327, 54 Stat. 306; May 2, 1941, ch. 84, 55 Stat. 148; June 6, 1941, ch. 174, 55 Stat. 242; July 14, 1941, ch. 297, 55 Stat. 591; Apr. 29, 1943, ch. 81, 57 Stat. 69; July 9, 1943, ch. 212, 57 Stat. 391; Aug. 10, 1946, ch. 949, 60 Stat. 977.

Farm Labor Supply Appropriation Act, 1944 (50 U.S.C. App. 1351 et seq.), act Feb. 14, 1944, ch. 16, 58 Stat. 11.

War Overtime Pay Act of 1943 (50 U.S.C. App. 1401 et seq.), act May 7, 1943, ch. 93, 57 Stat. 75.

Training of Nurses Through Grants to Institutions (50 U.S.C. App. 1451 et seq.), act June 15, 1943, ch. 126, 57 Stat. 153.

Civilian Reemployment of Members of Merchant Marine (50 U.S.C. App. 1471 et seq.), act June 23, 1943, ch. 142, 57 Stat. 162.

War Labor Disputes Act (50 U.S.C. App. 1501 et seq.), act June 25, 1943, ch. 144, 57 Stat. 163.

Voluntary Enlistments in Regular Military Establishment (50 U.S.C. App. 1531 et seq.), act June 1, 1945, ch. 168, 59 Stat. 230.

Women's Army Corps (50 U.S.C. App. 1551 et seq.), act July 1, 1943, ch. 187, 57 Stat. 371.

United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (50 U.S.C. App. 1571 et seq.), act Mar. 28, 1944, ch. 135, 58 Stat. 122.

Temporary Appointments of Army Nurse Corps Members, etc., as Officers of Army of United States (50 U.S.C. App. 1591 et seq.), act June 22, 1944, ch. 272, 58 Stat. 324.

Disposal of Materials on Public Lands (50 U.S.C. App. 1601 et seq.), act Sept. 27, 1944, ch. 416, 58 Stat. 745.

Surplus Property Act of 1944 (50 U.S.C. App. 1611 et seq.), act Oct. 3, 1944, ch. 479, 58 Stat. 765 (section 13 of the Act, former 50 U.S.C. App. 1622, was transferred and is set out as a note under section 545 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works).

War Mobilization and Reconversion Act of 1944 (50 U.S.C. App. 1651 et seq.), act Oct. 3, 1944, ch. 480, 58 Stat. 785.

Fleet Admiral of Navy and General of Army (50 U.S.C. App. 1691 et seq.), act Dec. 14, 1944, ch. 580, 58 Stat. 802.

Disposal of Censored Mail (50 U.S.C. App. 1701), act Dec. 22, 1944, ch. 673, 58 Stat. 913.

Disbursing Officers' Additional Functions (50 U.S.C. App. 1705 et seq.), act Dec. 23, 1944, ch. 716, 58 Stat. 921.

General of Marine Corps (50 U.S.C. App. 1711 et seq.), act Mar. 21, 1945, ch. 29, 59 Stat. 36.

Admiral in Coast Guard (50 U.S.C. App. 1721 et seq.), act Mar. 21, 1945, ch. 30, 59 Stat. 37.

Exception of Navy or Coast Guard Vessels From Certain Navigation Rules (50 U.S.C. App. 1731 et seq.), act Dec. 3, 1945, ch. 511, 59 Stat. 590.

Rehabilitation of Philippines (50 U.S.C. App. 1751 et seq.), act Apr. 30, 1946, ch. 243, 60 Stat. 128.

Return and Interment of Persons Buried Outside United States (50 U.S.C. App. 1811 et seq.), act May 16, 1946, ch. 261, 60 Stat. 182.

Veterans' Emergency Housing Program (50 U.S.C. App. 1821 et seq.), acts May 22, 1946, ch. 268, 60 Stat. 207; June 30, 1948, ch. 775, 62 Stat. 1197.

Naval Vessels as Atomic Targets (50 U.S.C. App. 1841 et seq.), act June 25, 1946, ch. 487, 60 Stat. 308.

Admission of Alien Fiancées Into United States (50 U.S.C. App. 1851 et seq.), act June 29, 1946, ch. 520, 60 Stat. 339.

Military Assistance to Philippine Republic (50 U.S.C. App. 1861 et seq.), act June 26, 1946, ch. 500, 60 Stat. 315.

Naval Aid to China (50 U.S.C. App. 1871 et seq.), act July 16, 1946, ch. 580, 60 Stat. 539.

Naval Aid to Foreign Nations (50 U.S.C. App. 1876 et seq.), acts July 8, 1952, ch. 591, 66 Stat. 443; Aug. 5, 1953, ch. 321, 67 Stat. 363; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 347, 67 Stat. 471; Pub. L. 85–532, July 18, 1958, 72 Stat. 376; Pub. L. 86–57, June 23, 1959, 73 Stat. 90; Pub. L. 86–482, June 1, 1960, 74 Stat. 153; Pub. L. 87–387, Oct. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 815; Pub. L. 88–437, Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 444; Pub. L. 89–324, Nov. 5, 1965, 79 Stat. 1214; Pub. L. 89–398, Apr. 16, 1966, 80 Stat. 121; Pub. L. 90–224, Dec. 26, 1967, 81 Stat. 729; Pub. L. 91–682, Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2066; Pub. L. 92–270, Apr. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 118.

Housing and Rent Acts (50 U.S.C. App. 1881 et seq.), acts June 30, 1947, ch. 163, 61 Stat. 193; Mar. 30, 1948, ch. 161, 62 Stat. 93; Mar. 30, 1949, ch. 42, 63 Stat. 18; June 23, 1950, ch. 354, 64 Stat. 255; also act June 30, 1952, ch. 530, title II, §203 66 Stat. 307 (50 U.S.C. App. 1894a).

Domestic Rubber-Producing Industry (50 U.S.C. App. 1921 et seq.), act Mar. 31, 1948, ch. 166, 62 Stat. 101.

Disposal of Government-Owned Rubber-Producing Facilities (50 U.S.C. App. 1941 et seq.), act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 338, 67 Stat. 408.

Displaced Persons, Refugees and Orphans (50 U.S.C. App. 1951 et seq.), acts June 25, 1948, ch. 647, 62 Stat. 1009; July 29, 1953, ch. 268, 67 Stat. 229; Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 336, 67 Stat. 400.

American-Japanese Evacuation Claims (50 U.S.C. App. 1981 et seq.), act July 2, 1948, ch. 814, 62 Stat. 1231.

Medical Care for Philippine Veterans (50 U.S.C. App. 1991 et seq.), act July 1, 1948, ch. 785, 62 Stat. 1210.

Micronesian War and Postwar Claims (50 U.S.C. App. 2018 et seq.), Pub. L. 92–39, July 1, 1971, 85 Stat. 92.

Export Controls (50 U.S.C. App. 2021 et seq.), act Feb. 26, 1949, ch. 11, 63 Stat. 7.

Alien Property Damage Claims (50 U.S.C. App. 2041 et seq.), act Mar. 15, 1949, ch. 19, 63 Stat. 12.

Domestic Tungsten, Asbestos, Fluorspar and Columbium-Tantalum Purchase Programs (50 U.S.C. App. 2191 et seq.), act July 19, 1956, ch. 638, 70 Stat. 579.

Dependents Assistance Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2201 et seq.), act Sept. 8, 1950, ch. 992, 64 Stat. 794.

Civil Defense (50 U.S.C. App. 2251 et seq.), act Jan. 12, 1951, ch. 1228, 64 Stat. 1245 (former 50 U.S.C. App. 2285, which was not enacted as part of such Act, was transferred to section 765 of Title 6, Domestic Security).

Emergency Food Aid to India (50 U.S.C. App. 2311 et seq.), act June 15, 1951, ch. 138, 65 Stat. 69.

Korean Combat Pay (50 U.S.C. App. 2351 et seq.), act July 10, 1952, ch. 630, title VII, 66 Stat. 538.

Emergency Ship Repair Program (50 U.S.C. App. 2391 et seq.), act Aug. 20, 1954, ch. 777, 68 Stat. 754.

In addition, the following dispositions were made in connection with the elimination of Title 50, Appendix:

Act June 19, 1951, ch. 144, title I, §6, 65 Stat. 88 (50 U.S.C. App. 473) was transferred and is set out as a note under section 113 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Stabilization of Economy and Commodity Prices (50 U.S.C. App. 1911 et seq.), act Dec. 30, 1947, ch. 526, 61 Stat. 945, was transferred to a series of sections (§713d et seq.) in subchapter I of chapter 15 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

World War II License Agreements (50 U.S.C. App. 2371), act Aug. 16, 1950, ch. 716, 64 Stat. 448, was transferred and is set out as a note under section 301 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

PROCLAMATIONS, EXECUTIVE ORDERS, JOINT RESOLUTIONS AND TREATIES RESPECTING WAR, NEUTRALITY AND PEACE

(The following public laws and executive order were repealed, terminated, or omitted as obsolete prior to the elimination of Title 50, Appendix:

(Joint Res. Jan. 29, 1955, ch. 4, 69 Stat. 7, relating to protection of security of Formosa.

(Pub. L. 88–408, Aug. 10, 1964, 78 Stat. 384, relating to maintenance of international peace and security in southeast Asia.

(Ex. Ord No. 8233, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3822, relating to regulations governing enforcement of neutrality of the United States.)

I. PROCLAMATIONS OF STATE OF WAR

Proc. No. 2374, Nov. 4, 1939, 12:04 p.m., 4 F.R. 4493, 54 Stat. 2671, proclaimed a state of war between Germany and France; Poland; and the United Kingdom, India, Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the Union of South Africa.

Proc. No. 2398, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1569, 54 Stat. 2698, proclaimed a state of war between Germany and Norway.

Proc. No. 2404, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1689, 54 Stat. 2703, proclaimed a state of war between Germany and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands.

Proc. No. 2407, June 10, 1940, 10:20 p.m., E.S.T., 5 F.R. 2191, 54 Stat. 2706, proclaimed a state of war between Italy and France and United Kingdom.

Proc. No. 2443, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4523, 54 Stat. 2763, proclaimed a state of war between Italy and Greece.

Proc. No. 2473, Apr. 10, 1941, 6 F.R. 1905, 55 Stat. 1627, proclaimed a state of war between Germany-Italy and Yugoslavia.

Proc. No. 2477, Apr. 15, 1941, 6 F.R. 1995, 55 Stat. 1631, proclaimed a state of war between Hungary and Yugoslavia.

Proc. No. 2479, Apr. 24, 1941, 6 F.R. 2133, 55 Stat. 1636, proclaimed a state of war between Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and Greece.

II. PROCLAMATIONS OF UNITED STATES NEUTRALITY

Proc. No. 2348, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3809, 54 Stat. 2629, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and France; Poland; United Kingdom, India, Australia, and New Zealand.

Proc. No. 2353, Sept. 8, 1939, 4 F.R. 3851, 54 Stat. 2643, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Union of South Africa.

Proc. No. 2359, Sept. 10, 1939, 4 F.R. 3857, 54 Stat. 2652, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Canada.

Proc. No. 2399, Apr. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1569, 54 Stat. 2699, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Norway.

Proc. No. 2405, May 11, 1940, 5 F.R. 1689, 54 Stat. 2704, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Germany and Belgium, Luxemburg, and the Netherlands.

Proc. No. 2408, June 10, 1940, 10:20 p.m. E.S.T., 5 F.R. 2191, 54 Stat. 2707, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Italy and France and United Kingdom.

Proc. No. 2444, Nov. 15, 1940, 5 F.R. 4523, 54 Stat. 2764, proclaimed neutrality of United States in war between Italy and Greece.

See, also, notes under the Neutrality Act of 1939 (22 U.S.C. 441 et seq.).

III. MISCELLANEOUS PROCLAMATIONS AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS

National Emergency of 1939

Proc. No. 2352, Sept. 8, 1939, 4 F.R. 3851, 54 Stat. 2643, which proclaimed national emergency in connection with enforcement of neutrality, was terminated by Proc. No. 2974, set out below.

National Emergency of 1941

Proc. No. 2487, May 27, 1941, 6 F.R. 2617, 55 Stat. 1647, which proclaimed an unlimited national emergency relating to aggression directed toward the Western Hemisphere, was terminated by Proc. No. 2974, set out below.

Proc. No. 2685. Removal of Alien Enemies

Proc. No. 2685, Apr. 11, 1946, 11 F.R. 4079, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, p. 1342, provided:

1. All alien enemies within the continental limits of the United States brought here from other American republics after December 7, 1941, who are within the territory of the United States without admission under the immigration laws, shall, if their continued residence in the Western Hemisphere is deemed by the Secretary of State to be prejudicial to the future security or welfare of the Americas, be subject upon the order of the Secretary of State to removal from the United States and may be required to depart therefrom in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary of State may prescribe.

2. In all cases in which the Secretary of State shall have ordered the removal of an alien enemy under the authority of this proclamation or in which the Attorney General shall have ordered the removal of an alien enemy under the authority of Proclamation No. 2655 of July 14, 1945, thirty days shall be considered, and is hereby declared to be, a reasonable time for such alien enemy to effect the recovery, disposal, and removal of his goods and effects, and for his departure.

3. This proclamation supersedes Proclamation No. 2662 of September 8, 1945, entitled "Removal of Alien Enemies."

Harry S Truman.      

Proc. No. 2914. National Emergency, 1950

Proc. No. 2914, Dec. 16, 1950, 15 F.R. 9029, 64 Stat. a454 provided:

WHEREAS recent events in Korea and elsewhere constitute a grave threat to the peace of the world and imperil the efforts of this country and those of the United Nations to prevent aggression and armed conflict; and

WHEREAS world conquest by communist imperialism is the goal of the forces of aggression that have been loosed upon the world; and

WHEREAS, if the goal of communist imperialism were to be achieved, the people of this country would no longer enjoy the full and rich life they have with God's help built for themselves and their children; they would no longer enjoy the blessings of the freedom of worshipping as they severally choose, the freedom of reading and listening to what they choose, the right of free speech including the right to criticize their Government, the right to choose those who conduct their Government, the right to engage freely in collective bargaining, the right to engage freely in their own business enterprises, and the many other freedoms and rights which are a part of our way of life; and

WHEREAS the increasing menace of the forces of communist aggression requires that the national defense of the United States be strengthened as speedily as possible:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do proclaim the existence of a national emergency, which requires that the military, naval, air, and civilian defenses of this country be strengthened as speedily as possible to the end that we may be able to repel any and all threats against our national security and to fulfill our responsibilities in the efforts being made through the United Nations and otherwise to bring about lasting peace.

I summon all citizens to make a united effort for the security and well-being of our beloved country and to place its needs foremost in thought and action that the full moral and material strength of the Nation may be readied for the dangers which threaten us.

I summon our farmers, our workers in industry, and our businessmen to make a mighty production effort to meet the defense requirements of the Nation and to this end to eliminate all waste and inefficiency and to subordinate all lesser interests to the common good.

I summon every person and every community to make, with a spirit of neighborliness, whatever sacrifices are necessary for the welfare of the Nation.

I summon all State and local leaders and officials to cooperate fully with the military and civilian defense agencies of the United States in the national defense program.

I summon all citizens to be loyal to the principles upon which our Nation is founded, to keep faith with our friends and allies, and to be firm in our devotion to the peaceful purposes for which the United Nations was founded.

I am confident that we will meet the dangers that confront us with courage and determination, strong in the faith that we can thereby "secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity."

Harry S. Truman.      

Proc. No. 2974. Termination of Wartime Emergencies

Proc. No. 2974, Apr. 28, 1952, 17 F.R. 3813, 66 Stat. c31, provided in part:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do proclaim that the national emergencies declared to exist by the proclamations of September 8, 1939 [see above], and May 27, 1941 [see above], terminated this day upon the entry into force of the Treaty of Peace with Japan.

Nothing in this proclamation shall be construed to affect Proclamation No. 2914 [set out above], issued by the President on December 16, 1950, declaring that world conquest by communist imperialism is the goal of the forces of aggression that have been loosed upon the world, and proclaiming the existence of a national emergency requiring that the military, naval, air, and civilian defenses of this country be strengthened as speedily as possible to the end that we may be able to repel any and all threats against our national security and to fulfill our responsibilities in the efforts being made through the United Nations and otherwise to bring about lasting peace; and nothing herein shall be construed to affect the continuation of the said emergency of September 8, 1939, as specified in the Emergency Powers Interim Continuation Act, approved April 14, 1952 (Public Law 313—82d Congress), for the purpose of continuing the use of property held under the Act of October 14, 1940, ch. 862, 54 Stat. 1125, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1521 to 1524, 1531 to 1536, 1541 to 1553, 1561 to 1564, 1571 to 1576, 1581 to 1590].

Harry S Truman.      

Ex. Ord. No. 8234. Regulations Governing Passage and Control of Vessels Through Panama Canal in any War in Which the United States is Neutral

Ex. Ord. No. 8234, Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3823, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 8382, Mar. 25, 1940, 5 F.R. 1185, provided:

WHEREAS the treaties of the United States, in any war in which the United States is a neutral, impose on the United States certain obligations to both neutral and belligerent nations;

AND WHEREAS the treaties of the United States, in any war in which the United States is a neutral, require that the United States exert all the vigilance within their power to carry out their obligations as a neutral;

AND WHEREAS treaties of the United States require that the Panama Canal shall be free and open, on terms of entire equality, to the vessels of commerce and of war of all nations observing the rules laid down in Article 3 of the so-called Hay-Pauncefote treaty concluded between the United States and Great Britain, November 18, 1901:

NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me by section 5 of the Panama Canal Act, approved August 24, 1912 (ch. 390, sec. 5, 37 Stat. 562), as amended by the act of July 5, 1932 (ch. 425, 47 Stat. 578), I hereby prescribe the following regulations governing the passage and control of vessels through the Panama Canal or any part thereof, including the locks and approaches thereto, in any war in which the United States is a neutral;

1. Whenever considered necessary, in the opinion of the Governor of the Panama Canal, to prevent damage or injury to vessels or to prevent damage or injury to the Canal or its appurtenances, or to secure the observance of the rules, regulations, rights, or obligations of the United States, the Canal authorities may at any time, as a condition precedent to transit of the Canal, inspect any vessel, belligerent or neutral, other than a public vessel, including its crew and cargo, and, for and during the passage through the Canal, place armed guards thereon, and take full possession and control of such vessel and remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof and all other persons not specially authorized by the Canal authorities to go or remain on board thereof during such passage.

2. A public vessel of a belligerent or neutral nation shall be permitted to pass through the Canal only after her commanding officer has given written assurance to the authorities of the Panama Canal that the rules, regulations, and treaties of the United States will be faithfully observed.

3. Possession of cameras on board vessels; photographing from vessels. While on board any vessel in transit through the Panama Canal, no person shall (a) have or remain in possession of any camera, or (b) make any photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map, or graphical representation of any of the locks of the Panama Canal, or of any portion of any such lock, or of any area within or adjacent to any such lock, or of any object or structure within or upon any such area, without first obtaining the permission of the Governor of The Panama Canal, and promptly submitting the product obtained to the Governor for such action as he may deem necessary. The master of every vessel that transmits the Panama Canal (a) shall prior to the beginning of each transit cause all cameras on board such vessel, or which are brought on board by embarking passengers, or otherwise, to be collected and delivered to him, and shall retain the said cameras in his possession, in a secure and inaccessible place, until the disembarkation of the original possessors thereof or until the transit through the Canal is completed, and (b) shall during such transit take such further action, in cooperation with the Canal authorities, as may be necessary to prevent the making, by any person on board such vessel in the waters of the Canal Zone, of any photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map, or graphical representation which is forbidden by this paragraph; but these provisions shall not apply with respect to any person who has obtained permission as provided in this paragraph. Any person who shall violate any provision of this paragraph shall be punishable as provided in section 9 of title 2 of the [former] Canal Zone Code.

The foregoing regulations are in addition to the "Rules and Regulations for the Operation and Navigation of the Panama Canal and Approaches Thereto, including all Waters under its Jurisdiction" prescribed by Executive Order No. 4314 of September 25, 1925, as amended, and the provisions of proclamations and executive orders pertaining to the Canal Zone issued in conformity with the laws and treaties of the United States.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

Proc. No. 2350, eff. Sept. 5, 1939, 4 F.R. 3821, 54 Stat. 2368, referred to regulations concerning neutrality in the Canal Zone.

Ex. Ord. No. 9723. Termination of President's War Relief Control Board

Ex. Ord. No. 9723, May 14, 1946, 11 F.R. 5345, provided:

Executive Order No. 9205 of July 25, 1942, is revoked, and the President's War Relief Control Board established by that order is hereby terminated. The Secretary of State is authorized and directed to liquidate all of the activities and obligations and wind up all of the affairs of the Board as rapidly as practicable, and to utilize therefore such of the personnel property, records, and unexpended appropriations of the Board as may be necessary.

Harry S Truman.      

IV. DECLARATIONS OF WAR BY UNITED STATES

War Between United States and Germany

Declared by Joint Res. Apr. 6, 1917, ch. 1, 40 Stat. 1.

War Between United States and Austria-Hungary

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 7, 1917, ch. 1, 40 Stat. 429.

War Between United States and Japan

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 8, 1941, ch. 561, 55 Stat. 795.

War Between United States and Germany

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 11, 1941, ch. 564, 55 Stat. 796.

War Between United States and Italy

Declared by Joint Res. Dec. 11, 1941, ch. 565, 55 Stat. 797.

War Between the United States and Bulgaria

Declared by Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 323, 56 Stat. 307.

War Between United States and Hungary

Declared by Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 324, 56 Stat. 307.

War Between United States and Rumania

Declared by Joint Res. June 5, 1942, ch. 325, 56 Stat. 307.

Proc. No. 2563. Proclamation of State of War Between United States and Hungary, Bulgaria, and Rumania

Proc. No. 2563, July 17, 1942, 7 F.R. 5535, 56 Stat. 1970, proclaimed that a state of war existed between the United States and Hungary, Rumania, and Bulgaria.

V. TERMINATION OF STATE OF WAR

Cessation of Hostilities

The cessation of hostilities of World War II was officially proclaimed by the President of the United States, Proc. No. 2714, Dec. 31, 1946, 12 F.R. 1, 61 Stat. 1048, in the following language:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, HARRY S. TRUMAN, President of the United States of America, do hereby proclaim the cessation of hostilities of World War II, effective twelve o'clock noon, December 31, 1946.

Treaties of Peace With Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania, and Finland

On the 10th day of February 1947, separate Treaties of Peace were concluded by designated Allied and Associated Powers, including the United States of America, with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary and Rumania.

Each of these Treaties contained a recital in the Preamble that the Allied and Associated Powers named therein

Have therefore agreed to declare the cessation of the state of war and for this purpose to conclude the present Treaty of Peace, and have accordingly appointed the undersigned Plenipotentiaries who, after presentation of their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed on the following provisions: * * *.

The full text of the Treaties of Peace with Italy, Bulgaria, Hungary, Rumania and Finland are set out in 61 Stat. 1245, 1915, 2065, 1757.

On the same date a Treaty of Peace was concluded with Finland. The United States is not a signatory thereto.

Treaty of Peace with Japan

The Treaty of Peace with Japan signed at the city of San Francisco on the 8th day of September 1951, Chapter I, Article 1, provides:

(a) The state of war between Japan and each of the Allied Powers is terminated as from the date on which the present Treaty comes into force between Japan and the Allied Power concerned as provided for in Article 23.

Article 23 of Chapter VII, above referred to, provides:

(a) The present Treaty shall be ratified by the States which sign it, including Japan, and will come into force for all the States which have then ratified it, when instruments of ratification have been deposited by Japan and by a majority, including the United States of America as the principal occupying Power, of the following States [here would appear the names of such of the following States as are signatories to the present Treaty], namely Australia, Burma, Canada, Ceylon, France, India, Indonesia, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and the United States of America. The present Treaty shall come into force for each State which subsequently ratifies it, on the date of the deposit of its instrument of ratification.

(b) If the Treaty has not come into force within nine months after the date of the deposit of Japan's ratification, any State which has ratified it may bring the Treaty into force between itself and Japan by a notification to that effect given to the Government of Japan and of the United States of America not later than three years after the date of deposit of Japan's ratification.

Ratification of Japanese Peace Treaty

The Treaty of Peace with Japan, signed at San Francisco on September 8, 1951, was ratified by the United States Senate on March 20, 1952. For Resolution of ratification, see Congressional Record, Vol. 98, No. 46, Thursday, March 20, 1952, p. 2634. According to Proc. No. 2974, eff. Apr. 29, 1952, 17 F.R. 3813, 66 Stat. c31, terminating the national emergencies proclaimed on September 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941, and set out above, such treaty came into force on Apr. 28, 1952.

Germany

Joint Resolution of Congress

Joint Res. Oct. 19, 1951, ch. 519, 65 Stat. 451, provided: "That the state of war declared to exist between the United States and the Government of Germany by the joint resolution of Congress approved December 11, 1941, is hereby terminated and such termination shall take effect on the date of enactment of this resolution [Oct. 19, 1951]: Provided, however, That notwithstanding this resolution and any proclamation issued by the President pursuant thereto, any property or interest which prior to January 1, 1947, was subject to vesting or seizure under the provisions of the Trading With the Enemy Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 411), as amended [50 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.] or which has heretofore been vested or seized under that Act, including accruals to or proceeds of any such property or interest, shall continue to be subject to the provisions of that Act in the same manner and to the same extent as if this resolution had not been adopted and such proclamation had not been issued. Nothing herein and nothing in such proclamation shall alter the status, as it existed immediately prior hereto, under that Act, of Germany or of any person with respect to any such property or interest."

Proclamation No. 2950

Proc. No. 2950, Oct. 25, 1951, 16 F.R. 10915, 66 Stat. c3, proclaimed that the state of war between the United States and the Government of Germany declared on Dec. 11, 1941 was terminated on Oct. 19, 1951.

VI. AUTHORIZATION TO EMPLOY ARMED FORCES

Termination of Hostilities in Indochina

Pub. L. 92–129, title IV, §401, Sept. 28, 1971, 85 Stat. 360, provided that: "It is hereby declared to be the sense of Congress that the United States terminate at the earliest practicable date all military operations of the United States in Indochina, and provide for the prompt and orderly withdrawal of all United States military forces at a date certain subject to the release of all American prisoners of war held by the Government of North Vietnam and forces allied with such Government, and an accounting for all Americans missing in action who have been held by or known to such Government or such forces. The Congress hereby urges and requests the President to implement the above expressed policy by initiating immediately the following actions:

"(1) Negotiate with the Government of North Vietnam for an immediate cease-fire by all parties to the hostilities in Indochina.

"(2) Negotiate with the Government of North Vietnam for the establishing of a final date for the withdrawal from Indochina of all military forces of the United States contingent upon the release at a date certain of all American prisoners of war held by the Government of North Vietnam and forces allied with such Government.

"(3) Negotiate with the Government of North Vietnam for an agreement which would provide for a series of phased and rapid withdrawals of United States military forces from Indochina subject to a corresponding series of phased releases of American prisoners of war, and for the release of any remaining American prisoners of war concurrently with the withdrawal of all remaining military forces of the United States by not later than the date established pursuant to paragraph (2) hereof."

Proc. No. 3504. Interdiction of the Delivery of Offensive Weapons to Cuba

Proc. No. 3504, Oct. 23, 1962, 27 F.R. 10401, 77 Stat. 958, provided:

WHEREAS the peace of the world and the security of the United States and of all American States are endangered by reason of the establishment by the Sino-Soviet powers of an offensive military capability in Cuba, including bases for ballistic missiles with a potential range covering most of North and South America;

WHEREAS by a Joint Resolution passed by the Congress of the United States and approved on October 3, 1962, it was declared that the United States is determined to prevent by whatever means may be necessary, including the use of arms, the Marxist-Leninist regime in Cuba from extending, by force or the threat of force, its aggressive or subversive activities to any part of this hemisphere, and to prevent in Cuba the creation or use of an externally supported military capability endangering the security of the United States; and

WHEREAS the Organ of Consultation of the American Republics meeting in Washington on October 23, 1962, recommended that the Member States, in accordance with Articles 6 and 8 of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, take all measures, individually and collectively, including the use of armed force, which they may deem necessary to ensure that the Government of Cuba cannot continue to receive from the Sino-Soviet powers military material and related supplies which may threaten the peace and security of the Continent and to prevent the missiles in Cuba with offensive capability from ever becoming an active threat to the peace and security of the Continent:

NOW, THEREFORE, I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority conferred upon me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, in accordance with the aforementioned resolutions of the United States Congress and of the Organ of Consultation of the American Republics, and to defend the security of the United States, do hereby proclaim that the forces under my command are ordered, beginning at 2:00 P.M. Greenwich time October 24, 1962, to interdict, subject to the instructions herein contained, the delivery of offensive weapons and associated material to Cuba.

For the purposes of this Proclamation, the following are declared to be prohibited materiel:

Surface-to-surface missiles; bomber aircraft; bombs, air-to-surface rockets and guided missiles; warheads for any of the above weapons; mechanical or electronic equipment to support or operate the above items; and any other classes of materiel hereafter designated by the Secretary of Defense for the purpose of effectuating this Proclamation.

To enforce this order, the Secretary of Defense shall take appropriate measures to prevent the delivery of prohibited materiel to Cuba, employing the land, sea and air forces of the United States in cooperation with any forces that may be made available by other American States.

The Secretary of Defense may make such regulations and issue such directives as he deems necessary to ensure the effectiveness of this order, including the designation, within a reasonable distance of Cuba, of prohibited or restricted zones and of prescribed routes.

Any vessel or craft which may be proceeding toward Cuba may be intercepted and may be directed to identify itself, its cargo, equipment and stores and its ports of call, to stop, to lie to, to submit to visit and search, or to proceed as directed. Any vessel or craft which fails or refuses to respond to or comply with directions shall be subject to being taken into custody. Any vessel or craft which it is believed is en route to Cuba and may be carrying prohibited materiel or may itself constitute such materiel shall, wherever possible, be directed to proceed to another destination of its own choice and shall be taken into custody if it fails or refuses to obey such directions. All vessels or craft taken into custody shall be sent into a port of the United States for appropriate disposition.

In carrying out this order, force shall not be used except in case of failure or refusal to comply with directions, or with regulations or directives of the Secretary of Defense issued hereunder, after reasonable efforts have been made to communicate them to the vessel or craft, or in case of self-defense. In any case, force shall be used only to the extent necessary.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the seal of the United States of America to be affixed.

 Done in the City of Washington this twenty-third day of October in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.

[seal]

John Fitzgerald Kennedy.      

Proc. No. 3507. Terminating Authority Granted and Orders Issued in Proc. No. 3504

Proc. No. 3507, Nov. 21, 1962, 27 F.R. 11525, 77 Stat. 961, provided:

I, JOHN F. KENNEDY, President of the United States of America, acting under and by virtue of the authority vested in me by the Constitution and statutes of the United States, do hereby proclaim that at 11 p.m., Greenwich Time, November 20, 1962, I terminated the authority conferred upon the Secretary of Defense by Proclamation No. 3504, dated October 23, 1962 [set out above], and revoked the orders contained therein to forces under my command.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand and caused the Seal of the United States of America to be affixed.

 DONE at the City of Washington this 21st day of November, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and sixty-two and of the Independence of the United States of America the one hundred and eighty-seventh.

[seal]

John F. Kennedy.      

Middle East Stabilization

Pub. L. 85–7, §§1–6, Mar. 9, 1957, 71 Stat. 5, set out as chapter 24A (§1961 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, authorizes the President to provide economic and military assistance, and, if he determines it necessary, to use armed forces under certain circumstances to maintenance of national independence in the Middle East.

CHAPTER 1—COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENSE

Sec.
1.
Creation, purpose, and composition of council.
2.
Advisory commission.
3.
Duties of council.
4.
Rule and regulations; subordinate bodies and committees.
5.
Reports of subordinate bodies and committees; unvouchered expenditures.
6.
Repealed.

        

§1. Creation, purpose, and composition of council

A Council of National Defense is established, for the coordination of industries and resources for the national security and welfare, to consist of the Secretary of the Army, the Secretary of the Navy, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of Labor.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 649; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501.)

Codification

Sections 1 to 5 of this title are from section 2 of act Aug. 29, 1916, popularly known as the Army Appropriation Act for the fiscal year 1916.

Change of Name

Department of War designated Department of the Army and title of Secretary of War changed to Secretary of the Army by section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, 61 Stat. 501. Section 205(a) of act July 26, 1947, was repealed by section 53 of act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 641. Section 1 of act Aug. 10, 1956, enacted "Title 10, Armed Forces" which in sections 3010 to 3013 continued Department of the Army under administrative supervision of Secretary of the Army.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of certain membership functions, insofar as they pertain to Air Force, which functions were not previously transferred from Secretary of the Army and Department of the Army to Secretary of the Air Force and Department of the Air Force, see Secretary of Defense Transfer Order No. 40 [App. C(11)], July 22, 1949.

§2. Advisory commission

The Council of National Defense shall nominate to the President, and the President shall appoint, an advisory commission, consisting of not more than seven persons, each of whom shall have special knowledge of some industry, public utility, or the development of some natural resource, or be otherwise specially qualified, in the opinion of the council, for the performance of the duties hereinafter provided. The members of the advisory commission shall serve without compensation, but shall be allowed actual expenses of travel and subsistence when attending meetings of the commission or engaged in investigations pertaining to its activities. The advisory commission shall hold such meetings as shall be called by the council or be provided by the rules and regulations adopted by the council for the conduct of its work.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 649.)

Termination of Advisory Commissions

Advisory commissions in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory commissions established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§3. Duties of council

It shall be the duty of the Council of National Defense to supervise and direct investigations and make recommendations to the President and the heads of executive departments as to the location of railroads with reference to the frontier of the United States so as to render possible expeditious concentration of troops and supplies to points of defense; the coordination of military, industrial, and commercial purposes in the location of branch lines of railroad; the utilization of waterways; the mobilization of military and naval resources for defense; the increase of domestic production of articles and materials essential to the support of armies and of the people during the interruption of foreign commerce; the development of seagoing transportation; data as to amounts, location, method and means of production, and availability of military supplies; the giving of information to producers and manufacturers as to the class of supplies needed by the military and other services of the Government, the requirements relating thereto, and the creation of relations which will render possible in time of need the immediate concentration and utilization of the resources of the Nation.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 649; Nov. 9, 1921, ch. 119, §3, 42 Stat. 212.)

Codification

The words "extensive highways and" which preceded "branch lines of railroad" omitted on authority of act Nov. 9, 1921, which transferred powers and duties of Council relating to highways to Secretary of Commerce.

§4. Rules and regulations; subordinate bodies and committees

The Council of National Defense shall adopt rules and regulations for the conduct of its work, which rules and regulations shall be subject to the approval of the President, and shall provide for the work of the advisory commission to the end that the special knowledge of such commission may be developed by suitable investigation, research, and inquiry and made available in conference and report for the use of the council; and the council may organize subordinate bodies for its assistance in special investigations, either by the employment of experts or by the creation of committees of specially qualified persons to serve without compensation, but to direct the investigations of experts so employed.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 650.)

Termination of Advisory Commissions

Advisory commissions in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory commissions established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§5. Reports of subordinate bodies and committees; unvouchered expenditures

Reports shall be submitted by all subordinate bodies and by the advisory commission to the council, and from time to time the council shall report to the President or to the heads of executive departments upon special inquiries or subjects appropriate thereto. When deemed proper the President may authorize, in amounts stipulated by him, unvouchered expenditures.

(Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §2, 39 Stat. 650; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(53), 60 Stat. 870.)

Codification

Second sentence was from a proviso to the first sentence, which was affected by act Aug. 7, 1946.

Amendments

1946—Act Aug. 7, 1946, repealed all provisions requiring annual reports to Congress of the Council's activities and expenditures.

Termination of Advisory Commissions

Advisory commissions in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory commissions established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a commission established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such commission is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a commission established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§6. Repealed. Pub. L. 89–554, §8(a), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 644

Section, act June 5, 1920, ch. 235, 41 Stat. 886, placed a limit on salaries of officers and employees of Council of National Defense.

CHAPTER 2—BOARD OF ORDNANCE AND FORTIFICATION

§§11 to 15. Repealed. Dec. 16, 1930, ch. 14, §1, 46 Stat. 1029

Section 11, act Sept. 22, 1888, ch. 1028, §1, 25 Stat. 489, related to composition and duties of Board of Ordnance and Fortification.

Section 12, act Feb. 24, 1891, ch. 283, 26 Stat. 769, provided for a civilian member of Board.

Section 13, act Mar. 2, 1901, ch. 803, 31 Stat. 910, provided for additional members of Board.

Section 14, act Feb. 18, 1893, ch. 136, 27 Stat. 461, related to qualifications of Board Members.

Section 15, act Sept. 22, 1888, ch. 1028, §6, 25 Stat. 490, related to purchases and tests.

CHAPTER 3—ALIEN ENEMIES

Sec.
21.
Restraint, regulation, and removal.
22.
Time allowed to settle affairs and depart.
23.
Jurisdiction of United States courts and judges.
24.
Duties of marshals.

        

§21. Restraint, regulation, and removal

Whenever there is a declared war between the United States and any foreign nation or government, or any invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, attempted, or threatened against the territory of the United States by any foreign nation or government, and the President makes public proclamation of the event, all natives, citizens, denizens, or subjects of the hostile nation or government, being of the age of fourteen years and upward, who shall be within the United States and not actually naturalized, shall be liable to be apprehended, restrained, secured, and removed as alien enemies. The President is authorized in any such event, by his proclamation thereof, or other public act, to direct the conduct to be observed on the part of the United States, toward the aliens who become so liable; the manner and degree of the restraint to which they shall be subject and in what cases, and upon what security their residence shall be permitted, and to provide for the removal of those who, not being permitted to reside within the United States, refuse or neglect to depart therefrom; and to establish any other regulations which are found necessary in the premises and for the public safety.

(R.S. §4067; Apr. 16, 1918, ch. 55, 40 Stat. 531.)

Codification

R.S. §4067 derived from act July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §1, 1 Stat. 577.

Amendments

1918—Act Apr. 16, 1918, struck out provision restricting this section to males.

World War II Proclamations

The following proclamations under this section were issued during World War II:

Proc. No. 2525, Dec. 7, 1941, 6 F.R. 6321, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1700.

Proc. No. 2526, Dec. 8, 1941, 6 F.R. 6323, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1705.

Proc. No. 2527, Dec. 8, 1941, 6 F.R. 6324, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1707.

Proc. No. 2533, Dec. 29, 1941, 7 F.R. 55, 55 Stat. Pt. 2, 1714.

Proc. No. 2537, Jan. 14, 1942, 7 F.R. 329, 56 Stat. Pt. 2, 1933, revoked by Proc. No. 2678, Dec. 29, 1945, 11 F.R. 221, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, 1336.

Proc. No. 2563, July 17, 1942, 7 F.R. 5535, 56 Stat. Pt. 2, 1970.

Proc. No. 2655, July 14, 1945, 10 F.R. 8947, 59 Stat. Pt. 2, 870.

Proc. No. 2674, Dec. 7, 1945, 10 F.R. 14945, 59 Stat. Pt. 2, 889.

Proc. No. 2685, Apr. 11, 1946, 11 F.R. 4079, 60 Stat. Pt. 2, 1342, set out as a note preceding section 1 of this title.

World War I Proclamations

Proclamations issued under this chapter during the years 1917 and 1918 will be found in 40 Stat. 1651, 1716, 1730, and 1772.

§22. Time allowed to settle affairs and depart

When an alien who becomes liable as an enemy, in the manner prescribed in section 21 of this title, is not chargeable with actual hostility, or other crime against the public safety, he shall be allowed, for the recovery, disposal, and removal of his goods and effects, and for his departure, the full time which is or shall be stipulated by any treaty then in force between the United States and the hostile nation or government of which he is a native citizen, denizen, or subject; and where no such treaty exists, or is in force, the President may ascertain and declare such reasonable time as may be consistent with the public safety, and according to the dictates of humanity and national hospitality.

(R.S. §4068.)

Codification

R.S. §4068 derived from acts July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §1, 1 Stat. 577; July 6, 1812, ch. 130, 2 Stat. 781.

§23. Jurisdiction of United States courts and judges

After any such proclamation has been made, the several courts of the United States, having criminal jurisdiction, and the several justices and judges of the courts of the United States, are authorized and it shall be their duty, upon complaint against any alien enemy resident and at large within such jurisdiction or district, to the danger of the public peace or safety, and contrary to the tenor or intent of such proclamation, or other regulations which the President may have established, to cause such alien to be duly apprehended and conveyed before such court, judge, or justice; and after a full examination and hearing on such complaint, and sufficient cause appearing, to order such alien to be removed out of the territory of the United States, or to give sureties for his good behavior, or to be otherwise restrained, conformably to the proclamation or regulations established as aforesaid, and to imprison, or otherwise secure such alien, until the order which may be so made shall be performed.

(R.S. §4069.)

Codification

R.S. §4069 derived from act July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §2, 1 Stat. 577.

§24. Duties of marshals

When an alien enemy is required by the President, or by order of any court, judge, or justice, to depart and to be removed, it shall be the duty of the marshal of the district in which he shall be apprehended to provide therefor and to execute such order in person, or by his deputy or other discreet person to be employed by him, by causing a removal of such alien out of the territory of the United States; and for such removal the marshal shall have the warrant of the President, or of the court, judge, or justice ordering the same, as the case may be.

(R.S. §4070.)

Codification

R.S. §4070 derived from act July 6, 1798, ch. 66, §3, 1 Stat. 578.

CHAPTER 4—ESPIONAGE

§§31 to 39. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 31, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §1, 40 Stat. 217; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, title I, §1, 54 Stat. 79, related to unlawful obtaining or permitting to be obtained information affecting national defense. See section 793 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 32, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §2, 40 Stat. 218, related to unlawful disclosures affecting national defense. See section 794 of Title 18.

Section 33, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §3, 40 Stat. 219, related to seditious or disloyal acts or words in time of war. See section 2388 of Title 18. Section 33 was amended by act May 16, 1918, ch. 75, §1, 40 Stat. 553, which was repealed and the original section reenacted by act Mar. 3, 1921, ch. 136, 41 Stat. 1359.

Section 34, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §4, 40 Stat. 219, related to conspiracy to violate sections 32 and 33 of this title. See sections 794 and 2388 of Title 18.

Section 35, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §5, 40 Stat. 219; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, §2, 54 Stat. 79, related to the harboring or concealing of violators of the law. See sections 792 and 2388 of Title 18.

Section 36, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §6, 40 Stat. 219, related to designation by proclamation of prohibited areas. See section 793 of Title 18.

Section 37, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §8, 40 Stat. 219, related to places subject to provisions of sections 31 to 42 of this title. See section 2388 of Title 18.

Section 38, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title I, §7, 40 Stat. 219, related to jurisdiction of courts-martial and military commissions.

Section 39, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §2, 40 Stat. 231; Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, related to jurisdiction of Canal Zone courts over offenses on high seas. See section 3241 of Title 18.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 31 to 39 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§40. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §1, 40 Stat. 231, defined "United States" as used in act June 15, 1917, and was transferred to section 195 of this title.

§41. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title VIII, §4, 40 Stat. 226, defined "Foreign government". See section 11 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§42. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §4, 40 Stat. 231, related to savings provisions and is set out as a Separability note under section 191 of this title.

Section was formerly classified to section 536 of Title 18 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683.

CHAPTER 4A—PHOTOGRAPHING, SKETCHING, MAPPING, ETC., DEFENSIVE INSTALLATIONS

§§45 to 45d. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 45, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §1, 52 Stat. 3, related to photographing of defensive installations. See sections 795 to 797 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 45a, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §2, 52 Stat. 3, related to photographing, etc., from aircraft. See section 796 of Title 18.

Section 45b, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §3, 52 Stat. 3, related to reproducing, publishing, selling uncensored copies. See section 797 of Title 18.

Section 45c, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §4, 52 Stat. 4, related to definitions of "aircraft", "post", "camp", and "station". See sections 795 and 796 of Title 18.

Section 45d, act Jan. 12, 1938, ch. 2, §5, 52 Stat. 4, related to geographical application of law.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 45 to 45d effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CHAPTER 4B—DISCLOSURE OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION

§§46 to 46b. Repealed. Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 655, §56(c), 65 Stat. 729

Section 46, act May 13, 1950, ch. 185, §2, 64 Stat. 159, related to unlawful disclosure of classified information. See section 798 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 46a, act May 13, 1950, ch. 185, §1, 64 Stat. 159, defined terms for use in this chapter.

Section 46b, act May 13, 1950, ch. 185, §3, 64 Stat. 160, related to penalties for improper disclosure.

Savings Provision

Section 56(l) of act Oct. 31, 1951, provided that the repeal of sections 46 to 46b shall not affect any rights or liabilities existing hereunder on Oct. 31, 1951.

CHAPTER 4C—ATOMIC WEAPONS AND SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS INFORMATION REWARDS

Sec.
47a.
Information concerning illegal introduction, manufacture, acquisition or export of special nuclear material or atomic weapons or conspiracies relating thereto; reward.
47b.
Determination by Attorney General of entitlement and amount of reward; consultation; Presidential approval.
47c.
Aliens; waiver of admission requirements.
47d.
Hearings; rules and regulations; conclusiveness of determinations of Attorney General.
47e.
Certification of award; approval; payment.
47f.
Definitions.

        

§47a. Information concerning illegal introduction, manufacture, acquisition or export of special nuclear material or atomic weapons or conspiracies relating thereto; reward

Any person who furnishes original information to the United States—

(a) leading to the finding or other acquisition by the United States of special nuclear material or an atomic weapon which has been introduced into the United States or manufactured or acquired therein contrary to the laws of the United States, or

(b) with respect to the introduction or attempted introduction into the United States or the manufacture or acquisition or attempted manufacture or acquisition of, or a conspiracy to introduce into the United States or to manufacture or acquire, special nuclear material or an atomic weapon contrary to the laws of the United States, or

(c) with respect to the export or attempted export, or a conspiracy to export, special nuclear material or an atomic weapon from the United States contrary to the laws of the United States,


shall be rewarded by the payment of an amount not to exceed $500,000.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §2, 69 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(b), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 472.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 in par. (a) made minor changes in phraseology, in par. (b) included information relating to the actual introduction, manufacture and acquisition, or conspiring to introduce into the United States or to manufacture or acquire special nuclear material or an atomic weapon as within the information for which a reward would be given, and added par. (c).

Short Title

Act July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §1, 69 Stat. 365, as amended by Pub. L. 93–377, §1(a), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 472, provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'Atomic Weapons and Special Nuclear Materials Rewards Act'."

§47b. Determination by Attorney General of entitlement and amount of reward; consultation; Presidential approval

The Attorney General shall determine whether a person furnishing information to the United States is entitled to a reward and the amount to be paid pursuant to section 47a of this title. Before making a reward under this section the Attorney General shall advise and consult with the Atomic Energy Commission. A reward of $50,000 or more may not be made without the approval of the President.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §3, 69 Stat. 365; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(b), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 substituted provisions authorizing the Attorney General, with the advice of the Atomic Energy Commission, to determine entitlement and the amount of reward for a person furnishing information to the United States, for provisions authorizing an Awards Board to determine entitlement and amount of such reward, setting forth the composition of the Board and criteria for reward.

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

§47c. Aliens; waiver of admission requirements

If the information leading to an award under section 47b of this title is furnished by an alien, the Secretary of State, the Attorney General, and the Director of Central Intelligence, acting jointly, may determine that the admission of such alien into the United States is in the public interest and, in that event, such alien and the members of his immediate family may receive immigrant visas and may be admitted to the United States for permanent residence, notwithstanding the requirements of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §4, 69 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(f)(7), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–622.)

References in Text

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in text, is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–208 substituted "admission" for "entry".

Change of Name

Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

§47d. Hearings; rules and regulations; conclusiveness of determinations of Attorney General

(a) The Attorney General is authorized to hold such hearings and make, promulgate, issue, rescind, and amend such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(b) A determination made by the Attorney General under section 47b of this title shall be final and conclusive and no court shall have power or jurisdiction to review it.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §5, 69 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(b), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473.)

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted "Attorney General" for "Board as administering agent", and added subsec. (b).

§47e. Certification of award; approval; payment

Any awards granted under section 47b of this title shall be certified by the Attorney General and, together with the approval of the President in those cases where such approval is required, transmitted to the Director of Central Intelligence for payment out of funds appropriated or available for the administration of the National Security Act of 1947, as amended.

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §6, 69 Stat. 366; Pub. L. 93–377, §1(c), Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473.)

References in Text

The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, referred to in text, is act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, 61 Stat. 495, which is classified principally to chapter 44 (§3001 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1974—Pub. L. 93–377 substituted "Attorney General" for "Awards Board".

Change of Name

Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the intelligence community deemed to be a reference to the Director of National Intelligence. Reference to the Director of Central Intelligence or the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency in the Director's capacity as the head of the Central Intelligence Agency deemed to be a reference to the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency. See section 1081(a), (b) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

§47f. Definitions

As used in this chapter—

(a) The term "atomic energy" means all forms of energy released in the course of nuclear fission or nuclear transformation.

(b) The term "atomic weapon" means any device utilizing atomic energy, exclusive of the means for transporting or propelling the device (where such means is a separable and divisible part of the device), the principal purpose of which is for use as, or for development of, a weapon, a weapon prototype, or a weapon test device.

(c) The term "special nuclear material" means plutonium, or uranium enriched in the isotope 233 or in the isotope 235, or any other material which is found to be special nuclear material pursuant to the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.].

(d) The term "United States," when used in a geographical sense, includes Puerto Rico, all Territories and possessions of the United States and the Canal Zone; except that in section 47c of this title, the term "United States" when so used shall have the meaning given to it in the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.].

(July 15, 1955, ch. 372, §7, 69 Stat. 366.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (c), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

CHAPTER 5—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIAL GENERALLY

SUBCHAPTER I—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS

Sec.
51 to 81.
Repealed or Transferred.
82.
Procurement of ships and material during war.
83 to 88.
Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

91 to 96.
Repealed or Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS

98.
Short title.
98a.
Congressional findings and declaration of purpose.
98b.
National Defense Stockpile.
98c.
Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile.
98d.
Authority for stockpile operations.
98e.
Stockpile management.
98e–1.
Transferred.
98f.
Special Presidential disposal authority.
98g.
Materials development and research.
98h.
National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund.
98h–1.
Advisory committees.
98h–2.
Reports to Congress.
98h–3.
Definitions.
98h–4.
Importation of strategic and critical materials.
98h–5.
Biennial report on stockpile requirements.
98h–6.
Development of domestic sources.
98h–7.
National Defense Stockpile Manager.
98i, 99.
Repealed or Transferred.
100.
Nitrate plants.
100a.
Omitted.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—ARSENALS, ARMORIES, ARMS, AND WAR MATERIALS

§§51 to 57. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 51, act Aug. 5, 1882, ch. 395, 22 Stat. 299, related to pay of master amorer at Springfield Armory.

Section 52, act June 23, 1874, ch. 486, 18 Stat. 282, related to pay of clerks at Springfield Armory.

Section 53, R.S. §1665, required an annual account of expenses of national armories, together with an account of arms made and repaired thereon.

Section 54, acts Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §2, 26 Stat. 320; Aug. 7, 1946, ch. 770, §1(52), 60 Stat. 870, related to accounts of cost of type and experimental manufacture of guns and other articles.

Section 55, R.S. §1666, authorized Secretary of War to abolish useless or unnecessary arsenals.

Section 56, R.S. §1669, provided for forfeitures by reason of misconduct of workmen in armories.

Section 57, R.S. §1671, exempted from jury duty all artificers and workmen employed in armories and arsenals, of the United States.

§58. Repealed. Sept. 1, 1954, ch. 1208, title III, §305(d), 68 Stat. 1114

Section, act July 17, 1912, ch. 236, 37 Stat. 193, related to awards. See section 4501 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 90 days after Sept. 1, 1954, see section 307 of act Sept. 1, 1954.

§§59 to 66. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 59, act July 26, 1886, ch. 781, §1, 24 Stat. 151, related to testing of rifled cannon for Navy.

Section 60, act July 8, 1918, ch. 137, 40 Stat. 817, authorized transfer of naval ordnance and ordnance material from Navy Department to Department of War.

Section 61, acts Mar. 3, 1879, ch. 183, 20 Stat. 412; Apr. 14, 1937, ch. 79, 50 Stat. 63, authorized issuance of arms and ammunition to protect public property, provided for reimbursement. See section 4655 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 62, acts Feb. 10, 1920, ch. 64, 41 Stat. 403; June 5, 1920, ch. 240, 41 Stat. 976; May 26, 1952, ch. 334, 66 Stat. 94, authorized loan of rifles to organizations of honorably discharged soldiers. See section 4683 of Title 10.

Section 62a, act June 30, 1906, ch. 3938, 34 Stat. 817, authorized loan of ordnance to schools and State homes for veterans' orphans. See sections 4685 and 9685 of Title 10.

Section 62b, act Dec. 15, 1926, ch. 10, 44 Stat. 922, authorized Secretary of War to relieve posts or camps or organizations composed of honorably discharged soldiers, sailors, or marines, and sureties on bonds, from liability on account of loss or destruction of rifles, slings, and cartridge belts loaned to such organizations. See section 4683 of Title 10.

Section 62c, acts May 29, 1934, ch. 369, 48 Stat. 815; Aug. 30, 1935, ch. 826, 49 Stat. 1013, authorized Secretary of War to donate Army equipment loaned under authority of section 62 of this title.

Section 63, act May 11, 1908, ch. 163, 35 Stat. 125, authorized sales of ordnance property to schools and State homes for veterans' orphans. See sections 4625 and 9625 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 64, acts May 28, 1908, ch. 215, §14, 35 Stat. 443; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(g), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(26), 65 Stat. 707, authorized sale of obsolete small arms to patriotic organizations. See sections 4684 and 9684 of Title 10.

Section 64a, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 130, 18 Stat. 388, provided for sale of useless ordnance materials, appropriated an amount equal to net proceeds of sale for purpose of procuring a supply of material, and limited expenditures to not more than $75,000 in any one year.

Section 65, acts Apr. 23, 1904, ch. 1485, 33 Stat. 276; Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title VI, §645, 67 Stat. 357, authorized sale of serviceable ordnance and ordnance stores to American designers.

Section 66, acts Feb. 8, 1889, ch. 116, 25 Stat. 657; Mar. 3, 1899, ch. 423, 30 Stat. 1073; May 26, 1900, ch. 586, 31 Stat. 216; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(e), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(27), 65 Stat. 707, authorized issuance of condemned ordnance to State homes for soldiers and sailors. See sections 4686 and 9686 of Title 10.

§67. Transferred

Codification

Section, acts May 22, 1896, ch. 231, 29 Stat. 133; May 26, 1928, ch. 785, 45 Stat. 773; Feb. 28, 1933, ch. 137, 47 Stat. 1369; June 19, 1940, ch. 398, §1, 54 Stat. 491; July 31, 1947, ch. 421, 61 Stat. 707; Feb. 27, 1948, ch. 76, §1, 62 Stat. 37; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(2), 65 Stat. 706, which authorized loans or gifts of condemned or obsolete equipment, was transferred to section 150p of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, and subsequently repealed and reenacted as section 2572 of Title 10, Armed Forces, by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §§1, 53, 70A Stat. 143, 641.

§§68 to 71. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 68, acts Mar. 4, 1909, ch. 319, §47, 35 Stat. 1075; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(i), 64 Stat. 273; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §2(28), 65 Stat. 708, authorized sale of obsolete ordnance for public parks, public buildings and soldiers' monuments purposes. See sections 4684 and 9684 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 69, act Mar. 2, 1905, ch. 1307, 33 Stat. 841, authorized sale of individual pieces of armament. See section 2574 of Title 10.

Section 70, acts Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 252, 35 Stat. 751; June 28, 1950, ch. 383, title IV, §402(h), 64 Stat. 273, authorized sale of ordnance property to officers of the Navy and Marine Corps. See section 4625 and 9625 of Title 10.

Section 71, act Mar. 3, 1909, ch. 252, 35 Stat. 750, authorized sale of ordnance stores to civilian employees of Army and to American National Red Cross. See sections 4625 and 9625 of Title 10.

§72. Repealed. May 1, 1937, ch. 146, §5(i), 50 Stat. 126

Section, act Aug. 29, 1916, ch. 418, §1, 39 Stat. 643, related to sale of ordnance and stores to Cuba.

§73. Repealed. Aug. 1, 1953, ch. 305, title VI, §645, 67 Stat. 357

Section, act Apr. 23, 1904, ch. 1485, 33 Stat. 276, related to disposition of proceeds from sales of serviceable ordnance and stores. See sections 2208 and 2210 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

§§74 to 81. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 74, act Jan. 22, 1923, ch. 28, 42 Stat. 1142, provided that net proceeds of sales of useless ordnance material by Navy Department should be covered into Treasury as "Miscellaneous receipts". See section 7543 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 75, act Aug. 24, 1912, ch. 391, §1, 37 Stat. 589, related to payment for transfers of ordnance or stores to bureaus or departments.

Section 76, act June 20, 1878, ch. 359, §1, 20 Stat. 223, authorized private use of a machine for testing iron and steel.

Section 77, acts Mar. 3, 1885, ch. 360, 23 Stat. 502; May 29, 1928, ch. 901, par. 27, 45 Stat. 988, regulated tests of iron and steel and other materials for industrial purposes.

Section 78, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §123, 39 Stat. 215, related to gauges, dies, and tools for manufacture of arms.

Section 79, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §124, 39 Stat. 215, related to nitrate plants.

Section 80, act June 3, 1916, ch. 134, §120, 39 Stat. 213, 214, related to procurement of war material and mobilization of industries. See sections 2538 to 2540 of Title 10.

Section 81, act May 14, 1928, ch. 544, 45 Stat. 509, authorized Secretary of War to secure assistance, whenever practicable, of Geological Survey, Coast and Geodetic Survey, or other mapping agencies of the Government in execution of military surveys and maps. Provisions similar to former section 81 were contained in the following appropriation acts:

Mar. 23, 1928, ch. 232, title I, 45 Stat. 342.

Feb. 23, 1927, ch. 167, title I, 44 Stat. 1123.

Apr. 15, 1926, ch. 146, title I, 44 Stat. 273.

Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 225, title I, 43 Stat. 911.

June 7, 1924, ch. 291, title I, 43, Stat. 496.

Mar. 2, 1923, ch. 178, title I, 42 Stat. 1402.

June 30, 1922, ch. 253, title I, 42 Stat. 741.

§82. Procurement of ships and material during war

(a) Definitions

The word "person" as used in subsections (b) and (c) shall include any individual, trustee, firm, association, company, or corporation. The word "ship" shall include any boat, vessel, submarine, or any form of aircraft, and the parts thereof. The words "war material" shall include arms, armament, ammunition, stores, supplies, and equipment for ships and airplanes, and everything required for or in connection with the production thereof. The word "factory" shall include any factory, workshop, engine works, building used for manufacture, assembling, construction, or any process, and any shipyard or dockyard. The words "United States" shall include the Canal Zone and all territory and waters, continental and insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(b) Presidential powers

In time of war the President is authorized and empowered, in addition to all other existing provisions of law:

First. Within the limits of the amounts appropriated therefor, to place an order with any person for such ships or war material as the necessities of the Government, to be determined by the President, may require and which are of the nature, kind, and quantity usually produced or capable of being produced by such person. Compliance with all such orders shall be obligatory on any person to whom such order is given, and such order shall take precedence over all other orders and contracts theretofore placed with such person. If any person owning, leasing, or operating any factory equipped for the building or production of ships or war material for the Navy shall refuse or fail to give to the United States such preference in the execution of such an order, or shall refuse to build, supply, furnish, or manufacture the kind, quantity, or quality of ships or war material so ordered at such reasonable price as shall be determined by the President, the President may take immediate possession of any factory of such person, or of any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, and may use the same at such times and in such manner as he may consider necessary or expedient.

Second. Within the limit of the amounts appropriated therefor, to modify or cancel any existing contract for the building, production, or purchase of ships or war material; and if any contractor shall refuse or fail to comply with the contract as so modified the President may take immediate possession of any factory of such contractor, or any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, and may use the same at such times and in such manner as he may consider necessary or expedient.

Third. To require the owner or occupier of any factory in which ships or war material are built or produced to place at the disposal of the United States the whole or any part of the output of such factory, and, within the limit of the amounts appropriated therefor, to deliver such output or parts thereof in such quantities and at such times as may be specified in the order at such reasonable price as shall be determined by the President.

Fourth. To requisition and take over for use or operation by the Government any factory, or any part thereof without taking possession of the entire factory, whether the United States has or has not any contract or agreement with the owner or occupier of such factory.

(d) 1 Compensation for commandeered material

Whenever the United States shall cancel or modify any contract, make use of, assume, occupy, requisition, or take over any factory or part thereof, or any ships or war material, in accordance with the provisions of subsection (b), it shall make just compensation therefor, to be determined by the President, and if the amount thereof so determined by the President is unsatisfactory to the person entitled to receive the same, such person shall be paid fifty per centum of the amount so determined by the President and shall be entitled to sue the United States to recover such further sum as added to said fifty per centum shall make up such amount as will be just compensation therefor, in the manner provided for by section 1346 or section 1491 of title 28.

(Mar. 4, 1917, ch. 180, 39 Stat. 1192.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in subsec. (a), see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Codification

In subsec. (d), "section 1346 or section 1491 of title 28" substituted for "section twenty-four, paragraph twenty, and section one hundred and forty-five of the Judicial Code" (those sections classified to sections 41(20) and 250 of former Title 28, Judicial Code and Judiciary) on authority of act June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 869, section 1 of which enacted Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure. Section 1346 of Title 28 sets forth the basic jurisdiction of the district courts in cases in which the United States is defendant. Section 1491 of Title 28 sets forth the basic jurisdiction of the United States Court of Claims. Sections 24(20) and 145 of the Judicial Code were also classified to sections 1496, 1501, 1503, 2401, 2402, and 2501 of Title 28.

Similar Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the Naval Appropriation Act, 1918, act July 1, 1918, ch. 114, 40 Stat. 719, which terminated six months after the treaty of peace between the United States and Germany (Oct. 18, 1921).

Termination of War and Emergencies

Act July 25, 1947, ch. 327, §3, 61 Stat. 451, provided that in the interpretation of the provisions of this section, which authorized the President to acquire, through construction or conversion, ships, landing craft, and other vessels, the date July 25, 1947, shall be deemed to be the date of termination of any state of war theretofore declared by Congress and of the national emergencies proclaimed by the President on Sept. 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941.

Ex. Ord. No. 12742. National Security Industrial Responsiveness

Ex. Ord. No. 12742, Jan. 8, 1991, 56 F.R. 1079, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §36, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10625, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including 50 U.S.C. App. 468 [now 50 U.S.C. 3816], 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10, Armed Forces], and 50 U.S.C. 82, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 101. Policy. The United States must have the capability to rapidly mobilize its resources in the interest of national security. Therefore, to achieve prompt delivery of articles, products, and materials to meet national security requirements, the Government may place orders and require priority performance of these orders.

Sec. 102. Delegation of Authority under 50 U.S.C. App. 468 [now 50 U.S.C. 3816].

(a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, the authorities vested in the President, under 50 U.S.C. App. 468 [now 50 U.S.C. 3816], with respect to the placing of orders for prompt delivery of articles or materials, except for the taking authority under (c), are hereby delegated to:

(1) The Secretary of Agriculture with respect to all food resources;

(2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy;

(3) the Secretary of Transportation with respect to all forms of civil transportation; and

(4) the Secretary of Commerce with respect to all other articles and materials, including construction materials.

(b) The authorities delegated by paragraph (a) of this section shall be exercised only after:

(1) a determination by the Secretary of Defense that prompt delivery of the articles or materials for the exclusive use of the armed forces of the United States is in the interest of national security, or

(2) a determination by the Secretary of Energy that the prompt delivery of the articles or materials for the Department of Energy's atomic energy programs is in the interest of national security.

(c) All determinations of the type described in paragraph (b) of this section and all delegations—made prior to the effective date of this order under the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended [50 U.S.C. 4501 et seq.], and under its implementing rules and regulations—shall be continued in effect, including but not limited to approved programs listed under the Defense Priorities and Allocations System (15 CFR Part 700).

Sec. 103. Delegation of Authority under 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501, and 50 U.S.C. 82.

(a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, the authorities vested in the President under 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10] with respect to the placing of orders for necessary products or materials, and under 50 U.S.C. 82 with respect to the placing of orders for ships or war materials, except for the taking authority vested in the President by these acts, are hereby delegated to:

(1) the Secretary of Agriculture with respect to all food resources;

(2) the Secretary of Energy with respect to all forms of energy;

(3) the Secretary of Transportation with respect to all forms of civil transportation; and

(4) the Secretary of Commerce with respect to all other products and materials, including construction materials.

(b) The authorities delegated in paragraph (a) of this section may be exercised only after the President has made the statutorily required determination.

Sec. 104. Implementation. (a) The authorities delegated under sections 102 and 103 of this order shall include the power to redelegate such authorities, and the power of successive redelegation of such authorities, to departments and agencies, officers, and employees of the Government. The authorities delegated in this order may be implemented by regulations promulgated and administered by the Secretaries of Agriculture, Defense, Energy, Transportation, Homeland Security, and Commerce, and the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as appropriate.

(b) All departments and agencies delegated authority under this order are hereby directed to amend their rules and regulations as necessary to reflect the new authorities delegated herein that are to be relied upon to carry out their functions. To the extent authorized by law, including 50 U.S.C. App. 486 [468] [now 50 U.S.C. 3816], 10 U.S.C. 4501 and 9501 [former sections 4501 and 9501 of Title 10], and 50 U.S.C. 82, all rules and regulations issued under the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, with respect to the placing of priority orders for articles, products, ships, and materials, including war materials, shall be deemed, where appropriate, to implement the authorities delegated by sections 102 and 103 of this order, and shall remain in effect until amended or revoked by the respective Secretary. All orders, regulations, and other forms of administrative actions purported to have been issued, taken, or continued in effect pursuant to the Defense Production Act of 1950, as amended, shall, until amended or revoked by the respective Secretaries or the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as appropriate, remain in full force and effect, to the extent supported by any law or any authority delegated to the respective Secretary or the Director pursuant to this order.

(c) Upon the request of the Secretary of Defense with respect to particular articles, products, or materials that are determined to be needed to meet national security requirements, any other official receiving a delegation of authority under this Executive order to place orders or to enforce precedence of such orders, shall exercise such authority within 10 calendar days of the receipt of the request; provided, that if the head of any department or agency having delegated responsibilities hereunder disagrees with a request of the Secretary of Defense, such department or agency head shall, within 10 calendar days from the receipt of the request, refer the issue to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who shall ensure expeditious resolution of the issue.

(d) Proposed department and agency regulations and procedures to implement the delegated authority under this order, and any new determinations made under sections 102(b)(1) or (2), shall be coordinated by the Secretary of Homeland Security with all appropriate departments and agencies.

Sec. 105. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law by a party against the United States, its agencies, its officers, or any person.

1 So in original. No subsec. (c) has been enacted.

§§83 to 85. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 83, act May 29, 1928, ch. 853, §1, 45 Stat. 928, related to ammunition for use of Army and Navy, storage and dispersal, control by a joint board of officers. See section 172 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 84, act Mar. 3, 1875, ch. 133, §1, 18 Stat. 455, related to expenditure at armories for perfection of patentable inventions.

Section 85, act Mar. 3, 1921, ch. 128, §6, 41 Stat. 1352, authorized Secretary of War to proceed with installation of guns and howitzers.

§§86 to 88. Omitted

Codification

Sections 86 to 88, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §§1–3, 49 Stat. 1140, related to conservation of domestic sources of tin, and were superseded by the Export Control Act of 1949 (former sections 2021 to 2032 of the former Appendix to this title) pursuant to section 10 of that Act (former section 2030 of the former Appendix to this title). The act of Feb. 15, 1936 was subsequently superseded by the Export Administration Act of 1969 (former sections 2401 to 2413 of the former Appendix to this title) pursuant to section 12 of that Act (former section 2411 of the former Appendix to this title). See, also, the Export Administration Act of 1979, which is classified principally to chapter 56 (§4601 et seq.) of this title.

Section 86, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §1, 49 Stat. 1140, related to conservation of domestic resources of tin.

Section 87, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §2, 49 Stat. 1140, related to prohibition of exportation except on license.

Section 88, act Feb. 15, 1936, ch. 74, §3, 49 Stat. 1140, related to penalties for violations of sections 86 and 87 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—EDUCATION AND EXPERIMENTATION IN DEVELOPMENT OF MUNITIONS AND MATERIALS FOR NATIONAL DEFENSE

§§91 to 94. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 91, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §1, 52 Stat. 707, authorized Secretary of War to place educational orders for munitions of special or technical design.

Section 92, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §2, 52 Stat. 708, related to production equipment.

Section 93, act June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §3, 52 Stat. 708, placed certain limitations on number of orders.

Section 94, acts June 16, 1938, ch. 458, §4, 52 Stat. 708; Apr. 3, 1939, ch. 35, §13, 53 Stat. 560, related to availability of appropriations for purposes of sections 91 to 94 of this title.

§95. Omitted

Codification

Section, act June 30, 1938, ch. 852, 52 Stat. 1255, authorized an appropriation of $2,000,000 to remain until expended for purpose of rotary-wing and other aircraft research, development, procurement, experimentation, and operation for service testing.

§96. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section, act July 15, 1939, ch. 283, 53 Stat. 1042, related to purchase by Secretary of War of equipment for experimental and test purposes. See section 2373 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

SUBCHAPTER III—ACQUISITION AND DEVELOPMENT OF STRATEGIC RAW MATERIALS

§98. Short title

This subchapter may be cited as the "Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act".

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §1, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §1, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596, related to declaration of Congressional policy in enacting this subchapter, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Short Title of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3201, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245, provided that: "This title [enacting section 98h–5 of this title, amending sections 98a, 98b, 98d, 98e–1, 98h, 98h–2, and 98h–4 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 98e–1 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'National Defense Stockpile Amendments of 1987'."

Short Title of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–41, §1, July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319, provided: "That this Act [enacting this section and sections 98a to 98h–3 of this title, redesignating former section 98h–1 of this title as 98h–4 of this title, amending section 4533 of this title, sections 1743 and 1745 of Title 7, Agriculture, section 741b of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, and section 485 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, enacting a provision set out as a note under this section, and repealing a provision set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979'."

Short Title

Act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §11, formerly §10, as added by act July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(1), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427, provided that this Act, which enacted this subchapter, be cited as the "Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41, §2(b)(2), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324.

New Budget Authority

Pub. L. 96–41, §4, July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 320, provided that: "Any provision authorizing the enactment of new budget authority contained in the amendments made by this Act [see Short Title of 1979 Amendment note above] shall be effective on October 1, 1979."

Executive Order No. 12155

Ex. Ord. No. 12155, Sept. 10, 1979, 44 F.R. 53071, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 12417, May 2, 1983, 48 F.R. 20035, which related to delegation of functions vested in President by Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act, as amended [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.], to various Federal agencies and officials, was revoked by Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247, effective 30 days after Dec. 4, 1987.

Ex. Ord. No. 12626. National Defense Stockpile Manager

Ex. Ord. No. 12626, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.), as amended, section 3203 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1988 (Public Law 100–180) [amending section 98e–1 of this title and enacting a provision set out as a note under section 98e–1 of this title], and section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. The Secretary of Defense is designated National Defense Stockpile Manager. The functions vested in the President by the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.], except the functions vested in the President by sections 7, 8, and 13 of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98f, 98g, 98h–4], are delegated to the Secretary of Defense. The functions vested in the President by section 8(a) of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98g(a)] are delegated to the Secretary of the Interior. The functions vested in the President by section 8(b) of the Act [50 U.S.C. 98g(b)] are delegated to the Secretary of Agriculture.

Sec. 2. The functions vested in the President by section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, as amended (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)), are delegated to the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 3. The functions vested in the President by section 204(f) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended (40 U.S.C. 485(f)) [now 40 U.S.C. 574(d)], are delegated to the Secretary of Defense.

Sec. 4. In executing the functions delegated to him by this Order, the Secretary of Defense may delegate such functions as he may deem appropriate, subject to his direction. The Secretary shall consult with the heads of affected agencies in performing the functions delegated to him by this Order.

Ronald Reagan.      

§98a. Congressional findings and declaration of purpose

(a) The Congress finds that the natural resources of the United States in certain strategic and critical materials are deficient or insufficiently developed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States for national defense.

(b) It is the purpose of this subchapter to provide for the acquisition and retention of stocks of certain strategic and critical materials and to encourage the conservation and development of sources of such materials within the United States and thereby to decrease and to preclude, when possible, a dangerous and costly dependence by the United States upon foreign sources or a single point of failure for supplies of such materials in times of national emergency.

(c) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §2, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(b), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(b), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2048.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98a, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §2, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to determination of strategic and critical materials, the quantity and quality to be purchased, formation and functions of industry advisory committees, and the subsistence and traveling expenses of members of those committees, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–239 inserted "or a single point of failure" after "foreign sources".

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "In providing for the National Defense Stockpile under this subchapter, Congress establishes the following principles:

"(1) The purpose of the National Defense Stockpile is to serve the interest of national defense only. The National Defense Stockpile is not to be used for economic or budgetary purposes.

"(2) Before October 1, 1994, the quantities of materials stockpiled under this subchapter should be sufficient to sustain the United States for a period of not less than three years during a national emergency situation that would necessitate total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war of indefinite duration.

"(3) On and after October 1, 1994, the quantities of materials stockpiled under this subchapter should be sufficient to meet the needs of the United States during a period of a national emergency that would necessitate an expansion of the Armed Forces together with a significant mobilization of the economy of the United States under planning guidance issued by the Secretary of Defense."

1993—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–160, §3311(1), substituted "Before October 1, 1994, the quantities" for "The quantities".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–160, §3311(2), added par. (3).

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 98h–5 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1996."

§98b. National Defense Stockpile

(a) Determination of materials; quantities

Subject to subsection (c), the President shall determine from time to time (1) which materials are strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter, and (2) the quality and quantity of each such material to be acquired for the purposes of this subchapter and the form in which each such material shall be acquired and stored. Such materials when acquired, together with the other materials described in section 98c of this title, shall constitute and be collectively known as the National Defense Stockpile (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "stockpile").

(b) Guidelines for exercise of Presidential authority

The President shall make the determinations required to be made under subsection (a) on the basis of the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title.

(c) Quantity change; notification to Congress

(1) The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as in effect on September 30, 1987, may be changed only as provided in this subsection or as otherwise provided by law enacted after December 4, 1987.

(2) The President shall notify Congress in writing of any change proposed to be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled. The President may make the change after the end of the 45-day period beginning on the date of the notification. The President shall include a full explanation and justification for the proposed change with the notification.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §3, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 319; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1245; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XII, §1233(b)(2), Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2057; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98b, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §3, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 597; Aug. 2, 1946, ch. 753, title I, §§102, 121, 60 Stat. 815, 822; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §102(a), 63 Stat. 380; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to purchase, storage, refinement, rotation, and disposal of materials, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98e of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98a of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 104–201 substituted "after the end of the 45-day period beginning on" for "effective on or after the 30th legislative day following" and struck out at end "For purposes of this paragraph, a legislative day is a day on which both Houses of Congress are in session."

1992—Subsec. (c)(2) to (5). Pub. L. 102–484 added par. (2) and struck out former pars. (2) to (5) which read as follows:

"(2) If the President proposes to change the quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, the President shall include a full explanation and justification for the change in the next annual material plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title.

"(3) If the proposed change in the case of any material would result in a new requirement for the quantity of such material different from the requirement for that material in effect on September 30, 1987, by less than 10 percent, the change may be made by the President effective on or after the first day of the first fiscal year beginning after the explanation and justification for the proposed change is submitted pursuant to paragraph (2).

"(4) In the case of a proposed change not covered by paragraph (3), the proposed change may be made only to the extent expressly authorized by law.

"(5) If in any year the reports required by sections 98h–2(b) and 98h–5 of this title are not submitted to Congress as required by law (including the time for such submission), then during the next fiscal year no change under paragraph (3) may be made in the quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter."

1988—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–456 substituted "December 4, 1987" for "the date of the enactment of the National Defense Stockpile Amendments of 1987", which for purposes of codification had been translated as "December 4, 1987", thus requiring no change in text.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(1), substituted "Subject to subsection (c), the" for "The".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(2), substituted "the principles stated in section 98a(c) of this title." for "the following principles:" and struck out cls. (1) and (2) which related to purpose of National Defense Stockpile and quantities of materials stockpiled.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–180, §3202(a)(3), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows: "The quantity of any material to be stockpiled under this subchapter, as determined under subsection (a), may not be revised unless the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives are notified in writing of the proposed revision and the reasons for such revision at least thirty days before the effective date of such revision."

Delegation of Functions

Functions of the President under this section were delegated to the Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

§98c. Materials constituting the National Defense Stockpile

(a) Contents

The stockpile consists of the following materials:

(1) Materials acquired under this subchapter and contained in the national stockpile on July 29, 1979.

(2) Materials acquired under this subchapter after July 29, 1979.

(3) Materials in the supplemental stockpile established by section 1704(b) of title 7 (as in effect from September 21, 1959, through December 31, 1966) on July 29, 1979.

(4) Materials acquired by the United States under the provisions of section 4533 of this title and transferred to the stockpile by the President pursuant to subsection (f) of such section.

(5) Materials transferred to the United States under section 2423 of title 22 that have been determined to be strategic and critical materials for the purposes of this subchapter and that are allocated by the President under subsection (b) of such section for stockpiling in the stockpile.

(6) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation and transferred to the stockpile under section 714b(h) of title 15.

(7) Materials acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation under paragraph (2) of section 1743(a) of title 7, and transferred to the stockpile under the third sentence of such section.

(8) Materials transferred to the stockpile by the President under paragraph (4) of section 1743(a) of title 7.

(9) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (b).

(10) Materials transferred to the stockpile under subsection (c).

(b) Transfer and reimbursement

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any material that (1) is under the control of any department or agency of the United States, (2) is determined by the head of such department or agency to be excess to its needs and responsibilities, and (3) is suitable for transfer or disposal through the stockpile shall be transferred to the stockpile. Any such transfer shall be made without reimbursement to such department or agency, but all costs required to effect such transfer shall be paid or reimbursed from funds appropriated to carry out this subchapter.

(c) Transfer and disposal

The Secretary of Defense shall determine whether materials are suitable for transfer to the stockpile under subsection (b), are suitable for disposal through the stockpile, and are uncontaminated.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §4, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 320; amended Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(1), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 104–106, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 630; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(Z), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820, 1821; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, §1412(a), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2570.)

References in Text

Section 1704(b) of title 7, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3635, and, as so amended, no longer contains provisions relating to a supplemental stockpile.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98c, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §4, 53 Stat. 811; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §37, 90 Stat. 380, required reports to Congress, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98h–2 of this title.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–328, §1412(a)(1), substituted "suitable for transfer or disposal through" for "required for".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–328, §1412(a)(2), struck out "(2)" before "The Secretary", substituted "subsection (b)" for "this subsection", and struck out par. (1) which read as follows: "The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall transfer to the stockpile for disposal in accordance with this subchapter uncontaminated materials that are in the Department of Energy inventory of materials for the production of defense-related items, are excess to the requirements of the Department for that purpose, and are suitable for transfer to the stockpile and disposal through the stockpile."

2008—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–246 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1704(b) of title 7.

1996—Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 104–106, §3311(b), added par. (10).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–106, §3311(a), added subsec. (c).

1986—Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "on July 29, 1979" for "on the day before the date of the date of enactment of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979" in pars. (1) and (3), and "after July 29, 1979" for "on or after the date of the enactment of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Revision Act of 1979" in par. (2).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Clarification of Stockpile Status of Certain Materials

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3315, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654, as amended by Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(c)(4), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2858, provided that: "All materials purchased under section 303 of the Defense Production Act of 1950 (50 U.S.C. App. 2093) [now 50 U.S.C. 4533] and held in the Defense Production Act inventory as of June 30, 1992, are hereby transferred to the National Defense Stockpile and shall be managed, controlled, and subject to disposal by the National Defense Stockpile Manager as provided in the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98a et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.]."

§98d. Authority for stockpile operations

(a) Funds appropriated for acquisitions; proposed stockpile transactions; significant changes therein

(1) Except for acquisitions made under the authority of paragraph (3) or (4) of section 98e(a) of this title, no funds may be obligated or appropriated for acquisition of any material under this subchapter unless funds for such acquisition have been authorized by law. Funds appropriated for such acquisition (and for transportation and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition) shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts.

(2) If for any fiscal year the President proposes certain stockpile transactions in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress for that year under section 98h–2(b) of this title and after that plan is submitted the President proposes (or Congress requires) a significant change in any such transaction, or a significant transaction not included in such plan, no amount may be obligated or expended for such transaction during such year until the President has submitted a full statement of the proposed transaction to the appropriate committees of Congress and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees.

(b) Disposal

Except for disposals made under the authority of paragraph (3), (4), or (5) 1 of section 98e(a) of this title or under section 98f(a) of this title, no disposal may be made from the stockpile unless such disposal, including the quantity of the material to be disposed of, has been specifically authorized by law.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to provide for the transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of materials contained in or acquired for the stockpile. Funds appropriated for such purposes shall remain available to carry out the purposes for which appropriated for a period of two fiscal years, if so provided in appropriation Acts.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §5, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(a), (b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 381, 382; Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §903, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(2), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3206(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962.)

References in Text

Paragraph (5) of section 98e(a) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was redesignated paragraph (6) of section 98e(a) of this title by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98d, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §5, 53 Stat. 812; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598, related to release of stock pile materials, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98f of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former sections 98b and 98g of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–160 substituted "and a period of 45 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees." for "and a period of 30 days has passed from the date of the receipt of such statement by such committees. In computing any 30-day period for the purpose of the preceding sentence, there shall be excluded any day on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain."

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–484 struck out "(1)" after "the stockpile" and ", or (2) if the disposal would result in there being an unobligated balance in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund in excess of $100,000,000" after "authorized by law".

1987—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–180 struck out "or until each such committee, before the expiration of such period, notifies the President that it has no objection to the proposed transaction" before period at end of first sentence.

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "paragraph (3), (4), or (5)" for "paragraph (4) or (5)".

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–525, §903(b), substituted "$100,000,000" for "$250,000,000".

Pub. L. 98–525, §903(a), substituted "an unobligated balance" for "a balance" where first appearing and "$250,000,000" for "$1,000,000,000 or, in the case of a disposal to be made after September 30, 1983, if the disposal would result in there being a balance in the fund in excess of $500,000,000".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §203(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted applicability to other incidental expenses, substituted "until expended, unless otherwise" for "for a period of five fiscal years, if so", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35, §203(b), inserted designation for cl. (1) and added cl. (2).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §903(b), Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1611(b), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, provided in part that the amendment by section 903(b) of Pub. L. 98–525, is effective Oct. 1, 1987.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(f), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to funds appropriated for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1981."

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Prohibition of Reductions in Stockpile Goals

Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1612, Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, as amended by Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3201, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067, prohibited action before Oct. 1, 1987, to implement or administer any change in a stockpile goal in effect on Oct. 1, 1984, that would result in a reduction in the quality or quantity of any strategic and critical material acquired for the National Defense Stockpile.

Materials in the National Defense Stockpile

Provisions relating to certain materials in the National Defense Stockpile were contained in the following acts:

Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, §1411, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2569.

Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.

Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XIV, §§1413, 1414, Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 418, 419.

Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3303, 3304, Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3546.

Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXIII, §3303, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2193.

Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, 3306(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1388, 1389, 1391.

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXIII, §3303], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-483.

Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §3402(a)–(e), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 972, 973; Pub. L. 108–136, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Nov. 24, 2003, 117 Stat. 1788; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(b), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3546; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XIV, §1412(a), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4412; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1654.

Pub. L. 106–31, title I, §303, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 105–262, title VIII, §8109, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2322.

Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2262, 2263; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §3403(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [div. C, title XXXIII, §3302], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-483; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304(a), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390; Pub. L. 108–375, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Oct. 28, 2004, 118 Stat. 2193; Pub. L. 109–163, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(a), Jan. 6, 2006, 119 Stat. 3545; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(a), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2513; Pub. L. 110–181, div. A, title XIV, §1412(b), Jan. 28, 2008, 122 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XIV, §1412(a), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4648.

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303–3305, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2056, 2057; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §§3402(f)(2), 3403(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3304(b), 3305, Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(b), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2513; Pub. L. 110–417, [div. A], title XIV, §1412(b), Oct. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 4648; Pub. L. 111–84, div. A, title XIV, §1412, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2562.

Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2854, 2855; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXIV, §§3402(f)(1), 3403(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 973, 974; Pub. L. 107–107, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304(c), Dec. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 1390; Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302(c), Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2513.

Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098.

Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3303(a), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1960, 1961.

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301–3303, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2649–2651; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3303(b), Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1961; Pub. L. 103–337, div. A, title X, §1070(c)(3), div. C, title XXXIII, §3303, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 2858, 3098.

Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1583; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3308, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653.

Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8094, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1196.

Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3301, 3302, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1685.

Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, §1501, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2085.

Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §§3204, 3205, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4068.

Pub. L. 99–591, §101(c) [title IX, §9110], (m) [title V, §519], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–82, 3341-120, 3341-308, 3341-326.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(c) [title IX, §9110], (m) [title V, §519], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–82, 1783-120, 1783-308, 1783-326.

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §§901, 902, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2573.

Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §799B], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1866.

Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §788, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1592.

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §201, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 380.

Authorization of Appropriations

Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §202, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 381, provided that:

"(a) Effective on October 1, 1981, there is authorized to be appropriated the sum of $535,000,000 for the acquisition of strategic and critical materials under section 6(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98e(a)).

"(b) Any acquisition using funds appropriated under the authorization of subsection (a) shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.)."

Disposal of Government-Owned Tin Smelter at Texas City, Texas

Act June 22, 1956, ch. 426, 70 Stat. 329, directed Federal Facilities Corporation immediately to sell or lease Government-owned tin smelter at Texas City, Texas, and waste acid plant and other assets of Government's tin program, prescribed corporate powers of Corporation in regard to sale or lease, established a Tin Advisory Committee to consult with Corporation, established periods for receipt and negotiation of purchase proposals, and provided that if no contract for sale or lease was effected prior to Jan. 31, 1957, then smelter and other assets be reported as excess property for transfer and disposal in accordance with provisions of Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949.

Maintenance of Domestic Tin-Smelting Industry; Transfer of Functions, Etc.

Act June 28, 1947, ch. 159, 61 Stat. 190, as amended June 29, 1948, ch. 722, 62 Stat. 1101; June 30, 1949, ch. 284, 63 Stat. 350; Aug. 21, 1950, ch. 766, 64 Stat. 468; July 30, 1953, ch. 282, title I, §103, 67 Stat. 230; June 22, 1956, ch. 426, §5(a), 70 Stat. 329, declared tin to be a highly strategic and critical material in short supply, directed that it was in the public interest that Congress make a thorough investigation on the advisability of the maintenance of a permanent tin-smelting industry and study the availability of adequate tin supplies, provided that the powers, functions, duties, and authority of the United States exercised by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to buy, sell, and transport tin, and tin ore and concentrates, to improve, develop, maintain, and operate by lease or otherwise the Government-owned tin smelter at Texas City, Texas, to finance research in tin smelting and processing, and to do all other things necessary to the accomplishment of the foregoing continue in effect until Jan. 31, 1957, or until such earlier time as the Congress shall otherwise provide, and be exercised and performed by such officer, agency, or instrumentality of the United States as the President may designate, authorized diversification of tin-recovery facilities in the United States, and required the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to report to Congress on its activities not later than Dec. 31, 1947, and at the end of each six months thereafter.

Federal Facilities Corporation; Abolition and Dissolution of Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Federal Facilities Corporation

Ex. Ord. No. 10539, eff. June 22, 1954, 19 F.R. 3827, designated the Federal Facilities Corporation to perform and exercise the functions formerly performed and exercised by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation under act June 28, 1947, set out as a note above. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation, which was created by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation Act, act Jan. 22, 1932, ch. 8, 47 Stat. 5, was subsequently abolished by section 6(a) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1957, eff. June 30, 1957, 22 F.R. 4633, 71 Stat. 647, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. The Federal Facilities Corporation was, in turn, dissolved by Pub. L. 87–190, §6, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 419, effective Sept. 30, 1961, formerly set out as a note under sections 1921 to 1929 of the former Appendix to this title.

Disposal of Government-Owned Tin Smelter at Texas City, Texas; Cancellation of Obligations

Cancellation of obligation of General Services Administration to Federal Facilities Corporation existing by virtue of section 5(b) of act June 22, 1956, set out as a note above, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 87–190, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 418, formerly set out as a note under sections 1921 to 1929 of the former Appendix to this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§98e. Stockpile management

(a) Presidential powers

The President shall—

(1) acquire the materials determined under section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials;

(2) provide for the proper storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile;

(3) provide for the upgrading, refining, or processing of any material in the stockpile (notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material) when necessary to convert such material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency;

(4) provide for the rotation of any material in the stockpile when necessary to prevent deterioration or technological obsolescence of such material by replacement of such material with an equivalent quantity of substantially the same material or better material;

(5) provide for the appropriate recovery of any strategic and critical materials under section 98b(a) of this title that may be available from excess materials made available for recovery purposes by other Federal agencies;

(6) subject to the notification required by subsection (d)(2), provide for the timely disposal of materials in the stockpile that (A) are excess to stockpile requirements, and (B) may cause a loss to the Government if allowed to deteriorate; and

(7) subject to the provisions of section 98d(b) of this title, dispose of materials in the stockpile the disposal of which is specifically authorized by law.

(b) Federal procurement practices

Except as provided in subsections (c) and (d), acquisition of strategic and critical materials under this subchapter shall be made in accordance with established Federal procurement practices, and, except as provided in subsections (c) and (d) and in section 98f(a) of this title, disposal of strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence. To the maximum extent feasible—

(1) competitive procedures shall be used in the acquisition and disposal of such materials; and

(2) efforts shall be made in the acquisition and disposal of such materials to avoid undue disruption of the usual markets of producers, processors, and consumers of such materials and to protect the United States against avoidable loss.

(c) Barter; use of stockpile materials as payment for expenses of acquiring, refining, processing, or rotating materials

(1) The President shall encourage the use of barter in the acquisition under subsection (a)(1) of strategic and critical materials for, and the disposal under subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6) of materials from, the stockpile when acquisition or disposal by barter is authorized by law and is practical and in the best interest of the United States.

(2) Materials in the stockpile (the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law) shall be available for transfer at fair market value as payment for expenses (including transportation and other incidental expenses) of acquisition of materials, or of upgrading, refining, processing, or rotating materials, under this subchapter.

(3) Notwithstanding section 98b(c) of this title or any other provision of law, whenever the President provides under subsection (a)(3) for the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile to convert that material into a form more suitable for storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency, the President may barter a portion of the same material (or any other material in the stockpile that is authorized for disposal) to finance that upgrading, refining, or processing.

(4) To the extent otherwise authorized by law, property owned by the United States may be bartered for materials needed for the stockpile.

(d) Waiver; notification of proposed disposal of materials

(1) The President may waive the applicability of any provision of the first sentence of subsection (b) to any acquisition of material for, or disposal of material from, the stockpile. Whenever the President waives any such provision with respect to any such acquisition or disposal, or whenever the President determines that the application of paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection to a particular acquisition or disposal is not feasible, the President shall notify the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives in writing of the proposed acquisition or disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such acquisition or disposal and shall include in such notification the reasons for not complying with any provision of such subsection.

(2) Materials in the stockpile may be disposed of under subsection (a)(5) only if such congressional committees are notified in writing of the proposed disposal at least 45 days before any obligation of the United States is incurred in connection with such disposal.

(e) Leasehold interests in property

The President may acquire leasehold interests in property, for periods not in excess of twenty years, for storage, security, and maintenance of materials in the stockpile.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 321; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301(a), (b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1844; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIII, §3302, Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3098; Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(e)(1), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(b), (c), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857; Pub. L. 105–85, div. C, title XXXIII, §3306, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 2058; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98e, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6, 53 Stat. 812; May 28, 1941, ch. 135, 55 Stat. 206; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 598; Ex. Ord. No. 9809, eff. Dec. 12, 1946, 11 F.R. 14281; Ex. Ord. No. 9841, eff. Apr. 23, 1947, 12 F.R. 2645; June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title I, §105, 63 Stat. 381; 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, related to transfer of surplus materials to stock piles, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98c(b) of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98b of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 113–66 added par. (5) and redesignated former pars. (5) and (6) as (6) and (7), respectively.

1999—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1997—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–85, in first sentence, substituted "strategic and critical materials from the stockpile shall be made in accordance with the next sentence" for "materials from the stockpile shall be made by formal advertising or competitive negotiation procedures".

1996—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 104–201, §3312(b), substituted "45 days" for "thirty days".

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(e)(1)(A), substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–201, §3312(c), substituted "45 days" for "thirty days".

Pub. L. 104–106, §1502(e)(1)(B), substituted "such congressional committees" for "the Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–337 inserted "or technological obsolescence" after "deterioration".

1991—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–190 inserted before semicolon "or better material".

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(1), substituted "upgrading, refining," for "refining", inserted "(notwithstanding any intermediate stockpile quantity established for such material)" after "stockpile", and substituted "storage, subsequent disposition, and immediate use in a national emergency" for "storage and subsequent disposition".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(2), inserted "under subsection (a)(1)" after "the acquisition" and "under subsection (a)(5) or (a)(6)" after "the disposal".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(b)(3), substituted "(the disposition of which is authorized by paragraph (3) to finance the upgrading, refining, or processing of a material in the stockpile, or is otherwise authorized by law)" for ", the disposition of which is authorized by law," and "of upgrading, refining" for "of refining".

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–510, §3301(a), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–189, §3314(1), inserted "and" at end of par. (1), substituted a period for "; and" at end of par. (2), and struck out par. (3) which read as follows: "disposal of such materials shall be made for domestic consumption."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–189, §3314(2), substituted "paragraph (1) or (2)" for "paragraph (1), (2), or (3)".

1986—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "a form more" for "the form most".

1981—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 97–35 inserted reference to section 98d(b) of this title.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Acquisition of Depleted Uranium for National Defense Stockpile

Pub. L. 101–511, title VIII, §8095, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1896, directed President, using funds available in National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund, to acquire over a period of ten years from current domestic sources not less than thirty-six million pounds of depleted uranium to be held in National Defense Stockpile, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 102–172, title VIII, §8027A, Nov. 26, 1991, 105 Stat. 1177.

§98e–1. Transferred

Codification

Section, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §6A, as added Nov. 14, 1986, Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(a), 100 Stat. 4067; amended Dec. 4, 1987, Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(a), 101 Stat. 1246, which related to National Defense Stockpile Manager, was transferred to section 98h–7 of this title.

§98f. Special Presidential disposal authority

(a) Materials in the stockpile may be released for use, sale, or other disposition—

(1) on the order of the President, at any time the President determines the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense;

(2) in time of war declared by the Congress or during a national emergency, on the order of any officer or employee of the United States designated by the President to have authority to issue disposal orders under this subsection, if such officer or employee determines that the release of such materials is required for purposes of the national defense; and

(3) on the order of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, if the President has designated the Under Secretary to have authority to issue release orders under this subsection and, in the case of any such order, if the Under Secretary determines that the release of such materials is required for use, manufacture, or production for purposes of national defense.


(b) Any order issued under subsection (a) shall be promptly reported by the President, or by the officer or employee issuing such order, in writing, to the Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services of the House of Representatives.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §7, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 104–106, div. A, title XV, §1502(e)(2), Feb. 10, 1996, 110 Stat. 509; Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1067(13), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1413(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2048.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98f, acts June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §7, 53 Stat. 812; July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 599, related to investigations of domestic ores, minerals, and agriculture resources for purposes of development, etc., prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98d of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 112–239 added par. (3).

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "and the Committee on Armed Services" for "and the Committee on National Security".

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–106 substituted "Committee on Armed Services of the Senate and the Committee on National Security of the House of Representatives" for "Committees on Armed Services of the Senate and House of Representatives".

§98g. Materials development and research

(a) Development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances

(1) The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the development, mining, preparation, treatment, and utilization of ores and other mineral substances that (A) are found in the United States, or in its territories or possessions, (B) are essential to the national defense, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States, and (C) are found in known domestic sources in inadequate quantities or grades.

(2) Such investigations shall be carried out in order to—

(A) determine and develop new domestic sources of supply of such ores and mineral substances;

(B) devise new methods for the treatment and utilization of lower grade reserves of such ores and mineral substances; and

(C) develop substitutes for such essential ores and mineral products.


(3) Investigations under paragraph (1) may be carried out on public lands and, with the consent of the owner, on privately owned lands for the purpose of exploring and determining the extent and quality of deposits of such minerals, the most suitable methods of mining and beneficiating such minerals, and the cost at which the minerals or metals may be produced.

(b) Development of sources of supplies of agricultural materials; use of agricultural commodities for manufacture of materials

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations of the feasibility of developing domestic sources of supplies of any agricultural material or for using agricultural commodities for the manufacture of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material or substitutes therefor.

(c) Development of sources of supply of other materials; development or use of alternative methods for refining or processing materials in stockpile

The President shall make scientific, technologic, and economic investigations concerning the feasibility of—

(1) developing domestic sources of supply of materials (other than materials referred to in subsections (a) and (b)) determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials; and

(2) developing or using alternative methods for the refining or processing of a material in the stockpile so as to convert such material into a form more suitable for use during an emergency or for storage.

(d) Grants and contracts to encourage conservation of strategic and critical materials

The President shall encourage the conservation of domestic sources of any material determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be a strategic and critical material by making grants or awarding contracts for research regarding the development of—

(1) substitutes for such material; or

(2) more efficient methods of production or use of such material.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §8, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 322; amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1686.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98g, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §8, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 600; amended 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 3, §2(b), eff. June 12, 1953, 18 F.R. 3375, 67 Stat. 634; 1958 Reorg. Plan No. 1, §2, eff. July 1, 1958, 23 F.R. 4991, 72 Stat. 1799; Oct. 21, 1968, Pub. L. 90–608, §402, 82 Stat. 1194; Ex. Ord. No. 11725, §3, eff. June 29, 1973, 38 F.R. 17175, authorized appropriations for procurement, transportation, maintenance, rotation, storage, and refining or processing of materials acquired under this subchapter, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98d(c) of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98f of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1989—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 101–189 added subsecs. (c) and (d).

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under subsec. (a) of this section delegated to Secretary of the Interior and functions of President under subsec. (b) of this section delegated to Secretary of Agriculture by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

§98h. National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a separate fund to be known as the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "fund").

(b) Fund operations

(1) All moneys received from the sale of materials in the stockpile under paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 98e(a) of this title 1 shall be covered into the fund.

(2) Subject to section 98d(a)(1) of this title, moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) are hereby made available (subject to such limitations as may be provided in appropriation Acts) for the following purposes:

(A) The acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a) of this title.

(B) Transportation, storage, and other incidental expenses related to such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal.

(C) Development of current specifications of stockpile materials and the upgrading of existing stockpile materials to meet current specifications (including transportation, when economical, related to such upgrading).

(D) Encouraging the appropriate conservation of strategic and critical materials.

(E) Testing and quality studies of stockpile materials.

(F) Studying future material and mobilization requirements for the stockpile.

(G) Activities authorized under section 98h–6 of this title.

(H) Contracting under competitive procedures for materials development and research to—

(i) improve the quality and availability of materials stockpiled from time to time in the stockpile; and

(ii) develop new materials for the stockpile.


(I) Improvement or rehabilitation of facilities, structures, and infrastructure needed to maintain the integrity of stockpile materials.

(J) Disposal of hazardous materials that are stored in the stockpile and authorized for disposal by law.

(K) Performance of environmental remediation, restoration, waste management, or compliance activities at locations of the stockpile that are required under a Federal law or are undertaken by the Government under an administrative decision or negotiated agreement.

(L) Pay of employees of the National Defense Stockpile program.

(M) Other expenses of the National Defense Stockpile program.


(3) Moneys in the fund shall remain available until expended.

(c) Moneys received from sale of materials being rotated or disposed of

All moneys received from the sale of materials being rotated under the provisions of section 98e(a)(4) of this title or disposed of under section 98f(a) of this title shall be covered into the fund and shall be available only for the acquisition of replacement materials.

(d) Effect of bartering

If, during a fiscal year, the National Defense Stockpile Manager barters materials in the stockpile for the purpose of acquiring, upgrading, refining, or processing other materials (or for services directly related to that purpose), the contract value of the materials so bartered shall—

(1) be applied toward the total value of materials that are authorized to be disposed of from the stockpile during that fiscal year;

(2) be treated as an acquisition for purposes of satisfying any requirement imposed on the National Defense Stockpile Manager to enter into obligations during that fiscal year under subsection (b)(2); and

(3) not increase or decrease the balance in the fund.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §9, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3203(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3204, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(b), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 101–510, div. C, title XXXIII, §3301(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1845; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 105–261, div. C, title XXXIII, §3304, Oct. 17, 1998, 112 Stat. 2264; Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(b), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.)

References in Text

Paragraphs (5) and (6) of section 98e(a) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), were redesignated as paragraphs (6) and (7) of section 98e(a) of this title by Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(a), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 98h, act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §9, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 600, related to disposition of receipts, prior to repeal by section 2(a) of Pub. L. 96–41. See section 98h(b)(1) of this title.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(2)(D) to (M). Pub. L. 113–66 added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpars. (D) to (L) as (E) to (M), respectively.

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(J) to (L). Pub. L. 105–261 added subpar. (J) and redesignated former subpars. (J) and (K) as (K) and (L), respectively.

1993—Subsec. (b)(2)(J), (K). Pub. L. 103–160, §3313(a), added subpars. (J) and (K).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–160, §3313(b), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "Notwithstanding paragraph (2), moneys in the fund may not be used to pay salaries and expenses of stockpile employees."

1992—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(a)(1), inserted ", maintenance, and disposal" after "acquisition" and substituted "section 98e(a)" for "section 98e(a)(1)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(a)(2), substituted "such acquisition, maintenance, and disposal" for "such acquisition".

Subsec. (b)(2)(H), (I). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(b), added subpars. (H) and (I).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–484, §3313(c), added par. (4).

1991—Subsec. (b)(2)(G). Pub. L. 102–190 added subpar. (G).

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–510 added subsec. (d).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 101–189 added subpar. (F).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(F). Pub. L. 100–180 struck out subpar. (F) which related to other reasonable requirements for management of stockpile.

1986—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–661, §3203(a)(1), struck out "Such moneys shall remain in the fund until appropriated." after "covered into the fund."

Subsec. (b)(2), (3). Pub. L. 99–661, §3203(a)(2), added pars. (2) and (3) and struck out former pars. (2) and (3) which read as follows:

"(2) Moneys covered into the fund under paragraph (1) shall be available, when appropriated therefor, only for the acquisition of strategic and critical materials under section 98e(a)(1) of this title (and for transportation related to such acquisition).

"(3) Moneys in the fund, when appropriated, shall remain available until expended, unless otherwise provided in appropriation Acts."

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35 in par. (1) struck out provisions relating to moneys remaining in the fund at the end of the third fiscal year following the fiscal year in which received, and in par. (3) substituted provisions respecting funds remaining available until expended, for provisions relating to funds remaining available for a period of five fiscal years.

Use of Funds From National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund To Meet National Defense Stockpile Goals and Specifications in Effect on October 1, 1984

Pub. L. 100–440, title V, §518, Sept. 22, 1988, 102 Stat. 1748, directed that, no later than Oct. 1, 1989, Administrator of General Services, or any Federal officer assuming Administrator's responsibilities with respect to management of the stockpile, to use all funds authorized and appropriated before Jan. 1, 1985, from National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund to evaluate, test, relocate, upgrade or purchase stockpile materials to meet National Defense Stockpile goals and specifications in effect on Oct. 1, 1984. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(m) [title V, §519], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–390, 1329-417.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(m) [title V, §520], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, 1783-326, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(m) [title V, §520], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308, 3341-326.

Deposit of Funds Accruing From Naval Petroleum Reserves

Pub. L. 98–525, title IX, §905, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2574, as amended by Pub. L. 99–145, title XVI, §1611(a), Nov. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 776, provided that: "There shall be deposited into the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund established under section 9 of the Act (50 U.S.C. 98h) 30 percent of all money accruing to the United States during fiscal years 1985 and 1986 from lands in the naval petroleum and oil shale reserves (less amounts spent for exploration, development and operation of those reserves and related expenses during that period). Moneys deposited into the Fund under this subsection shall be deemed to have been covered into the Fund under section 9(b) of the Act."

1 See References in Text note below.

§98h–1. Advisory committees

(a) Membership

The President may appoint advisory committees composed of individuals with expertise relating to materials in the stockpile or with expertise in stockpile management to advise the President with respect to the acquisition, transportation, processing, refining, storage, security, maintenance, rotation, and disposal of such materials under this subchapter.

(b) Expenses

Each member of an advisory committee established under subsection (a) while serving on the business of the advisory committee away from such member's home or regular place of business shall be allowed travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, as authorized by section 5703 of title 5 for persons intermittently employed in the Government service.

(c) Market Impact Committee

(1) The President shall appoint a Market Impact Committee composed of representatives from the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, the Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and such other persons as the President considers appropriate. The representatives from the Department of Commerce and the Department of State shall be Cochairmen of the Committee.

(2) The Committee shall advise the National Defense Stockpile Manager on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile that are proposed to be included in the annual materials plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title, or in any revision of such plan, and shall submit to the manager the Committee's recommendations regarding those acquisitions and disposals.

(3) The annual materials plan or the revision of such plan, as the case may be, shall contain—

(A) the views of the Committee on the projected domestic and foreign economic effects of all acquisitions and disposals of materials from the stockpile;

(B) the recommendations submitted by the Committee under paragraph (2); and

(C) for each acquisition or disposal provided for in the plan or revision that is inconsistent with a recommendation of the Committee, a justification for the acquisition or disposal.


(4) In developing recommendations for the National Defense Stockpile Manager under paragraph (2), the Committee shall consult from time to time with representatives of producers, processors, and consumers of the types of materials stored in the stockpile.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §10, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 323; amended Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2654.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10 of act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §10, was renumbered section 13 and is classified to section 98h–4 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98a(b) of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–484 added subsec. (c).

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of all functions, personnel, assets, components, authorities, grant programs, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Under Secretary for Federal Emergency Management relating thereto, to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, see section 315(a)(1) of Title 6, Domestic Security.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, including the functions of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see former section 313(1) and sections 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Advisory Committee Regarding Operation and Modernization of Stockpile

Pub. L. 102–484, div. C, title XXXIII, §3306, Oct. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 2652, provided that:

"(a) Appointment.—Not later than March 15, 1993, the President shall appoint an advisory committee under section 10(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–1(a)) to make recommendations to the President concerning the operation and modernization of the National Defense Stockpile.

"(b) Membership.—The committee shall consist of members who have expertise regarding strategic and critical materials, including—

"(1) employees of Federal agencies (including the Department of Defense, the Department of State, the Department of Commerce, the Department of Energy, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of the Interior, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency);

"(2) representatives of mining, processing, and fabricating industries and consumers that would be affected by the acquisition of materials for the stockpile or the disposal of materials from the stockpile; and

"(3) other interested persons or representatives of interested organizations."

§98h–2. Reports to Congress

(a) Not later than January 15 of each year, the President shall submit to the Congress an annual written report detailing operations under this subchapter. Each such report shall include—

(1) information with respect to foreign and domestic purchases of materials during the preceding fiscal year;

(2) information with respect to the acquisition and disposal of materials under this subchapter by barter, as provided for in section 98e(c) of this title, during such fiscal year;

(3) information with respect to the activities by the Stockpile Manager to encourage the conservation, substitution, and development of strategic and critical materials within the United States;

(4) information with respect to the research and development activities conducted under sections 98a and 98g of this title;

(5) a statement and explanation of the financial status of the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund and the anticipated appropriations to be made to the fund, and obligations to be made from the fund, during the current fiscal year; and

(6) such other pertinent information on the administration of this subchapter as will enable the Congress to evaluate the effectiveness of the program provided for under this subchapter and to determine the need for additional legislation.


(b)(1) Not later than February 15 of each year, the President shall submit to the appropriate committees of the Congress a report containing an annual materials plan for the operation of the stockpile during the next fiscal year and the succeeding four fiscal years.

(2) Each such report shall include details of all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund during such period (including expenditures to be made from appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury) and of anticipated receipts from proposed disposals of stockpile materials during such period. Each such report shall also contain details regarding the materials development and research projects to be conducted under section 98h(b)(2)(H) of this title during the fiscal years covered by the report. With respect to each development and research project, the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used.

(3) Any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title, that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §11, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title II, §203(e), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 382; Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3207(a)(3), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4069; Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3205, Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–456, div. A, title XV, §1503, Sept. 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 2086; Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3315, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §§3311(b), 3313(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1584; Pub. L. 103–35, title II, §204(d), May 31, 1993, 107 Stat. 103; Pub. L. 113–291, div. A, title X, §1071(j), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3512.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 11 of act June 7, 1939, ch. 190, formerly §10, as added July 23, 1946, ch. 590, 60 Stat. 596; renumbered §11, Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(1), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427, was set out as a Short Title note under section 98 of this title, prior to repeal by section 2(b)(2) of Pub. L. 96–41.

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in former section 98c of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–41.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–291 substituted "under section 98h(b)(2)(H)" for "under section 98h(b)(2)(G)".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–35 substituted "fiscal year" for "six-month period".

1991—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(1), substituted "Not later than January 15 of each year, the President" for "The President" and "an annual" for "every six months a".

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(2), which directed the substitution of "fiscal year" for "6-month period", could not be executed because the words "6-month period" did not appear in text.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(3), substituted "fiscal year" for "period".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(a)(4), substituted "current fiscal year" for "next fiscal year".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b)(1), designated first sentence of subsec. (b) relating to submission of report as par. (1).

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b), designated second sentence of subsec. (b) relating to contents of report as par. (2) and inserted at end "Each such report shall also contain details regarding the materials development and research projects to be conducted under section 98h(b)(2)(G) of this title during the fiscal years covered by the report. With respect to each development and research project, the report shall specify the amount planned to be expended from the fund, the material intended to be developed, the potential military or defense industrial applications for that material, and the development and research methodologies to be used."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–190, §3311(b)(1), designated third sentence of subsec. (b) relating to resubmission of proposed expenditures and disposals not obligated or executed as par. (3).

1989—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–189 substituted "made to the fund, and obligations to be made from the fund," for "made from the fund".

1988—Subsec. (a)(3) to (6). Pub. L. 100–456, §1503(a), added pars. (3) and (4) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (5) and (6), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–456, §1503(b), substituted "the next fiscal year" for "such fiscal year" and "all planned expenditures from the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund" for "planned expenditures for acquisition of strategic and critical materials" and inserted at end "Any proposed expenditure or disposal detailed in the annual materials plan for any such fiscal year, and any expenditure or disposal proposed in connection with any transaction submitted for such fiscal year to the appropriate committees of Congress pursuant to section 98d(a)(2) of this title, that is not obligated or executed in that fiscal year may not be obligated or executed until such proposed expenditure or disposal is resubmitted in a subsequent annual materials plan or is resubmitted to the appropriate committees of Congress in accordance with section 98d(a)(2) of this title, as appropriate."

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–180 substituted "Not later than February 15 of each year, the President" for "The President" and struck out "each year, at the time that the Budget is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the next fiscal year," after "Congress".

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–661 substituted "each year, at the time that the Budget is submitted to Congress pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the next fiscal year," for each year with the Budget submitted to Congress pursuant to section 201a of the Budget and Accounting Act, 1921 (31 U.S.C. 11(a)), for the next fiscal year".

1981—Pub. L. 97–35 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Delegation of Functions

Functions of President under this section delegated to Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

§98h–3. Definitions

For the purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The term "strategic and critical materials" means materials that (A) would be needed to supply the military, industrial, and essential civilian needs of the United States during a national emergency, and (B) are not found or produced in the United States in sufficient quantities to meet such need.

(2) The term "national emergency" means a general declaration of emergency with respect to the national defense made by the President or by the Congress.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §12, as added Pub. L. 96–41, §2(a), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324.)

§98h–4. Importation of strategic and critical materials

The President may not prohibit or regulate the importation into the United States of any material determined to be strategic and critical pursuant to the provisions of this subchapter, if such material is the product of any foreign country or area not listed in general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), for so long as the importation into the United States of material of that kind which is the product of a country or area listed in such general note is not prohibited by any provision of law.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §13, formerly §10, as added Pub. L. 92–156, title V, §503(2), Nov. 17, 1971, 85 Stat. 427; renumbered §13, Pub. L. 96–41, §2(b)(1), July 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 324; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3206(b), (c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1214(o), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1159; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2857.)

References in Text

The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States, referred to in text, is not set out in the Code. See Publication of Harmonized Tariff Schedule note set out under section 1202 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 98h–1 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–201 substituted "not listed in general note" for "not listed as a Communist-dominated country or area in general note" and "product of a country or area listed in such general note" for "product of such Communist-dominated countries or areas".

1988—Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "general note 3(b) of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States" for "general headnote 3(d) of the Tariff Schedules of the United States".

1987—Pub. L. 100–180 inserted section catchline and, in text, substituted "The President" for "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, on and after January 1, 1972, the President".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 effective Jan. 1, 1989, and applicable with respect to articles entered on or after such date, see section 1217(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3001 of Title 19, Customs Duties.

§98h–5. Biennial report on stockpile requirements

(a) In general

Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary of Defense shall submit to Congress a report on stockpile requirements. Each such report shall include—

(1) the Secretary's recommendations with respect to stockpile requirements; and

(2) the matters required under subsection (b).

(b) National emergency planning assumptions

Each report under this section shall set forth the national emergency planning assumptions used by the Secretary in making the Secretary's recommendations under subsection (a)(1) with respect to stockpile requirements. The Secretary shall base the national emergency planning assumptions on a military conflict scenario consistent with the scenario used by the Secretary in budgeting and defense planning purposes. The assumptions to be set forth include assumptions relating to each of the following:

(1) The length and intensity of the assumed military conflict.

(2) The military force structure to be mobilized.

(3) The losses anticipated from enemy action.

(4) The military, industrial, and essential civilian requirements to support the national emergency.

(5) The availability of supplies of strategic and critical materials from foreign sources during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.

(6) The domestic production of strategic and critical materials during the mobilization period, the military conflict, and the subsequent period of replenishment, taking into consideration possible shipping losses.

(7) Civilian austerity measures required during the mobilization period and military conflict.

(c) Period within which to replace or replenish materials

The stockpile requirements shall be based on those strategic and critical materials necessary for the United States to replenish or replace, within three years of the end of the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b), all munitions, combat support items, and weapons systems that would be required after such a military conflict.

(d) Effect of alternative mobilization periods

The Secretary shall also include in each report under this section an examination of the effect that alternative mobilization periods under the military conflict scenario required under subsection (b), as well as a range of other military conflict scenarios addressing potentially more serious threats to national security, would have on the Secretary's recommendations under subsection (a)(1) with respect to stockpile requirements.

(e) Plans of President

The President shall submit with each report under this section a statement of the plans of the President for meeting the recommendations of the Secretary set forth in the report.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §14, as added Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3202(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; amended Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313(b)(1), (2), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 103–160, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1962; Pub. L. 104–201, div. C, title XXXIII, §3311(a), Sept. 23, 1996, 110 Stat. 2856.)

Amendments

1996—Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 104–201 added subsecs. (b) to (d), redesignated former subsec. (c) as (e), and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to national emergency planning assumptions set forth in reports required under this section.

1993—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–160 struck out before period at end of first sentence ", based upon total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war for a period of not less than three years" and inserted after first sentence "Before October 1, 1994, such assumptions shall be based upon the total mobilization of the economy of the United States for a sustained conventional global war for a period of not less than three years. On and after October 1, 1994, such assumptions shall be based on an assumed national emergency involving military conflict that necessitates an expansion of the Armed Forces together with a significant mobilization of the economy of the United States."

1991—Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(b)(2), substituted "Biennial" for "Annual" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–190, §3313(b)(1), in introductory provisions, substituted "Not later than January 15 of every other year, the Secretary" for "The Secretary" and "a report" for "an annual report" and struck out "shall be submitted with the annual report submitted under section 98h–2(b) of this title and" before "shall include".

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–201 effective Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3311(c) of Pub. L. 104–201, set out as a note under section 98a of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective Dec. 31, 2021, of provisions of this section requiring submittal of biennial report to Congress, see section 1061 of Pub. L. 114–328, set out as a note under section 111 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Initial Report Due Date

Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313(b)(3), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585, provided that: "The first report required by section 14(a) of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98h–5(a)), as amended by paragraph (1) shall be submitted not later than January 15, 1993."

§98h–6. Development of domestic sources

(a) Purchase of materials of domestic origin; processing of materials in domestic facilities

Subject to subsection (c) and to the extent the President determines such action is required for the national defense, the President shall encourage the development and appropriate conservation of domestic sources for materials determined pursuant to section 98b(a) of this title to be strategic and critical materials—

(1) by purchasing, or making a commitment to purchase, strategic and critical materials of domestic origin when such materials are needed for the stockpile;

(2) by contracting with domestic facilities, or making a commitment to contract with domestic facilities, for the processing or refining of strategic and critical materials in the stockpile when processing or refining is necessary to convert such materials into a form more suitable for storage and subsequent disposition;

(3) by qualifying existing domestic facilities and domestically produced strategic and critical materials to meet the requirements of defense and essential civilian industries in times of national emergency when existing domestic sources of supply are either insufficient or vulnerable to single points of failure; and

(4) by contracting with domestic facilities to recycle strategic and critical materials, thereby increasing domestic supplies when such materials would otherwise be insufficient to support defense and essential civilian industries in times of national emergency.

(b) Terms and conditions of contracts and commitments

A contract or commitment made under subsection (a) may not exceed five years from the date of the contract or commitment. Such purchases and commitments to purchase may be made for such quantities and on such terms and conditions, including advance payments, as the President considers to be necessary.

(c) Proposed transactions included in annual materials plan; availability of funds

(1) Descriptions of proposed transactions under subsection (a) shall be included in the appropriate annual materials plan submitted to Congress under section 98h–2(b) of this title. Changes to any such transaction, or the addition of a transaction not included in such plan, shall be made in the manner provided by section 98d(a)(2) of this title.

(2) The authority of the President to enter into obligations under this section is effective for any fiscal year only to the extent that funds in the National Defense Stockpile Transaction Fund are adequate to meet such obligations. Payments required to be as a result of obligations incurred under this section shall be made from amounts in the fund.

(d) Transportation and incidental expenses

The authority of the President under subsection (a) includes the authority to pay—

(1) the expenses of transporting materials; and

(2) other incidental expenses related to carrying out such subsection.

(e) Reports

The President shall include in the reports required under section 98h–2(a) of this title information with respect to activities conducted under this section.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §15, as added Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3312(a), Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1687; amended Pub. L. 113–66, div. A, title XIV, §1411(c), Dec. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 934; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title XIV, §1412(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2570.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–328 added pars. (3) and (4).

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–66 inserted "and appropriate conservation" after "development" in introductory provisions.

§98h–7. National Defense Stockpile Manager

(a) Appointment

The President shall designate a single Federal office to have responsibility for performing the functions of the President under this subchapter, other than under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title. The office designated shall be one to which appointment is made by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(b) Title of designated officer

The individual holding the office designated by the President under subsection (a) shall be known for purposes of functions under this subchapter as the "National Defense Stockpile Manager".

(c) Delegation of functions

The President may delegate functions of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title) only to the National Defense Stockpile Manager. Any such delegation made by the President shall remain in effect until specifically revoked by law or Executive order. The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4 of this title.

(June 7, 1939, ch. 190, §16, formerly §6A, as added Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(a), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067; amended Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(a), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1246; renumbered §16 and amended Pub. L. 101–189, div. C, title XXXIII, §3313, Nov. 29, 1989, 103 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 102–190, div. C, title XXXIII, §3314, Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1585; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title XIV, §1413(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2049.)

Codification

Section was classified to section 98e–1 of this title prior to its renumbering by Pub. L. 101–189.

Amendments

2013—Pub. L. 112–239 substituted "sections 98f(a)(1) and 98h–4" for "sections 98f and 98h–4" wherever appearing.

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–190 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "During any period during which there is no officer appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, serving in the position designated by the President under subsection (a) or during which the authority of the President under this subchapter (other than under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title) has not been delegated to that position, no action may be taken under section 98e(a)(6) of this title."

1989—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), substituted "sections 98f and 98h–4" for "sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), (2), substituted "sections 98f and 98h–4" for "sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4" and inserted at end "The President may not delegate functions of the President under sections 98f and 98h–4 of this title." after "Executive order."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–189, §3313(b)(1), (3), substituted "sections 98f and 98h–4" for "sections 98f, 98g, and 98h–4" and "section 98e(a)(6)" for "section 98e(b) or 98e(d)".

1987—Pub. L. 100–180 amended section generally, revising and restating provisions of subsecs. (a) and (b) and adding subsecs. (c) and (d).

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 100–180, div. C, title II, §3203(c), Dec. 4, 1987, 101 Stat. 1247, provided that: "Unless otherwise directed by the President under section 6A [renumbered §16] of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act [this section], as amended by subsection (a), the designation of a National Defense Stockpile Manager in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 1987] shall remain in effect until the individual so designated ceases to hold the office held by the individual at the time of the designation."

Designation of National Defense Stockpile Manager; Delegation of Functions

The Secretary of Defense was designated National Defense Stockpile Manager and functions of the President under this section were delegated to the Secretary of Defense by section 1 of Ex. Ord. No. 12636, Feb. 25, 1988, 53 F.R. 6114, set out under section 98 of this title.

Deadline for Designation of Manager

Pub. L. 99–661, div. C, title II, §3202(b), Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4067, directed President, not later than Feb. 15, 1987, to designate an official as National Defense Stockpile Manager, as required by this section.

§98i. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–861, §36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570

Section, act Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 939, title IV, §416, 70 Stat. 1018, related to contracts for storage, handling, and distribution of liquid fuels. See section 2922 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section was not enacted as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§99. Transferred

Codification

Section, act July 2, 1940, ch. 508, §6, 54 Stat. 714, was transferred to section 701 of the former Appendix to this title and subsequently repealed by act Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641.

§100. Nitrate plants

(a) Investigations; designation of sites; construction and operation of dams, locks, improvements to navigation, etc.

The President of the United States may make, or cause to be made, such investigation as in his judgment is necessary to determine the best, cheapest, and most available means for the production of nitrates and other products for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products by water power or any other power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest to use; and is also authorized to designate for the exclusive use of the United States, if in his judgment such means is best and cheapest, such site or sites, upon any navigable or nonnavigable river or rivers or upon the public lands, as in his opinion will be necessary for national defense; and is further authorized to construct, maintain, and operate, at or on any site or sites so designated, dams, locks, improvements to navigation, power houses, and other plants and equipment or other means than water power as in his judgment is the best and cheapest, necessary or convenient for the generation of electrical or other power and for the production of nitrates or other products needed for munitions of war and useful in the manufacture of fertilizers and other useful products.

(b) Lease, purchase, or acquisition of lands and rights of way; purchase or acquisition of materials, minerals, and processes

The President is authorized to lease, buy, or acquire, by condemnation, gift, grant, or devise, such lands and rights of way as may be necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and to take from any lands of the United States, or to buy or acquire by condemnation materials, minerals, and processes, patented or otherwise, necessary for the construction and operation of such plants and for the manufacture of such products.

(c) Use of products of plants; disposal of surplus

The products of such plants shall be used by the President for military and naval purposes to the extent that he may deem necessary, and any surplus which he shall determine is not required shall be sold and disposed of by him under such regulations as he may prescribe.

(d) Employment of officers, agents, or agencies

The President is authorized to employ such officers, agents, or agencies as may in his discretion be necessary to enable him to carry out the purposes herein specified, and to authorize and require such officers, agents, or agencies to perform any and all of the duties imposed upon him by the provisions hereof.

(e) Government construction and operation

The plant or plants provided for under this section shall be constructed and operated solely by the Government and not in conjunction with any other industry or enterprise carried on by private capital.

(Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §37, 70A Stat. 634.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act which comprises this subchapter.

§100a. Omitted

Codification

Section, which was from the Department of Defense Appropriation Act, 1983, Pub. L. 97–377, title I, §101(c) [title VII, §712], Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1833, 1851, prohibited use of funds available to Department of Defense agencies for acquisition, construction, or operation of certain scrap-processing facilities, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Dec. 29, 1981, Pub. L. 97–114, title VII, §712, 95 Stat. 1580.

Dec. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–527, title VII, §713, 94 Stat. 3082.

Dec. 21, 1979, Pub. L. 96–154, title VII, §713, 93 Stat. 1154.

Oct. 13, 1978, Pub. L. 95–457, title VIII, §813, 92 Stat. 1246.

Sept. 21, 1977, Pub. L. 95–111, title VIII, §812, 91 Stat. 901.

Sept. 22, 1976, Pub. L. 94–419, title VII, §712, 90 Stat. 1293.

Feb. 9, 1976, Pub. L. 94–212, title VII, §712, 90 Stat. 170.

Oct. 8, 1974, Pub. L. 93–437, title VIII, §812, 88 Stat. 1226.

Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–238, title VII, §712, 87 Stat. 1040.

Oct. 26, 1972, Pub. L. 92–570, title VII, §712, 86 Stat. 1198.

Dec. 18, 1971, Pub. L. 92–204, title VII, §712, 85 Stat. 729.

Jan. 11, 1971, Pub. L. 91–668, title VIII, §812, 84 Stat. 2032.

Dec. 29, 1969, Pub. L. 91–171, title VI, §612, 83 Stat. 481.

Oct. 17, 1968, Pub. L. 90–580, title V, §511, 82 Stat. 1131.

Sept. 29, 1967, Pub. L. 90–96, title VI, §611, 81 Stat. 244.

Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–687, title VI, §611, 80 Stat. 992.

Sept. 29, 1965, Pub. L. 89–213, title VI, §611, 79 Stat. 875.

Aug. 19, 1964, Pub. L. 88–446, title V, §511, 78 Stat. 476.

Oct. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–149, title V, §511, 77 Stat. 265.

Aug. 9, 1962, Pub. L. 87–577, title V, §511, 76 Stat. 329.

Aug. 17, 1961, Pub. L. 87–144, title VI, §611, 75 Stat. 377.

July 7, 1960, Pub. L. 86–601, title V, §511, 74 Stat. 351.

Aug. 18, 1959, Pub. L. 86–166, title V, §611, 73 Stat. 380.

Aug. 22, 1958, Pub. L. 85–724, title VI, §611, 72 Stat. 725.

Aug. 2, 1957, Pub. L. 85–117, title VI, §612, 71 Stat. 325.

July 2, 1956, ch. 488, title VI, §612, 70 Stat. 469.

July 13, 1955, ch. 358, title VI, §615, 69 Stat. 317.

June 30, 1954, ch. 432, title VII, §715, 68 Stat. 352.

CHAPTER 6—WILLFUL DESTRUCTION, ETC., OF WAR OR NATIONAL-DEFENSE MATERIAL

§§101 to 106. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 101, acts Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §1, 40 Stat. 533; Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220; Dec. 24, 1942, ch. 824, 56 Stat. 1087; 1946 Proc. No. 2695, eff. July 4, 1946, 11 F.R. 7517, 60 Stat. 1352, related to definition of war terms. See section 2151 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 102, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §2, 40 Stat. 534, related to destruction or injury of war material in time of war. See section 2153 of Title 18.

Section 103, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §3, 40 Stat. 534, related to making or causing to be made defective war material. See section 2154 of Title 18.

Section 104, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §4, as added Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220; amended Aug. 21, 1941, ch. 388, 55 Stat. 655, related to definition of national-defense terms. See section 2151 of Title 18.

Section 105, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §5, as added Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220, related to destruction or injury of national-defense materials. See section 2155 of Title 18.

Section 106, act Apr. 20, 1918, ch. 59, §6, as added Nov. 30, 1940, ch. 926, 54 Stat. 1220, related to making or causing to be made defective national-defense material. See section 2156 of Title 18.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 101 to 106 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CHAPTER 7—INTERFERENCE WITH HOMING PIGEONS OWNED BY UNITED STATES

§§111 to 113. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 111, act Apr. 19, 1918, ch. 58, §1, 40 Stat. 533, related to prohibited acts affecting homing pigeons owned by United States. See section 45 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 112, act Apr. 19, 1918, ch. 58, §2, 40 Stat. 533, related to possession of pigeons as evidence of violation of law. See section 45 of Title 18.

Section 113, act Apr. 19, 1918, ch. 58, §3, 40 Stat. 533, related to punishment. See section 45 of Title 18.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal of sections 111 to 113 effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

CHAPTER 8—EXPLOSIVES; MANUFACTURE, DISTRIBUTION, STORAGE, USE, AND POSSESSION REGULATED

§§121 to 144. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–452, title XI, §1106(a), Oct. 15, 1970, 84 Stat. 960

Section 121, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §1, 40 Stat. 385; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 863, defined "explosive", "explosives", "ingredients", "person", and "Director". See section 841 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section 122, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §2, 40 Stat. 385; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864, related to unauthorized manufacture, distribution, possession, acquisition, etc., of explosives or ingredients. See section 842 of Title 18.

Section 123, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §3, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864; Nov. 24, 1942, ch. 641, 56 Stat. 1022; Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, title XIV, §1405, 72 Stat. 808; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(f), 80 Stat. 943, excepted from provisions of this chapter purchase or possession of ingredients when purchased or held in small quantities and not used or intended to be used in manufacture of explosives, explosives or ingredients in transit in conformity with applicable law, explosives manufactured under authority of the United States for armed forces or the F.B.I., and arsenals, etc., owned by, or operated by or on behalf of, the United States. See section 845 of Title 18.

Section 124, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §4, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864, authorized a superintendent, foreman, or other duly authorized employee at a mine, quarry, or other work, when licensed, to sell or issue to any employee under him such amount of explosives or ingredients required by that employee in performance of his duties. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 125, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §2, 40 Stat. 385; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 863, related to applicability of prohibitory provisions of this chapter.

Section 126, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §5, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 864, required licensees to keep records of disposition of explosives or ingredients. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 127, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §6, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 865, authorized issuance of licenses. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 128, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §7, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 865, set forth procedure for issuance of licenses and fees for such licenses.

Section 129, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §8, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 865; Ex. Ord. No. 9287, eff. Dec. 24, 1942, 7 F.R. 10897, provided for term of license, qualifications of applicants for licenses, and revocation of license. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 130, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §9, 40 Stat. 386; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 866, set forth contents of applications for licenses. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 131, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §10, 40 Stat. 387; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 866, required licensee or applicant to furnish information on request of Director or his authorized representative. See section 843 of Title 18.

Section 132, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §11, 40 Stat. 387; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, related to false representations as to required license.

Section 133, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §12, 40 Stat. 387; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, related to markings on manufacturing or storage premises for explosives.

Section 134, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 671, related to cancellation of licenses for violations of law. See section 844 of Title 18.

Section 135, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §13, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, related to exclusion of public from manufacturing or storage premises for explosives and discharge of firearms, etc., on such premises.

Section 136, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §14, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, authorized investigations by Director of explosions and fires involving explosives or ingredients of explosives.

Section 137, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §15, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 867, authorized Director to exercise authority conferred upon him by this chapter under supervision of Secretary of the Interior and cooperation of other agencies with Director in administration and enforcement of this chapter.

Section 138, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §16, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972, authorized employment of personnel for administration of this chapter.

Section 139, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §17, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, prohibited any officer, employee, or licensing agent from divulging any information obtained in course of his duties under this chapter.

Section 140, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §18, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, authorized Director to issue rules and regulations. See section 847 of Title 18.

Section 141, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §19, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, set forth penalties for violations of this chapter. See section 844 of Title 18.

Section 142, acts Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §20, 40 Stat. 388; Dec. 26, 1941, ch. 633, §2, 55 Stat. 868, provided that this chapter and regulations issued pursuant to it were to become operative only during war or national emergency.

Section 143, act Oct. 6, 1917, ch. 83, §21, 40 Stat. 389, related to agencies available for enforcement of provisions of this chapter.

Section 144, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 671, subjected platinum, iridium, and palladium and compounds thereof to provisions of this chapter.

CHAPTER 9—AIRCRAFT

§§151 to 151f. Omitted

Codification

Sections 151 to 151f which related to a National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics were omitted pursuant to section 301(a) of Pub. L. 85–568, title III, July 29, 1958, 72 Stat. 432, formerly set out as a note under former section 2472 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, which terminated the Committee and transferred all its functions, powers, duties, and obligations to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Section 151, acts Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 83, 38 Stat. 930; Mar. 2, 1929, ch. 482, 45 Stat. 1451; June 23, 1938, ch. 601, §1107(e), 52 Stat. 1027; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. IV, §7, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2421, 54 Stat. 1235; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501; May 25, 1948, ch. 335, §1, 62 Stat. 266; Aug. 10, 1949, ch. 412, §12(a), 63 Stat. 591; Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §4, 64 Stat. 419; June 3, 1954, ch. 254, 68 Stat. 170, established National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, provided for its composition, prescribed compensation of members and duties of Committee, and required reports to Congress.

Section 151a, act Mar. 2, 1929, ch. 482, 45 Stat. 1451, was incorporated in section 151 of this title.

Section 151b, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §1, 64 Stat. 418, related to functions of Committee.

Section 151c, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §2, 64 Stat. 418, related to transfer of supplies to Committee.

Section 151d, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §3, 64 Stat. 418, related to employment of aliens.

Section 151e, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §6, 64 Stat. 419, related to availability of appropriations.

Section 151f, act Aug. 8, 1950, ch. 645, §7, 64 Stat. 419, related to prosecution of projects.

§§152, 153. Repealed. May 25, 1948, ch. 335, §3(a), (b), 62 Stat. 267

Section 152, act July 1, 1918, ch. 113, 40 Stat. 650, as amended July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, related to office space for Advisory Committee.

Section 153, act Mar. 3, 1915, ch. 83, 38 Stat. 930, related to annual reports.

§154. Repealed. Oct. 10, 1940, ch. 851, §4, 54 Stat. 1114

Section, act Apr. 22, 1926, ch. 171, 44 Stat. 314, related to purchases and services.

§155. Repealed. May 25, 1948, ch. 335, §3(c), 62 Stat. 267

Section, act Apr. 22, 1926, ch. 171, 44 Stat. 314, related to Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory.

§§156, 157. Omitted

Codification

Section 156, acts Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, §1, 54 Stat. 134; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972, authorized National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to pay compensation of a retired officer of the Army or Navy performing service for Committee. See note set out under sections 151 to 151f of this title.

Section 157, which related to transfer of aircraft, supplies, and equipment by Army and Navy to National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, was from appropriation acts July 30, 1947, ch. 359, title I, §101, 61 Stat. 599; Apr. 20, 1948, ch. 219, title I, §101, 62 Stat. 188; Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title I, §101, 63 Stat. 646; Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, ch. VIII, title I, §101, 64 Stat. 711, and was not repeated in the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952, act Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, 65 Stat. 268. Section was formerly classified to section 246 of former Title 49, Transportation.

§§158 to 159. Transferred

Codification

Section 158, act Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 433, §1(b), (c), as added July 13, 1949, ch. 332, §1, 63 Stat. 410, related to professional and scientific service on the Committee and was transferred to section 1161 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Section 158a, act Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 433, §2, 61 Stat. 715, related to classification of positions and appointments and was transferred to section 1162 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and reenacted as section 3104(b) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section 159, acts Aug. 1, 1947, ch. 433, §3, 61 Stat. 715; July 13, 1949, ch. 332, §2, 63 Stat. 411, related to reports to Congress and confidential information and was transferred to section 1163 of former Title 5, Executive Departments and Government Officers and Employees, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and reenacted as section 3104(c) of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§160. Omitted

Codification

Section, which was from acts Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title I, §101, 63 Stat. 646; Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, ch. VIII, title I, §101, 64 Stat. 711, and prior appropriation acts, related to employment of aliens, and was not repeated in the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1952, act Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, 65 Stat. 268.

§§160a to 160f. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–707, §21(b)(5), July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 337

Section 160a, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §1, 64 Stat. 43, related to employees pursuing graduate study or research.

Section 160b, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §2, 64 Stat. 43, related to acceptable types of graduate study and research.

Section 160c, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §3, 64 Stat. 43, related to duration of leaves of absence available.

Section 160d, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §4, 64 Stat. 43, related to payment of tuition and expenses.

Section 160e, act Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §5, 64 Stat. 43, related to continuation of salary and leave benefits.

Section 160f, acts Apr. 11, 1950, ch. 86, §6, 64 Stat. 43; May 6, 1954, ch. 183, 68 Stat. 78; Mar. 17, 1958, Pub. L. 85–349, 72 Stat. 48, related to limitation on government expenditure.

Effective Date of Repeal

For effective date of repeal, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 85–507.

CHAPTER 10—HELIUM GAS

Sec.
161 to 166. Omitted or Repealed.
167.
Definitions.
167a.
Authority of Secretary.
167b.
Storage, transportation, and withdrawal of crude helium.
167c.
Storage, withdrawal and transportation.
167d.
Sale of crude helium.
167e.
Intragovernmental cooperation.
167f.
Repealed.
167g.
Promulgation of rules and regulations.
167h.
Administrative procedure.
167i.
Exclusion from Natural Gas Act provisions.
167j.
Land conveyance in Potter County, Texas.
167k.
Violations; penalties.
167l.
Injunctions.
167m.
Information.
167n.
Helium gas resource assessment.
167o.
Low-Btu gas separation and helium conservation.
167p.
Helium-3 separation.
167q.
Federal agency helium acquisition strategy.

        

§§161 to 164. Omitted

Codification

Act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, 43 Stat. 1110, as completely amended, renumbered, and revised by Pub. L. 86–777, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918, is classified to section 167 et seq. of this title.

Section 161, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §1, 43 Stat. 1110; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1387; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 885, authorized Secretary of the Interior to acquire and reserve helium-gas lands and to produce and store helium gas. See section 3 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167a of this title.

Section 162, acts Feb. 12, 1925, ch. 225, title I, 43 Stat. 908; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, authorized Navy Department to acquire helium-gas lands and to produce and experiment with helium gas.

Section 163, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §2, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1387; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 886, authorized Bureau of Mines to produce helium gas. See section 4 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167b of this title.

Section 164, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §3, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1387; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 886, related to disposal of helium by sale, upon request of Army or Navy or other Federal Government agencies, or for medicinal, scientific or commercial use, to deposit and use of funds obtained by sale of gas, and to an annual report to Congress by Secretary of the Interior on said funds. See section 6 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167d of this title.

§165. Repealed. Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(13), 68 Stat. 861

Section, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §4, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1388; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 887, related to exportation of helium gas. See section 2778 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§166. Omitted

Section, acts Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §5, 43 Stat. 1111; Mar. 3, 1927, ch. 355, 44 Stat. 1388; Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 895, 50 Stat. 887; July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title II, §205(a), 61 Stat. 501, authorized Secretaries of Army and Navy to designate representatives to cooperate with Department of the Interior to effectuate the purposes of this chapter, and gave them the right of access to plants, data, and accounts. See section 7 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as amended by Pub. L. 86–777, which is classified to section 167e of this title.

§167. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Cliffside Field

The term "Cliffside Field" means the helium storage reservoir in which the Federal Helium Reserve is stored.

(2) Federal Helium Pipeline

The term "Federal Helium Pipeline" means the federally owned pipeline system through which helium for the Federal Helium Reserve may be transported.

(3) Federal Helium Reserve

The term "Federal Helium Reserve" means helium reserves owned by the United States.

(4) Federal Helium System

The term "Federal Helium System" means—

(A) the Federal Helium Reserve;

(B) the Cliffside Field;

(C) the Federal Helium Pipeline; and

(D) all other infrastructure owned, leased, or managed under contract by the Secretary for the storage, transportation, withdrawal, enrichment, purification, or management of helium.

(5) Federal user

The term "Federal user" means a Federal agency or extramural holder of one or more Federal research grants using helium.

(6) Low-Btu gas

The term "low-Btu gas" means a fuel gas with a heating value of less than 250 Btu per standard cubic foot measured as the higher heating value resulting from the inclusion of noncombustible gases, including nitrogen, helium, argon, and carbon dioxide.

(7) Person

The term "person" means any individual, corporation, partnership, firm, association, trust, estate, public or private institution, or State or political subdivision.

(8) Priority pipeline access

The term "priority pipeline access" means the first priority of delivery of crude helium under which the Secretary schedules and ensures the delivery of crude helium to a helium refinery through the Federal Helium System.

(9) Qualified bidder

(A) In general

The term "qualified bidder" means a person the Secretary determines is seeking to purchase helium for their own use, refining, or redelivery to users.

(B) Exclusion

The term "qualified bidder" does not include a person who was previously determined to be a qualified bidder if the Secretary determines that the person did not meet the requirements of a qualified bidder under this chapter.

(10) Qualifying domestic helium transaction

The term "qualifying domestic helium transaction" means any agreement entered into or renegotiated agreement during the preceding 1-year period in the United States for the purchase or sale of at least 15,000,000 standard cubic feet of crude or pure helium to which any holder of a contract with the Secretary for the acceptance, storage, delivery, or redelivery of crude helium from the Federal Helium System is a party.

(11) Refiner

The term "refiner" means a person with the ability to take delivery of crude helium from the Federal Helium Pipeline and refine the crude helium into pure helium.

(12) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of the Interior.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §2, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918; amended Pub. L. 113–40, §2, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 534.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2 of act Mar. 3, 1925, authorized Bureau of Mines to produce helium gas and was classified to section 163 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 86–777.

Amendments

2013—Pub. L. 113–40 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section defined "Secretary", "person", "helium-bearing natural gas", and "helium-gas mixture".

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–777, §3, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923, provided that: "The amendment made by this Act [enacting this section and sections 167a to 167n of this title] shall become effective on March 1, 1961."

Short Title of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–40, §1, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 534, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Helium Stewardship Act of 2013'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–273, §1, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3315, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 167a to 167d, 167f, 167j, and 167m of this title] may be cited as the 'Helium Privatization Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1960 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–777, §1, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918, provided that: "This Act [enacting this section, sections 167a to 167n of this title, and provisions set out as notes below] may be cited as the 'Helium Act Amendments of 1960'."

Short Title

Section 1 of act Mar. 3, 1925, as added by Pub. L. 86–777, §2, provided that: "This Act [enacting this section, sections 167a to 167n of this title, and provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the 'Helium Act'."

Regulations

Pub. L. 113–40, §9, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 544, provided that: "The Secretary of the Interior shall promulgate such regulations as are necessary to carry out this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act, including regulations necessary to prevent unfair acts and practices."

Separability

Act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §20, formerly §17, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923, renumbered §20, Pub. L. 113–40, §6(2), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 540, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [enacting this section, sections 167a to 167n of this title, and provisions set out as a note above], or the application of such provision to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of this Act or the application of such provision to persons or circumstances other than those as to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby."

Existing Agreements

Pub. L. 113–40, §8, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 544, provided that:

"(a) In General.—This Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act shall not affect or diminish the rights and obligations of the Secretary of the Interior and private parties under agreements in existence on the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 2, 2013], except to the extent that the agreements are renewed or extended after that date.

"(b) Delivery.—No agreement described in subsection (a) shall affect or diminish the right of any party that purchases helium after the date of enactment of this Act in accordance with section 6 of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167d) (as amended by section 5) to receive delivery of the helium in accordance with section 5(e)(2) of the Helium Act (50 U.S.C. 167c(e)(2)) (as amended by section 4)."

Severance Package for Helium Operations Employees

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(3) [title I, §112], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1535, 1501A-157, provided that:

"(a) Employees of Helium Operations, Bureau of Land Management, entitled to severance pay under 5 U.S.C. 5595, may apply for, and the Secretary of the Interior may pay, the total amount of the severance pay to the employee in a lump sum. Employees paid severance pay in a lump sum and subsequently reemployed by the Federal Government shall be subject to the repayment provisions of 5 U.S.C. 5595(i)(2) and (3), except that any repayment shall be made to the Helium Fund.

"(b) Helium Operations employees who elect to continue health benefits after separation shall be liable for not more than the required employee contribution under 5 U.S.C. 8905a(d)(1)(A). The Helium Fund shall pay for 18 months the remaining portion of required contributions.

"(c) The Secretary of the Interior may provide for training to assist Helium Operations employees in the transition to other Federal or private sector jobs during the facility shut-down and disposition process and for up to 12 months following separation from Federal employment, including retraining and relocation incentives on the same terms and conditions as authorized for employees of the Department of Defense in section 348 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 [Pub. L. 103–337, 10 U.S.C. 1597 note].

"(d) For purposes of the annual leave restoration provisions of 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(1)(B), the cessation of helium production and sales, and other related Helium Program activities shall be deemed to create an exigency of public business under, and annual leave that is lost during leave years 1997 through 2001 because of 5 U.S.C. 6304 (regardless of whether such leave was scheduled in advance) shall be restored to the employee and shall be credited and available in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 6304(d)(2). Annual leave so restored and remaining unused upon the transfer of a Helium Program employee to a position of the executive branch outside of the Helium Program shall be liquidated by payment to the employee of a lump sum from the Helium Fund for such leave.

"(e) Benefits under this section shall be paid from the Helium Fund in accordance with section 4(c)(4) of the Helium Privatization Act of 1996 [probably means the Helium Act, which is classified to section 167b(c)(4) of this title]. Funds may be made available to Helium Program employees who are or will be separated before October 1, 2002 because of the cessation of helium production and sales and other related activities. Retraining benefits, including retraining and relocation incentives, may be paid for retraining commencing on or before September 30, 2002.

"(f) This section shall remain in effect through fiscal year 2002."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(e) [title I, §112], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–231, 2681-254.

Pub. L. 105–83, title I, §113, Nov. 14, 1997, 111 Stat. 1562.

§167a. Authority of Secretary

(a) Extraction and disposal of helium on Federal lands

(1) In general

The Secretary may enter into agreements with private parties for the recovery and disposal of helium on Federal lands upon such terms and conditions as the Secretary deems fair, reasonable, and necessary.

(2) Leasehold rights

The Secretary may grant leasehold rights to any such helium.

(3) Limitation

The Secretary may not enter into any agreement by which the Secretary sells such helium other than to a private party with whom the Secretary has an agreement for recovery and disposal of helium.

(4) Regulations

Agreements under paragraph (1) may be subject to such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(5) Existing rights

An agreement under paragraph (1) shall be subject to any rights of any affected Federal oil and gas lessee that may be in existence prior to the date of the agreement.

(6) Terms and conditions

An agreement under paragraph (1) (and any extension or renewal of an agreement) shall contain such terms and conditions as the Secretary may consider appropriate.

(7) Prior agreements

This subsection shall not in any manner affect or diminish the rights and obligations of the Secretary and private parties under agreements to dispose of helium produced from Federal lands in existence on October 9, 1996, except to the extent that such agreements are renewed or extended after October 9, 1996.

(b) Storage, transportation, and sale

The Secretary may store, transport, and sell helium only in accordance with this chapter.

(c) Extraction of helium from deposits on Federal land

All amounts received by the Secretary from the sale or disposition of helium on Federal land shall be credited to the Helium Production Fund established under section 167d(e) of this title.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §3, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 918; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3315; Pub. L. 113–40, §3, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 535.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3 of act Mar. 3, 1925, related to disposal of helium by sale, use of funds so obtained, and reports to Congress on such uses and was classified to section 164 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 86–777.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–40 added subsec. (c).

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section enumerated various aspects of Secretary's authority, including provisions in subsec. (a) relating to conserving, producing, buying, and selling helium, in subsec. (b) relating to helium on public domain, and in subsec. (c) relating to contract price for helium.

§167b. Storage, transportation, and withdrawal of crude helium

(a) Storage, transportation, and withdrawal

The Secretary may store, transport, and withdraw crude helium and maintain and operate crude helium storage facilities, in existence on October 9, 1996, at the Bureau of Mines Cliffside Field, and related helium transportation and withdrawal facilities.

(b) Cessation of production, refining, and marketing

Not later than 18 months after October 9, 1996, the Secretary shall cease producing, refining, and marketing refined helium and shall cease carrying out all other activities relating to helium which the Secretary was authorized to carry out under this chapter before October 9, 1996, except activities described in subsection (a).

(c) Disposal of facilities

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (5), not later than 24 months after the cessation of activities referred to in subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary shall designate as excess property and dispose of all facilities, equipment, and other real and personal property, and all interests therein, held by the United States for the purpose of producing, refining and marketing refined helium.

(2) Applicable law

The disposal of such property shall be in accordance with chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41.

(3) Proceeds

All proceeds accruing to the United States by reason of the sale or other disposal of such property shall be treated as moneys received under this chapter for purposes of section 167d(e) of this title.

(4) Costs

All costs associated with such sale and disposal (including costs associated with termination of personnel) and with the cessation of activities under subsection (b) shall be paid from amounts available in the helium production fund established under section 167d(e) of this title.

(5) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any facilities, equipment, or other real or personal property, or any interest therein, necessary for the storage, transportation, and withdrawal of crude helium or any equipment, facilities, or other real or personal property, required to maintain the purity, quality control, and quality assurance of crude helium in the Bureau of Mines Cliffside Field.

(d) Existing contracts

(1) In general

All contracts that were entered into by any person with the Secretary for the purchase by the person from the Secretary of refined helium and that are in effect on October 9, 1996, shall remain in force and effect until the date on which the refining operations cease, as described in subsection (b).

(2) Costs

Any costs associated with the termination of contracts described in paragraph (1) shall be paid from the helium production fund established under section 167d(e) of this title.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §4, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 920; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3316; Pub. L. 113–40, §7(a), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 544.)

Codification

In subsec. (c)(2), "chapters 1 to 11 of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3307(e), 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41" substituted for "the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949" on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, which Act enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 4 of act Mar. 3, 1925, related to exportation of helium gas and was classified to section 165 of this title, prior to repeal by act Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title V, §542(a)(13), 68 Stat. 861.

Amendments

2013—Subsecs. (c)(3), (4), (d)(2). Pub. L. 113–40 substituted "section 167d(e)" for "section 167d(f)".

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of single par. authorizing Secretary to maintain and operate helium production and purification plants and to conduct or contract for research as to helium production, purification, transportation, liquefaction, storage, and utilization.

§167c. Storage, withdrawal and transportation

(a) In general

If the Secretary provides helium storage, withdrawal, or transportation services to any person, the Secretary shall impose a fee on the person that accurately reflects the economic value of those services.

(b) Minimum fees

The fees charged under subsection (a) shall be not less than the amount required to reimburse the Secretary for the full costs of providing storage, withdrawal, or transportation services, including capital investments in upgrades and maintenance at the Federal Helium System.

(c) Schedule of fees

Prior to sale or auction under subsection (a), (b), or (c) of section 167d of this title, the Secretary shall annually publish a standardized schedule of fees that the Secretary will charge under this section.

(d) Treatment

All fees received by the Secretary under this section shall be credited to the Helium Production Fund established under section 167d(e) of this title.

(e) Storage and delivery

In accordance with this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) allow any person or qualified bidder to which crude helium is sold or auctioned under section 167d of this title to store helium in the Federal Helium Reserve; and

(2) establish a schedule for the transportation and delivery of helium using the Federal Helium System that—

(A) ensures timely delivery of helium auctioned pursuant to section 167d(b)(2) of this title;

(B) ensures timely delivery of helium acquired from the Secretary from the Federal Helium Reserve by means other than an auction under section 167d(b)(2) of this title, including nonallocated sales; and

(C) provides priority access to the Federal Helium Pipeline for in-kind sales for Federal users.

(f) New Pipeline access

The Secretary shall consider any applications for access to the Federal Helium Pipeline in a manner consistent with the schedule for phasing out commercial sales and disposition of assets pursuant to section 167d of this title.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §5, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 920; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3317; Pub. L. 113–40, §4, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 535.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5 of act Mar. 3, 1925, authorized governmental cooperation with Department of the Interior to effectuate the purposes of this chapter and was classified to section 166 of this title, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 86–777.

Amendments

2013—Pub. L. 113–40 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to fees for storage, transportation, and withdrawal.

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to licensing for extraction, transportation, and sale of helium under Federal helium refining program, including provisions in subsec. (a) relating to rules and regulations, in subsec. (b) relating to terms, assignments, and revocations of licenses, in subsec. (c) relating to purpose of licenses, and in subsec. (d) relating to suspension of licenses and reacquisition of helium supplies in times of war or national emergency.

§167d. Sale of crude helium

(a) Phase A: allocation transition

(1) In general

The Secretary shall offer crude helium for sale in such quantities, at such times, at not less than the minimum price established under subsection (b)(7), and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out this subsection with minimum market disruption.

(2) Federal purchases

Federal users may purchase refined helium with priority pipeline access under this subsection from persons who have entered into enforceable contracts to purchase an equivalent quantity of crude helium at the in-kind price from the Secretary.

(3) Duration

This subsection applies during—

(A) the period beginning on October 2, 2013, and ending on September 30, 2014; and

(B) any period during which the sale of helium under subsection (b) is delayed or suspended.

(b) Phase B: auction implementation

(1) In general

The Secretary shall offer crude helium for sale in quantities not subject to auction under paragraph (2), after completion of each auction, at not less than the minimum price established under paragraph (7), and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines necessary—

(A) to maximize total recovery of helium from the Federal Helium Reserve over the long term;

(B) to maximize the total financial return to the taxpayer;

(C) to manage crude helium sales according to the ability of the Secretary to extract and produce helium from the Federal Helium Reserve;

(D) to give priority to meeting the helium demand of Federal users in the event of any disruption to the Federal Helium Reserve; and

(E) to carry out this subsection with minimum market disruption.

(2) Auction quantities

For the period described in paragraph (4) and consistent with the conditions described in paragraph (8), the Secretary shall annually auction to any qualified bidder a quantity of crude helium in the Federal Helium Reserve equal to—

(A) for fiscal year 2015, 10 percent of the total volume of crude helium made available for that fiscal year;

(B) for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2019, a percentage of the total volume of crude helium that is 15 percentage points greater than the percentage made available for the previous fiscal year; and

(C) for fiscal year 2020 and each fiscal year thereafter, 100 percent of the total volume of crude helium made available for that fiscal year.

(3) Federal purchases

Federal users may purchase refined helium with priority pipeline access under this subsection from persons who have entered into enforceable contracts to purchase an equivalent quantity of crude helium at the in-kind price from the Secretary.

(4) Duration

This subsection applies during the period—

(A) beginning on October 1, 2014; and

(B) ending on the date on which the volume of recoverable crude helium at the Federal Helium Reserve (other than privately owned quantities of crude helium stored temporarily at the Federal Helium Reserve under section 167c of this title and this section) is 3,000,000,000 standard cubic feet.

(5) Safety valve

The Secretary may adjust the quantities specified in paragraph (2)—

(A) downward, if the Secretary determines the adjustment necessary—

(i) to minimize market disruptions that pose a threat to the economic well-being of the United States; and

(ii) only after submitting a written justification of the adjustment to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives; or


(B) upward, if the Secretary determines the adjustment necessary to increase participation in crude helium auctions or returns to the taxpayer.

(6) Auction format

The Secretary shall conduct each auction using a method that maximizes revenue to the Federal Government.

(7) Prices

The Secretary shall annually establish, as applicable, separate sale and minimum auction prices under subsection (a)(1) and paragraphs (1) and (2) using, if applicable and in the following order of priority:

(A) The sale price of crude helium in auctions held by the Secretary under paragraph (2).

(B) Price recommendations and disaggregated data from a qualified, independent third party who has no conflict of interest, who shall conduct a confidential survey of qualifying domestic helium transactions.

(C) The volume-weighted average price of all crude helium and pure helium purchased, sold, or processed by persons in all qualifying domestic helium transactions.

(D) The volume-weighted average cost of converting gaseous crude helium into pure helium.

(8) Terms and conditions

(A) In general

The Secretary shall require all persons that are parties to a contract with the Secretary for the withdrawal, acceptance, storage, transportation, delivery, or redelivery of crude helium to disclose, on a strictly confidential basis—

(i) the volumes and associated prices in dollars per thousand cubic feet of all crude and pure helium purchased, sold, or processed by persons in qualifying domestic helium transactions;

(ii) the volumes and associated costs in dollars per thousand cubic feet of converting crude helium into pure helium; and

(iii) refinery capacity and future capacity estimates.

(B) Condition

As a condition of sale or auction to a refiner under subsection (a)(1) and paragraphs (1) and (2), effective beginning 90 days after October 2, 2013, the refiner shall make excess refining capacity of helium available at commercially reasonable rates to—

(i) any person prevailing in auctions under paragraph (2); and

(ii) any person that has acquired crude helium from the Secretary from the Federal Helium Reserve by means other than an auction under paragraph (2) after October 2, 2013, including nonallocated sales.

(9) Use of information

The Secretary may use the information collected under this chapter—

(A) to approximate crude helium prices; and

(B) to ensure the recovery of fair value for the taxpayers of the United States from sales of crude helium.

(10) Protection of confidentiality

The Secretary shall adopt such administrative policies and procedures as the Secretary considers necessary and reasonable to ensure the confidentiality of information submitted pursuant to this chapter.

(11) Forward auctions

Effective beginning in fiscal year 2016, the Secretary may conduct a forward auction once each fiscal year of a quantity of helium that is equal to up to 10 percent of the volume of crude helium to be made available at auction during the following fiscal year if the Secretary determines that the forward auction will—

(A) not cause a disruption in the supply of helium from the Reserve;

(B) represent a cost-effective action;

(C) generate greater returns for taxpayers; and

(D) increase the effectiveness of price discovery.

(12) Sale schedule and frequency

For fiscal year 2015 the Secretary shall conduct only one auction, which shall precede, and one sale, which shall take place no later than August 1, 2014, with full and final payment for the sale being made no later than September 26, 2014. Consistent with the annual volumes established under paragraph (2), effective beginning in fiscal year 2016, the Secretary may conduct auctions twice during each fiscal year if the Secretary determines that the auction frequency will—

(A) not cause a disruption in the supply of helium from the Reserve;

(B) represent a cost-effective action;

(C) generate greater returns for taxpayers; and

(D) increase the effectiveness of price discovery.

(13) One-time sale

(A) In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (4)(A), the Secretary shall hold a one-time sale of helium, no later than August 1, 2014 from amounts available in fiscal year 2016 pursuant to this section. Full and final payment for the sale must be made no later than 45 days after the date the sale takes place.

(B) Volume sold

The volume of helium sold under this paragraph—

(i) shall be at least 250 million cubic feet; and

(ii) shall be made available for sale consistent with paragraph (2)(B).

(c) Phase C: continued access for Federal users

(1) In general

The Secretary shall offer crude helium for sale to Federal users in such quantities, at such times, at such prices required to reimburse the Secretary for the full costs of the sales, and under such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines necessary to carry out this subsection.

(2) Federal purchases

Federal users may purchase refined helium with priority pipeline access under this subsection from persons who have entered into enforceable contracts to purchase an equivalent quantity of crude helium at the in-kind price from the Secretary.

(3) Effective date

This subsection applies beginning on the day after the date described in subsection (b)(4)(B).

(d) Phase D: disposal of assets

(1) In general

Not earlier than 2 years after the date of commencement of Phase C described in subsection (c) and not later than September 30, 2021, the Secretary shall designate as excess property and dispose of all facilities, equipment, and other real and personal property, and all interests in the same, held by the United States in the Federal Helium System.

(2) Applicable law

The disposal of the property described in paragraph (1) shall be in accordance with subtitle I of title 40.

(3) Proceeds

All proceeds accruing to the United States by reason of the sale or other disposal of the property described in paragraph (1) shall be treated as funds received under this chapter for purposes of subsection (e).

(4) Costs

All costs associated with the sale and disposal (including costs associated with termination of personnel) and with the cessation of activities under this subsection shall be paid from amounts available in the Helium Production Fund established under subsection (e).

(e) Helium Production Fund

(1) In general

All amounts received under this chapter, including amounts from the sale or auction of crude helium, shall be credited to the Helium Production Fund, which shall be available without fiscal year limitation for purposes determined to be necessary and cost effective by the Secretary to carry out this chapter (other than sections 167n, 167o, and 167p of this title), including capital investments in upgrades and maintenance at the Federal Helium System, including—

(A) well head maintenance at the Cliffside Field;

(B) capital investments in maintenance and upgrades of facilities that pressurize the Cliffside Field;

(C) capital investments in maintenance and upgrades of equipment related to the storage, withdrawal, enrichment, transportation, purification, and sale of crude helium from the Federal Helium Reserve;

(D) entering into purchase, lease, or other agreements to drill new or uncap existing wells to maximize the recovery of crude helium from the Federal Helium System; and

(E) any other scheduled or unscheduled maintenance of the Federal Helium System.

(2) Excess funds

Amounts in the Helium Production Fund in excess of amounts the Secretary determines to be necessary to carry out paragraph (1) shall be paid to the general fund of the Treasury and used to reduce the annual Federal budget deficit.

(3) Retirement of public debt

Out of amounts paid to the general fund of the Treasury under paragraph (2), the Secretary of the Treasury shall use $51,000,000 to retire public debt.

(4) Report

Not later than 1 year after October 2, 2013, and annually thereafter, the Secretary of the Interior shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a report describing all expenditures by the Bureau of Land Management to carry out this chapter.

(f) Minimum quantity

The Secretary shall offer for sale or auction during each fiscal year under subsections (a), (b), and (c) a quantity of crude helium that is the lesser of—

(1) the quantity of crude helium offered for sale by the Secretary during fiscal year 2012; or

(2) the maximum total production capacity of the Federal Helium System.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §6, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 921; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §4, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3317; Pub. L. 113–40, §5, Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 536.)

Amendments

2013—Pub. L. 113–40 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to sale of helium.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(a), substituted "from persons who have entered into enforceable contracts to purchase an equivalent amount of crude helium from the Secretary" for "from the Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(b), inserted "crude" before "helium" and inserted at end "Except as may be required by reason of subsection (a), sales of crude helium under this section shall be in amounts as the Secretary determines, in consultation with the helium industry, necessary to carry out this subsection with minimum market disruption."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(c)(2), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by substituting "all funds required to be repaid to the United States as of October 1, 1995 under this section (referred to in this subsection as 'repayable amounts'). The price at which crude helium is sold by the Secretary shall not be less than the amount determined by the Secretary by—" and pars. (1) and (2) for "together with interest as provided in this subsection" and all that followed through the end of the subsec., was executed by making the substitution for language which read "together with interest as provided in subsection (d) of this section, the following:" along with former pars. (1) to (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, pars. (1) to (3) read as follows:

"(1) Within twenty-five years from September 13, 1960, the net capital and retained earnings of the helium production fund (established under section 164 of this title prior to amendment by the Helium Act Amendments of 1960), determined by the Secretary as of September 13, 1960, plus any moneys expended thereafter by the Department of the Interior from funds provided in the Supplemental Appropriation Act, 1959, for construction of a helium plant at Keyes, Oklahoma;

"(2) Within twenty-five years from the date of borrowing, all funds borrowed, as provided in section 167j of this chapter, to acquire and construct helium plants and facilities; and

"(3) Within twenty-five years from September 13, 1960, unless the Secretary determines that said period should be extended for not more than ten years, all funds borrowed, as provided in section 167j of this title for all purposes other than those specified in clause (2) above."

Pub. L. 104–273, §4(c)(1), inserted "crude" after "Sales of".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(d), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Compound interest on the amounts specified in clauses (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) which have not been paid to the Treasury shall be calculated annually at rates determined by the Secretary of the Treasury taking into consideration the current average market yields of outstanding marketable obligations of the United States having maturities comparable to the investments authorized by this chapter, except that the interest rate on the amounts specified in clause (1) of subsection (c) shall be determined as of Sept. 13, 1960, and the interest rate on the obligations specified in clauses (2) and (3) of subsection (c) as of the time of each borrowing."

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 104–273, §4(e), (f), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e)(1), added par. (2), and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: "Helium shall be sold for medical purposes at prices which will permit its general use therefor; and all sales of helium to non-Federal purchasers shall be upon condition that the Federal Government shall have a right to repurchase helium so sold that has not been lost or dissipated, when needed for Government use, under terms and at prices established by regulations."

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

§167e. Intragovernmental cooperation

The Secretary of Defense and the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission may each designate representatives to cooperate with the Secretary in carrying out the purposes of this chapter, and shall have complete right of access to plants, data, and accounts.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §7, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 921.)

Transfer of Functions

Atomic Energy Commission abolished and functions transferred by sections 5814 and 5841 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. See also Transfer of Functions notes set out under those sections.

§167f. Repealed. Pub. L. 113–40, §7(b), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 544

Section, act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §8, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §5, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3318, related to elimination of helium stockpile.

§167g. Promulgation of rules and regulations

The Secretary is authorized to establish and promulgate such rules and regulations, as are consistent with the directions of this chapter and are necessary to carry out the provisions hereof.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §9, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922.)

§167h. Administrative procedure

(a) The provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5 shall apply to any agency proceeding and any agency action taken under this chapter, including the issuance of rules and regulations, and the terms "agency proceeding" and "agency action" shall have the meaning specified in subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

(b) In any proceeding under this chapter for the granting, suspending, revoking, or amending of any license, or application to transfer control thereof, and in any proceeding for the issuance or modification of rules and regulations dealing with the activities of licensees, the Secretary shall grant a hearing upon the request of any person whose interest may be affected by the proceeding, and shall admit any such person as a party to such proceeding. Any final order entered in any such proceeding shall be subject to judicial review in the manner prescribed in chapter 158 of title 28, and to the provisions of chapter 7 of title 5.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §10, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922.)

Codification

In subsecs. (a) and (b), "subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5" and "chapter 7 of title 5" substituted for "the Administrative Procedure Act of June 11, 1946 (60 Stat. 637; 5 U.S.C. 1001–1011), as amended", "the Administrative Procedure Act", and "section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act", respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

In subsec. (b), "chapter 158 of title 28" substituted for "the Act of December 29, 1950 (64 Stat. 1129; 5 U.S.C. 1031–1042), as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, section 4(e) of which enacted chapter 158 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§167i. Exclusion from Natural Gas Act provisions

The provisions of the Natural Gas Act of June 21, 1938, as amended [15 U.S.C. 717 et seq.], shall not be applicable to the sale, extraction, processing, transportation, or storage of helium either prior to or subsequent to the separation of such helium from the natural gas with which it is commingled, whether or not the provisions of such Act apply to such natural gas, and in determining the rates of a natural gas company under sections 4 and 5 of the Natural Gas Act, as amended [15 U.S.C. 717c, 717d], whenever helium is extracted from helium-bearing natural gas, there shall be excluded (1) all income received from the sale of helium; (2) all direct costs incurred in the extraction, processing, compression, transportation or storage of helium; and (3) that portion of joint costs of exploration, production, gathering, extraction, processing, compression, transportation or storage divided and allocated to helium on a volumetric basis.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §11, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 922.)

References in Text

The Natural Gas Act of June 21, 1938, as amended, referred to in text, means act June 21, 1938, ch. 556, 52 Stat. 821, as amended, known as the Natural Gas Act, which is classified generally to chapter 15B (§717 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 717w of Title 15 and Tables.

§167j. Land conveyance in Potter County, Texas

(a) In general

The Secretary of the Interior shall transfer all right, title, and interest of the United States in and to the parcel of land described in subsection (b) to the Texas Plains Girl Scout Council for consideration of $1, reserving to the United States such easements as may be necessary for pipeline rights-of-way.

(b) Land description

The parcel of land referred to in subsection (a) is all those certain lots, tracts or parcels of land lying and being situated in the County of Potter and State of Texas, and being the East Three Hundred Thirty-One (E331) acres out of Section Seventy-eight (78) in Block Nine (9), B.S. & F. Survey, (some times known as the G.D. Landis pasture) Potter County, Texas, located by certificate No. 1/39 and evidenced by letters patents Nos. 411 and 412 issued by the State of Texas under date of November 23, 1937, and of record in Vol. 66A of the Patent Records of the State of Texas. The metes and bounds description of such lands is as follows:

(1) First tract

One Hundred Seventy-one (171) acres of land known as the North part of the East part of said survey Seventy-eight (78) aforesaid, described by metes and bounds as follows:

Beginning at a stone 20 x 12 x 3 inches marked X, set by W.D. Twichell in 1905, for the Northeast corner of this survey and the Northwest corner of Section 59;

Thence, South 0 degrees 12 minutes East with the West line of said Section 59, 999.4 varas to the Northeast corner of the South 160 acres of East half of Section 78;

Thence, North 89 degrees 47 minutes West with the North line of the South 150 acres of the East half, 956.8 varas to a point in the East line of the West half Section 78;

Thence, North 0 degrees 10 minutes West with the East line of the West half 999.4 varas to a stone 18 x 14 x 3 inches in the middle of the South line of Section 79;

Thence, South 89 degrees 47 minutes East 965 varas to the place of beginning.

(2) Second tract

One Hundred Sixty (160) acres of land known as the South part of the East part of said survey No. Seventy-eight (78) described by metes and bounds as follows:

Beginning at the Southwest corner of Section 59, a stone marked X and a pile of stones; Thence, North 89 degrees 47 minutes West with the North line of Section 77, 966.5 varas to the Southeast corner of the West half of Section 78; Thence, North 0 degrees 10 minutes West with the East line of the West half of Section 78;

Thence, South 89 degrees 47 minutes East 965.8 varas to a point in the East line of Section 78;

Thence, South 0 degrees 12 minutes East 934.6 varas to the place of beginning.


Containing an area of 331 acres, more or less.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §12, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §6, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3318.)

Amendments

1996—Pub. L. 104–273 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to Secretary's authority under Federal helium refining program to obtain loans and issue obligations to carry out program.

§167k. Violations; penalties

Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate, any provision of this chapter or any regulation or order issued or any terms of a license granted thereunder shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, except that whoever commits such an offense with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, shall upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $20,000 or by imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §13, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923.)

§167l. Injunctions

Whenever in the judgment of the Secretary any person has engaged or is about to engage in any act or practice which constitutes or will constitute a violation of any provision of this chapter, or any regulation or order issued or any term of a license granted thereunder, any such act or practice may be enjoined by any district court having jurisdiction of such person, and proper proceedings to this end may be instituted under the direction of the Attorney General of the United States.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §14, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923.)

§167m. Information

(a) Transparency

The Secretary, acting through the Bureau of Land Management, shall make available on the Internet information relating to the Federal Helium System that includes—

(1) continued publication of an open market and in-kind price;

(2) aggregated projections of excess refining capacity;

(3) ownership of helium held in the Federal Helium Reserve;

(4) the volume of helium delivered to persons through the Federal Helium Pipeline;

(5) pressure constraints of the Federal Helium Pipeline;

(6) an estimate of the projected date when 3,000,000,000 standard cubic feet of crude helium will remain in the Federal Helium Reserve and the final phase described in section 167d(c) of this title will begin;

(7) the amount of the fees charged under section 167c of this title;

(8) the scheduling of crude helium deliveries through the Federal Helium Pipeline; and

(9) other factors that will increase transparency.

(b) Reporting

Not later than 90 days after October 2, 2013, to provide the market with appropriate and timely information affecting the helium resource, the Director of the Bureau of Land Management shall establish a timely and public reporting process to provide data that affects the helium industry, including—

(1) annual maintenance schedules and quarterly updates, that shall include—

(A) the date and duration of planned shutdowns of the Federal Helium Pipeline;

(B) the nature of work to be undertaken on the Federal Helium System, whether routine, extended, or extraordinary;

(C) the anticipated impact of the work on the helium supply;

(D) the efforts being made to minimize any impact on the supply chain; and

(E) any concerns regarding maintenance of the Federal Helium Pipeline, including the pressure of the pipeline or deviation from normal operation of the pipeline;


(2) for each unplanned outage, a description of—

(A) the beginning of the outage;

(B) the expected duration of the outage;

(C) the nature of the problem;

(D) the estimated impact on helium supply;

(E) a plan to correct problems, including an estimate of the potential timeframe for correction and the likelihood of plan success within the timeframe;

(F) efforts to minimize negative impacts on the helium supply chain; and

(G) updates on repair status and the anticipated online date;


(3) monthly summaries of meetings and communications between the Bureau of Land Management and the Cliffside Refiners Limited Partnership, including a list of participants and an indication of any actions taken as a result of the meetings or communications; and

(4) current predictions of the lifespan of the Federal Helium System, including how much longer the crude helium supply will be available based on current and forecasted demand and the projected maximum production capacity of the Federal Helium System for the following fiscal year.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §15, as added Pub. L. 113–40, §6(3), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 541.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 167m, act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §15, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923; amended Pub. L. 104–273, §7, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3319, related to a National Academy of Sciences study and report on helium, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 113–40, §6(1), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 540.

§167n. Helium gas resource assessment

(a) In general

Not later than 2 years after October 2, 2013, the Secretary, acting through the Director of the United States Geological Survey, shall—

(1) in coordination with appropriate heads of State geological surveys—

(A) complete a national helium gas assessment that identifies and quantifies the quantity of helium, including the isotope helium-3, in each reservoir, including assessments of the constituent gases found in each helium resource, such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and natural gas; and

(B) make available the modern seismic and geophysical log data for characterization of the Bush Dome Reservoir;


(2) in coordination with appropriate international agencies and the global geology community, complete a global helium gas assessment that identifies and quantifies the quantity of the helium, including the isotope helium-3, in each reservoir;

(3) in coordination with the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, complete—

(A) an assessment of trends in global demand for helium, including the isotope helium-3;

(B) a 10-year forecast of domestic demand for helium across all sectors, including scientific and medical research, commercial, manufacturing, space technologies, cryogenics, and national defense; and

(C) an inventory of medical, scientific, industrial, commercial, and other uses of helium in the United States, including Federal uses, that identifies the nature of the helium use, the amounts required, the technical and commercial viability of helium recapture and recycling in that use, and the availability of material substitutes wherever possible; and


(4) submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a report describing the results of the assessments required under this paragraph.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,000,000.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §16, as added Pub. L. 113–40, §6(3), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 542.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 167n, act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §16, as added Pub. L. 86–777, §2, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 923, directed the Secretary of the Interior to make annual reports to Congress, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–362, title IX, §901(q), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3291.

§167o. Low-Btu gas separation and helium conservation

(a) Authorization

The Secretary of Energy shall support programs of research, development, commercial application, and conservation (including the programs described in subsection (b))—

(1) to expand the domestic production of low-Btu gas and helium resources;

(2) to separate and capture helium from natural gas streams; and

(3) to reduce the venting of helium and helium-bearing low-Btu gas during natural gas exploration and production.

(b) Programs

(1) Membrane technology research

The Secretary of Energy, in consultation with other appropriate agencies, shall support a civilian research program to develop advanced membrane technology that is used in the separation of low-Btu gases, including technologies that remove helium and other constituent gases that lower the Btu content of natural gas.

(2) Helium separation technology

The Secretary of Energy shall support a research program to develop technologies for separating, gathering, and processing helium in low concentrations that occur naturally in geological reservoirs or formations, including—

(A) low-Btu gas production streams; and

(B) technologies that minimize the atmospheric venting of helium gas during natural gas production.

(3) Industrial helium program

The Secretary of Energy, working through the Advanced Manufacturing Office of the Department of Energy, shall carry out a research program—

(A) to develop low-cost technologies and technology systems for recycling, reprocessing, and reusing helium for all medical, scientific, industrial, commercial, aerospace, and other uses of helium in the United States, including Federal uses; and

(B) to develop industrial gathering technologies to capture helium from other chemical processing, including ammonia processing.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $3,000,000.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §17, as added Pub. L. 113–40, §6(3), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 542.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 17 of act Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, was redesignated section 20 and is set out as a Separability note under section 167 of this title.

§167p. Helium-3 separation

(a) Interagency cooperation

The Secretary shall cooperate with the Secretary of Energy, or a designee, on any assessment or research relating to the extraction and refining of the isotope helium-3 from crude helium and other potential sources, including—

(1) gas analysis; and

(2) infrastructure studies.

(b) Feasibility study

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, or a designee, may carry out a study to assess the feasibility of—

(1) establishing a facility to separate the isotope helium-3 from crude helium; and

(2) exploring other potential sources of the isotope helium-3.

(c) Report

Not later than 1 year after October 2, 2013, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a report that contains a description of the results of the assessments conducted under this section.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,000,000.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §18, as added Pub. L. 113–40, §6(3), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 543.)

§167q. Federal agency helium acquisition strategy

In anticipation of the implementation of Phase D described in section 167d(d) of this title, and not later than 2 years after October 2, 2013, the Secretary (in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of the National Science Foundation, the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Director of the National Institutes of Health, and other agencies as appropriate) shall submit to Congress a report that provides for Federal users—

(1) an assessment of the consumption of, and projected demand for, crude and refined helium;

(2) a description of a 20-year Federal strategy for securing access to helium;

(3) a determination of a date prior to September 30, 2021, for the implementation of Phase D as described in section 167d(d) of this title that minimizes any potential supply disruptions for Federal users;

(4) an assessment of the effects of increases in the price of refined helium and methods and policies for mitigating any determined effects; and

(5) a description of a process for prioritization of uses that accounts for diminished availability of helium supplies that may occur over time.

(Mar. 3, 1925, ch. 426, §19, as added Pub. L. 113–40, §6(3), Oct. 2, 2013, 127 Stat. 544.)

CHAPTER 11—ACQUISITION OF AND EXPENDITURES ON LAND FOR NATIONAL-DEFENSE PURPOSES

§§171, 171–1. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 171, acts Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §1, 26 Stat. 316; July 2, 1917, ch. 35, 40 Stat. 241; Apr. 11, 1918, ch. 51, 40 Stat. 518, authorized Secretary of War to institute condemnation proceedings for acquisition of land, to purchase land, and to accept donations of land. See section 2663 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 171–1, act Oct. 25, 1951, ch. 563, §101, 65 Stat. 641, granted certain condemnation authority to Secretary of Navy. See sections 2663 and 2668 of Title 10.

§171a. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 2, 1917, ch. 35, §2, as added Mar. 27, 1942, ch. 199, title II, §201, 56 Stat. 177, related to acquisition of real property during war, and terminated on Dec. 28, 1945 by act Mar. 27, 1942, ch. 199, title II, §202, as added Dec. 28, 1945, ch. 590, §1(a), 59 Stat. 658.

§171b. Repealed. Pub. L. 85–861, §36A, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1570

Section, acts Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 939, title IV, §406, 70 Stat. 1015; Aug. 20, 1958, Pub. L. 85–685, title V, §510, 72 Stat. 662, related to acquisition of land not exceeding $5,000 in cost.

§§172, 173. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 172, act July 9, 1918, ch. 143, subch. XV §8, 40 Stat. 888, related to acquisition of property for production of lumber. See section 2665 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 173, act Apr. 28, 1904, ch. 1762, §1, 33 Stat. 497, related to purchase of land for quarters and barracks in addition to sites for fortifications.

§174. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Aug. 18, 1890, ch. 797, §1, 26 Stat. 316, provided that nothing contained in former section 171 of this title should be construed to authorize an expenditure or involve the Government in any contract for future payment of money in excess of sums appropriated therefor.

§175. Transferred

Codification

Section, R.S. §355; June 28, 1930, ch. 710, 46 Stat. 828; Feb. 1, 1940, ch. 18, 54 Stat. 19; Oct. 9, 1940, ch. 793, 54 Stat. 1083; Sept. 1, 1970, Pub. L. 91–393, §1, 84 Stat. 835, which related to approval of title prior to Federal land purchases, payment of title expenses, application to Tennessee Valley Authority, and Federal jurisdiction over acquisitions, was transferred to section 255 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and was repealed and reenacted as sections 3111 and 3112 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, by Pub. L. 107–217, §§1, 6(b), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1062, 1304, as amended by Pub. L. 108–178, §2(a)(8), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2638, 2640.

§176. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Mar. 28, 1918, ch. 28, §1, 40 Stat. 460, authorized acquisition of property on Hudson River owned by North German Lloyd Dock Company and Hamburg-American Line Terminal & Navigation Company and provided that section 175 of this title did not apply to expenditures authorized in connection with such property. The President, by proclamation dated June 28, 1918, took possession of such property.

§§177 to 179. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat 641

Section 177, act June 25, 1906, ch. 3540, 34 Stat. 463, related to contracts for construction of fortifications and other works of defense.

Section 178, act Apr. 11, 1898, No. 21, 30 Stat. 737, provided for erection of forts in emergency. See sections 4776 and 9776 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 179, act June 30, 1921, ch. 33, §1, 42 Stat. 81, related to chargeability of appropriations with respect to transportation cost incident to construction and maintenance of seacoast fortifications.

CHAPTER 12—VESSELS IN TERRITORIAL WATERS OF UNITED STATES

Sec.
191.
Regulation of anchorage and movement of vessels during national emergency.
191a.
Transfer of Secretary of Transportation's powers to Secretary of Navy when Coast Guard operates as part of Navy.
191b, 191c. Repealed.
192.
Seizure and forfeiture of vessel; fine and imprisonment.
193.
Repealed.
194.
Enforcement provisions.
195.
Definitions.
196.
Emergency foreign vessel acquisition; purchase or requisition of vessels lying idle in United States waters.
197.
Voluntary purchase or charter agreements.
198.
Requisitioned vessels.

        

§191. Regulation of anchorage and movement of vessels during national emergency

Whenever the President by proclamation or Executive order declares a national emergency to exist by reason of actual or threatened war, insurrection, or invasion, or disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States, or whenever the Attorney General determines that an actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens en route to, or arriving off the coast of, the United States presents urgent circumstances requiring an immediate Federal response, the Secretary of Transportation may make, subject to the approval of the President, rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, may inspect such vessel at any time, place guards thereon, and, if necessary in his opinion in order to secure such vessels from damage or injury, or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States, or to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, may take, by and with the consent of the President, for such purposes, full possession and control of such vessel and remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof and all other persons not specially authorized by him to go or remain on board thereof.

Whenever the President finds that the security of the United States is endangered by reason of actual or threatened war, or invasion, or insurrection, or subversive activity, or of disturbances or threatened disturbances of the international relations of the United States, the President is authorized to institute such measures and issue such rules and regulations—

(a) to govern the anchorage and movement of any foreign-flag vessels in the territorial waters of the United States, to inspect such vessels at any time, to place guards thereon, and, if necessary in his opinion in order to secure such vessels from damage or injury, or to prevent damage or injury to any harbor or waters of the United States, or to secure the observance of rights and obligations of the United States, may take for such purposes full possession and control of such vessels and remove therefrom the officers and crew thereof, and all other persons not especially authorized by him to go or remain on board thereof;

(b) to safeguard against destruction, loss, or injury from sabotage or other subversive acts, accidents, or other causes of similar nature, vessels, harbors, ports, and waterfront facilities in the United States and all territory and water, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.


The President may delegate the authority to issue such rules and regulations to the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. Any appropriation available to any of the Executive Departments shall be available to carry out the provisions of this title.1

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §1, 40 Stat. 220; Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §1, 64 Stat. 427; Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(b), 64 Stat. 1038; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(a), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §649, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–711; Pub. L. 108–293, title II, §223, Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1040.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in text, means title II of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220, as amended, which enacted sections 191 and 192 to 194 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–293 inserted "The President may delegate the authority to issue such rules and regulations to the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating." at beginning of concluding provisions.

1996—Pub. L. 104–208, in first par., inserted "or whenever the Attorney General determines that an actual or anticipated mass migration of aliens en route to, or arriving off the coast of, the United States presents urgent circumstances requiring an immediate Federal response," after "international relations of the United States,".

1979—Pub. L. 96–70 struck out second par., providing that within the territory and waters of the Canal Zone the Governor of the Canal Zone, with the approval of the President, shall exercise all the powers conferred by this section on the Secretary of the Treasury, and in cl. (b) of third par., struck out "the Canal Zone," after "facilities in the United States,".

1950—Act Sept. 26, 1950, substituted "Governor of the Canal Zone" for "Governor of the Panama Canal" in second par.

Act Aug. 9, 1950, authorized the President to institute such rules and regulations to control anchorage and movement of foreign-flag vessels in United States waters when the national security is endangered.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Termination Date of 1950 Amendment

Act Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §4, 64 Stat. 428, provided that: "The provisions of this Act [amending this section and sections 192 and 194 of this title] shall expire on such date as may be specified by concurrent resolution of the two Houses of Congress."

Termination of War and Emergencies

Act July 25, 1947, ch. 327, §3, 61 Stat. 451, provided that in the interpretation of this section, the date July 25, 1947, shall be deemed to be the date of termination of any state of war theretofore declared by Congress and of the national emergencies proclaimed by the President on Sept. 8, 1939, and May 27, 1941.

Regulations—Post-War Generally

For regulations relating to safeguarding of vessels, harbors, ports, and waterfront facilities, under a finding that the security of the United States is endangered by reason of subversive activity, see Ex. Ord. No. 10173, Oct. 18, 1950, 15 F.R. 7005.

Regulations—World War II

Proc. No. 2732, June 2, 1947, 12 F.R. 3583, 61 Stat. 1069, revoked Proc. No. 2412, June 27, 1940, 5 F.R. 2419, 54 Stat. 2711, which granted consent of President to the exercise of certain powers under this section by the Secretary of the Treasury and the Governor of the Canal Zone.

Regulations—World War I

A proclamation was issued under this section on December 3, 1917.

Separability

Act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §4, 40 Stat. 231, provided: "If any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this Act [see Tables for classification] shall for any reason be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder thereof but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

"Secretary of Transportation" substituted for "Secretary of the Treasury" in first paragraph of text pursuant to section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred Coast Guard to Department of Transportation and transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of the Treasury of authority vested in President by this section, see section 2(e) of Ex. Ord. No. 10289, Sept. 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 9499, as amended, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

Proc. No. 6867. Declaration of National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to Regulation of Anchorage and Movement of Vessels

Proc. No. 6867, Mar. 1, 1996, 61 F.R. 8843, provided:

WHEREAS, on February 24, 1996, Cuban military aircraft intercepted and destroyed two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba;

WHEREAS the Government of Cuba has demonstrated a ready and reckless willingness to use excessive force, including deadly force, in the ostensible enforcement of its sovereignty;

WHEREAS, on July 13, 1995, persons in U.S.-registered vessels who entered into Cuban territorial waters suffered injury as a result of the reckless use of force against them by the Cuban military; and

WHEREAS the entry of U.S.-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters could again result in injury to, or loss of life of, persons engaged in that conduct, due to the potential use of excessive force, including deadly force, against them by the Cuban military, and could threaten a disturbance in international relations;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, WILLIAM J. CLINTON, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1 of title II of Public Law 65-24, ch. 30, June 15, 1917, as amended (50 U.S.C. 191), sections 201 and 301 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 1621, 1631], and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, find and do hereby proclaim that a national emergency does exist by reason of a disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations. In order to address this national emergency and to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of Transportation (the "Secretary") to make and issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary may find appropriate to regulate the anchorage and movement of vessels, and delegate to the Secretary my authority to approve such rules and regulations, as authorized by the Act of June 15, 1917 [see Tables for classification].

Section 1. The Secretary may make rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, which may be used, or is susceptible of being used, for voyage into Cuban territorial waters and that may create unsafe conditions and threaten a disturbance of international relations. Any rule or regulation issued pursuant to this proclamation may be effective immediately upon issuance as such rule or regulation shall involve a foreign affairs function of the United States.

Sec. 2. The Secretary is authorized to inspect any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, at any time; to place guards on any such vessel; and, with my consent expressly hereby granted, take full possession and control of any such vessel and remove the officers and crew, and all other persons not specifically authorized by the Secretary to go or remain on board the vessel when necessary to secure the rights and obligations of the United States.

Sec. 3. The Secretary may request assistance from such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this proclamation. Such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities shall, consistent with other provisions of law and to the extent practicable, provide requested assistance.

Sec. 4. The Secretary may seek assistance from State and local authorities in carrying out the purposes of this proclamation. Because State and local assistance may be essential for an effective response to this emergency, I urge all State and local officials to cooperate with Federal authorities and to take all actions within their lawful authority necessary to prevent the unauthorized departure of vessels intending to enter Cuban territorial waters.

Sec. 5. All powers and authorities delegated by this proclamation to the Secretary may be delegated by the Secretary to other officers and agents of the United States Government unless otherwise prohibited by law.

Sec. 6. This proclamation shall be immediately transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this first day of March, in the year of our Lord nineteen hundred and ninety-six, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twentieth.

William J. Clinton.      

[Provisions of Proc. No. 6867 superseded to the extent of inconsistency with provisions of Procs. No. 7757 and 9398, see Sec. 6 of Proc. No. 7757 and Sec. 6 of Proc. No. 9398, set out below.]

Continuation of National Emergency Declared by Proc. No. 6867

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 25, 2015, 80 F.R. 11075, provided:

On March 1, 1996, by Proclamation 6867, a national emergency was declared to address the disturbance or threatened disturbance of international relations caused by the February 24, 1996, destruction by the Cuban government of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace north of Cuba. On February 26, 2004, by Proclamation 7757, the national emergency was extended and its scope was expanded to deny monetary and material support to the Cuban government. The Cuban government has not demonstrated that it will refrain from the use of excessive force against U.S. vessels or aircraft that may engage in memorial activities or peaceful protest north of Cuba. In addition, the unauthorized entry of any U.S.-registered vessel into Cuban territorial waters continues to be detrimental to the foreign policy of the United States. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1622(d)), I am continuing the national emergency with respect to Cuba and the emergency authority relating to the regulation of the anchorage and movement of vessels set out in Proclamation 6867 as amended by Proclamation 7757.

This notice shall be published in the Federal Register and transmitted to the Congress.

Barack Obama.      


Prior continuations of national emergency declared by Proc. No. 6867 were contained in the following:

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 25, 2014, 79 F.R. 10949.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 22, 2013, 78 F.R. 13209.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 23, 2012, 77 F.R. 11379.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 24, 2011, 76 F.R. 11073.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 23, 2010, 75 F.R. 8793.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Jan. 15, 2009, 74 F.R. 3959.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 6, 2008, 73 F.R. 7459.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 26, 2007, 72 F.R. 9231.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Jan. 10, 2006, 71 F.R. 2133.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 18, 2005, 70 F.R. 8919.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 26, 2004, 69 F.R. 9513.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 27, 2003, 68 F.R. 9849.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 26, 2002, 67 F.R. 9387.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 27, 2001, 66 F.R. 12841.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 25, 2000, 65 F.R. 10929.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 24, 1999, 64 F.R. 9903.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 25, 1998, 63 F.R. 9923.

Notice of President of the United States, dated Feb. 27, 1997, 62 F.R. 9347.

Proc. No. 7757. Expanding the Scope of the National Emergency and Invocation of Emergency Authority Relating to the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels into Cuban Territorial Waters

Proc. No. 7757, Feb. 26, 2004, 69 F.R. 9515, provided:

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to expand the scope of the national emergency declared in Proclamation 6867 of March 1, 1996 [set out above], based on the disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States caused by actions taken by the Cuban government, and in light of steps taken over the past year by the Cuban government to worsen the threat to United States international relations, and,

WHEREAS the United States has determined that Cuba is a state-sponsor of terrorism and it is subject to the restrictions of section 6(j)(1)(A) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 [50 U.S.C. 4605(j)(1)(A)], section 620A of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 [22 U.S.C. 2371], and section 40 of the Arms Export Control Act [22 U.S.C. 2780];

WHEREAS the Cuban government has demonstrated a ready and reckless willingness to use excessive force, including deadly force, against U.S. citizens, in the ostensible enforcement of its sovereignty, including the February 1996 shoot-down of two unarmed U.S.-registered civilian aircraft in international airspace, resulting in the deaths of three American citizens and one other individual;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has demonstrated a ready and reckless willingness to use excessive force, including deadly force, against U.S. citizens and its own citizens, including on July 13, 1995, when persons in U.S.-registered vessels that entered into Cuban territorial waters suffered injury as a result of the reckless use of force against them by the Cuban military, and including the July 1994 sinking of an unarmed Cuban-registered vessel, resulting in the deaths of 41 Cuban citizens;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has impounded U.S.-registered vessels in Cuban ports and forced the owners, as a condition of release, to violate U.S. law by requiring payments to be made to the Cuban government;

WHEREAS the entry of any U.S.-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters could result in injury to, or loss of life of, persons engaged in that conduct, due to the potential use of excessive force, including deadly force, against them by the Cuban military, and could threaten a disturbance of international relations;

WHEREAS the unauthorized entry of vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States into Cuban territorial waters is in violation of U.S. law and contrary to U.S. policy;

WHEREAS the objectives of U.S. policy regarding Cuba are the end of the dictatorship and a rapid, peaceful transition to a representative democracy respectful of human rights and characterized by an open market economic system;

WHEREAS a critical initiative by the United States to advance these U.S. objectives is to deny resources to the repressive Cuban government, resources that may be used by that government to support terrorist activities and carry out excessive use of force against innocent victims, including U.S. citizens;

WHEREAS the unauthorized entry of U.S.-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters is detrimental to the foreign policy of the United States, which is to deny monetary and material support to the repressive Cuban government, and, therefore, such unauthorized entries threaten to disturb the international relations of the United States by facilitating the Cuban government's support of terrorism, use of excessive force, and continued existence;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has over the course of its 45-year existence repeatedly used violence and the threat of violence to undermine U.S. policy interests. This same regime continues in power today, and has since 1959 maintained a pattern of hostile actions contrary to U.S. policy interests. Among other things, the Cuban government established a military alliance with the Soviet Union, and invited Soviet forces to install nuclear missiles in Cuba capable of attacking the United States, and encouraged Soviet authorities to use those weapons against the United States; it engaged in military adventurism in Africa; and it helped to form and provide material and political support to terrorist organizations that sought the violent overthrow of democratically elected governments in Central America and elsewhere in the hemisphere allied with the United States, thereby causing repeated disturbances of U.S. international relations;

WHEREAS the Cuban government has recently and over the last year taken a series of steps to destabilize relations with the United States, including threatening to abrogate the Migration Accords with the United States and to close the U.S. Interests Section, and Cuba's most senior officials repeatedly asserting that the United States intended to invade Cuba, despite explicit denials from the U.S. Secretaries of State and Defense that such action is planned, thereby causing a sudden and worsening disturbance of U.S. international relations;

WHEREAS U.S. concerns about these unforeseen Cuban government actions that threaten to disturb international relations were sufficiently grave that on May 8, 2003, the United States warned the Cuban government that political manipulations that resulted in a mass migration would be viewed as a "hostile act;"

NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE W. BUSH, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1 of title II of Public Law 65–24, ch. 30, June 15, 1917, as amended (50 U.S.C. 191), sections 201 and 301 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.) [50 U.S.C. 1621, 1631], and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in order to expand the scope of the national emergency declared in Proclamation 6867 of March 1, 1996 [set out above], and to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of Homeland Security (the "Secretary") to make and issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary may find appropriate to regulate the anchorage and movement of vessels, and authorize and approve the Secretary's issuance of such rules and regulations, as authorized by the Act of June 15, 1917 [see Tables for classification].

Section 1. The Secretary may make rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, which may be used, or is susceptible of being used, for voyage into Cuban territorial waters and that may create unsafe conditions, or result in unauthorized transactions, and thereby threaten a disturbance of international relations. Any rule or regulation issued pursuant to this proclamation may be effective immediately upon issuance as such rule or regulation shall involve a foreign affairs function of the United States.

Sec. 2. The Secretary is authorized to inspect any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, at any time; to place guards on any such vessel; and, with my consent expressly hereby granted, take full possession and control of any such vessel and remove the officers and crew and all other persons not specifically authorized by the Secretary to go or remain on board the vessel when necessary to secure the rights and obligations of the United States.

Sec. 3. The Secretary may request assistance from such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this proclamation. Such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities shall, consistent with other provisions of law and to the extent practicable, provide requested assistance.

Sec. 4. The Secretary may seek assistance from State and local authorities in carrying out the purposes of this proclamation. Because State and local assistance may be essential for an effective response to this emergency, I urge all State and local officials to cooperate with Federal authorities and to take all actions within their lawful authority necessary to prevent the unauthorized departure of vessels intending to enter Cuban territorial waters.

Sec. 5. All powers and authorities delegated by this proclamation to the Secretary may be delegated by the Secretary to other officers and agents of the United States Government unless otherwise prohibited by law.

Sec. 6. Any provisions of Proclamation 6867 [set out above] that are inconsistent with the provisions of this proclamation are superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.

Sec. 7. This proclamation shall be immediately transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-sixth day of February, in the year of our Lord two thousand four, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and twenty-eighth.

George W. Bush.      

[Provisions of Proc. No. 7757 superseded to the extent of inconsistency with provisions of Proc. No. 9398, see Sec. 6 of Proc. No. 9398, set out below.]

Proc. No. 9398. Modifying and Continuing the National Emergency With Respect to Cuba and Continuing To Authorize the Regulation of the Anchorage and Movement of Vessels

Proc. No. 9398, Feb. 24, 2016, 81 F.R. 9737, provided:

By the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, in order to modify and continue the national emergency declared in Proclamation 6867 of March 1, 1996 [set out above], and expanded by Proclamation 7757 of February 26, 2004 [set out above], in light of the need to continue the national emergency based on a disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States related to Cuba, and,

WHEREAS the descriptions of the national emergency set forth in Proclamations 6867 and 7757 no longer reflect the international relations of the United States related to Cuba;

WHEREAS longstanding U.S. policy towards Cuba had, at times, tended to isolate the United States from regional and international partners, constrained our ability to influence outcomes throughout the Western Hemisphere, and impaired the use of the full range of tools available to the United States to promote positive change in Cuba;

WHEREAS the following descriptions accurately describe the national emergency with respect to Cuba;

WHEREAS the United States and Cuba reestablished diplomatic relations and opened embassies in each other's capitals on July 20, 2015, and the United States continues to pursue the progressive normalization of relations while aspiring towards a peaceful, prosperous, and democratic Cuba;

WHEREAS the United States has committed to work with the Government of Cuba on matters of mutual concern that advance U.S. national interests, such as migration, human rights, counter-narcotics, environmental protection, and trafficking in persons, among other issues;

WHEREAS the United States is committed to supporting safe, orderly, and legal migration from Cuba through the effective implementation of the 1994–95 U.S.-Cuba Migration Accords;

WHEREAS the Cuban economy is in a relatively weak state, contributing to an outflow of its nationals towards the United States and neighboring countries;

WHEREAS the overarching objective of U.S. policy is stability in the region, and the outflow of Cuban nationals may have a destabilizing effect on the United States and its neighboring countries;

WHEREAS it is United States policy that a mass migration from Cuba would endanger the security of the United States by posing a disturbance or threatened disturbance of the international relations of the United States;

WHEREAS the United States continues to maintain an embargo with respect to Cuba;

WHEREAS the unauthorized entry of vessels subject to the jurisdiction of the United States into Cuban territorial waters is in violation of U.S. law and contrary to U.S. policy;

WHEREAS the unauthorized entry of United States-registered vessels into Cuban territorial waters is detrimental to the foreign policy of the United States, and counter to the purpose of Executive Order 12807, which is to ensure, among other things, safe, orderly, and legal migration;

WHEREAS the possibility of large-scale unauthorized entries of United States-registered vessels would disturb the international relations of the United States by facilitating a possible mass migration of Cuban nationals;

NOW, THEREFORE, I, BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 1 of title II of Public Law 65–24, ch. 30, June 15, 1917, as amended (50 U.S.C. 191), sections 201, 202, and 301 of the National Emergencies Act (50 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), and section 301 of title 3, United States Code, in order to modify the scope of the national emergency declared in Proclamations 6867 and 7757, and to secure the observance of the rights and obligations of the United States, hereby continue the national emergency with regard to Cuba as set forth above and authorize and direct the Secretary of Homeland Security (the "Secretary") to make and issue such rules and regulations as the Secretary may find appropriate to regulate the anchorage and movement of vessels, and authorize and approve the Secretary's issuance of such rules and regulations, as authorized by the Act of June 15, 1917. Accordingly, I hereby direct:

Section 1. The Secretary may make rules and regulations governing the anchorage and movement of any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, which may be used, or is susceptible of being used, for voyage into Cuban territorial waters and that may create unsafe conditions, or result in unauthorized transactions, and thereby threaten a disturbance of international relations. Any rule or regulation issued pursuant to this proclamation may be effective immediately upon issuance as such rule or regulation shall involve a foreign affairs function of the United States.

Sec. 2. The Secretary is authorized, to the extent consistent with international law, to inspect any vessel, foreign or domestic, in the territorial waters of the United States, at any time; to place guards on any such vessel; and, with my consent expressly hereby granted, take full possession and control of any such vessel and remove the officers and crew and all other persons not specifically authorized by the Secretary to go or remain on board the vessel when necessary to secure the rights and obligations of the United States.

Sec. 3. The Secretary may request assistance from such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as the Secretary deems necessary to carry out the purposes of this proclamation. Such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities shall, consistent with other provisions of law and to the extent practicable, provide requested assistance.

Sec. 4. The Secretary may seek assistance from State and local authorities in carrying out the purposes of this proclamation. Because State and local assistance may be essential for an effective response to this emergency, I urge all State and local officials to cooperate with Federal authorities and to take all actions within their lawful authority necessary to prevent the unauthorized departure of vessels intending to enter Cuban territorial waters.

Sec. 5. All powers and authorities delegated by this proclamation to the Secretary may be delegated by the Secretary to other officers and agents of the United States Government unless otherwise prohibited by law.

Sec. 6. Any provisions of Proclamation 6867 of March 1, 1996, and expanded by Proclamation 7757 of February 26, 2004, that are inconsistent with the provisions of this proclamation are superseded to the extent of such inconsistency.

Sec. 7. This proclamation shall be immediately transmitted to the Congress and published in the Federal Register.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, I have hereunto set my hand this twenty-fourth day of February, in the year of our Lord two thousand sixteen, and of the Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and fortieth.

Barack Obama.      

1 See References in Text note below.

§191a. Transfer of Secretary of Transportation's powers to Secretary of Navy when Coast Guard operates as part of Navy

When the Coast Guard operates as a part of the Navy pursuant to section 3 of title 14, the powers conferred on the Secretary of Transportation by section 191 of this title, shall vest in and be exercised by the Secretary of the Navy.

(Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §2, 55 Stat. 763; Pub. L. 87–845, §11, Oct. 18, 1962, 76A Stat. 699; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938.)

Amendments

1962—Pub. L. 87–845 substituted "section 3 of title 14" for "section 1 of title 14".

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–845 effective Jan. 2, 1963, see section 25 of Pub. L. 87–845, set out as a note under section 414 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

"Secretary of Transportation" substituted in text for "Secretary of the Treasury" pursuant to section 6(b)(1) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred Coast Guard to Department of Transportation and transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

§191b. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3303(a)(5), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 499

Section, acts Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §4, 55 Stat. 763; Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(b), 64 Stat. 1038; Oct. 18, 1962, Pub. L. 87–845, §12, 76A Stat. 699, provided that this section, section 191a of this title, and section 91 of title 14 not affect the authority of the Governor of the Canal Zone conferred by section 191 of this title or section 34 of Title 2, Canal Zone Code.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§191c. Repealed. Aug. 4, 1949, ch. 393, §20, 63 Stat. 561

Section, act Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §1, 55 Stat. 763, related to control of anchorage and movement of vessels to insure safety of naval vessels. See section 91 of Title 14, Coast Guard.

§192. Seizure and forfeiture of vessel; fine and imprisonment

(a) In general

If any owner, agent, master, officer, or person in charge, or any member of the crew of any such vessel fails to comply with any regulation or rule issued or order given under the provisions of this title,1 or obstructs or interferes with the exercise of any power conferred by this title,1 the vessel, together with her tackle, apparel, furniture, and equipment, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture to the United States in the same manner as merchandise is forfeited for violation of the customs revenue laws; and the person guilty of such failure, obstruction, or interference shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than ten years and may, in the discretion of the court, be fined not more than $10,000.

(b) Application to others

If any other person knowingly fails to comply with any regulation or rule issued or order given under the provisions of this title,1 or knowingly obstructs or interferes with the exercise of any power conferred by this title,1 he shall be punished by imprisonment for not more than ten years and may, at the discretion of the court, be fined not more than $10,000.

(c) Civil penalty

A person violating this title,1 or a regulation prescribed under this title,1 shall be liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each violation. Each day of a continuing violation shall constitute a separate violation.

(d) In rem liability

Any vessel that is used in violation of this title,1 or of any regulation issued under this title,1 shall be liable in rem for any civil penalty assessed pursuant to subsection (c) and may be proceeded against in the United States district court for any district in which such vessel may be found.

(e) Withholding of clearance

(1) In general

If any owner, agent, master, officer, or person in charge of a vessel is liable for a penalty or fine under subsection (c), or if reasonable cause exists to believe that the owner, agent, master, officer, or person in charge may be subject to a penalty or fine under this section, the Secretary may, with respect to such vessel, refuse or revoke any clearance required by section 60105 of title 46.

(2) Clearance upon filing of bond or other surety

The Secretary may require the filing of a bond or other surety as a condition of granting clearance refused or revoked under this subsection.

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §2, 40 Stat. 220; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, §3(a), 54 Stat. 79; Nov. 15, 1941, ch. 471, §3, 55 Stat. 763; Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §3, 64 Stat. 428; Pub. L. 107–295, title I, §104(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2085; Pub. L. 108–293, title VIII, §802(b), Aug. 9, 2004, 118 Stat. 1079.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsecs. (a) to (d), means title II of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220, as amended, which enacted sections 191 and 192 to 194 of this title. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (e)(1), "section 60105 of title 46" substituted for "section 4197 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (46 U.S.C. App. 91)" on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted section 60105 of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–293, §802(b)(1), substituted "title" for "Act" in two places.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 108–293, §802(b)(2), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

2002—Pub. L. 107–295 inserted subsec. headings, designated first par. as subsec. (a), redesignated former subsec. (a) as (b), and added subsec. (c).

1950—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 9, 1950, added subsec. (a).

1941—Act Nov. 15, 1941, struck out "by the Secretary of the Treasury or the Governor of the Panama Canal" before "under the provisions of this title".

1940—Act Mar. 28, 1940, increased term of imprisonment.

Termination Date of 1950 Amendment

For termination of amendment by act Aug. 9, 1950, see section 4 of act Aug. 9, 1950, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§193. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section, acts June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §3, 40 Stat. 220; Mar. 28, 1940, ch. 72, §3(b), 54 Stat. 79, related to destruction of, injury to, or improper use of vessels. See section 2274 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 38 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§194. Enforcement provisions

The President may employ such departments, agencies, officers, or instrumentalities of the United States as he may deem necessary to carry out the purpose of this title.1

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title II, §4, 40 Stat. 220; Aug. 9, 1950, ch. 656, §2, 64 Stat. 428.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in text, means title II of act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 220, as amended, which enacted sections 191 and 192 to 194 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1950—Act Aug. 9, 1950, authorized President to employ such departments, agencies, etc., as he may deem necessary to carry out title II of act June 15, 1917.

Termination Date of 1950 Amendment

For termination of amendment by act Aug. 9, 1950, see section 4 of act Aug. 9, 1950, set out as a note under section 191 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§195. Definitions

In this Act:

(1) United states.—The term "United States" includes all territory and waters, continental or insular, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States.

(2) Territorial waters.—The term "territorial waters of the United States" includes all waters of the territorial sea of the United States as described in Presidential Proclamation 5928 of December 27, 1988.

(June 15, 1917, ch. 30, title XIII, §1, 40 Stat. 231; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(b), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 107–295, title I, §104(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2085.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, means act June 15, 1917, ch. 30, 40 Stat. 217, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Presidential Proclamation 5928 of December 27, 1988, referred to in par. (2), is set out as a note under section 1331 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 40 of this title. In the original this section defined "United States" as used in act June 15, 1917. Other provisions of that act were contained in sections 31 to 42 of this title and certain sections of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. The definition of "United States" as used in present provisions derived from those former sections is covered by section 5 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Amendments

2002—Pub. L. 107–295 added introductory provisions, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, struck out "as used in this Act" before "includes", and added par. (2).

1979—Pub. L. 96–70 struck out "the Canal Zone and" after "this Act includes".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§196. Emergency foreign vessel acquisition; purchase or requisition of vessels lying idle in United States waters

During any period in which vessels may be requisitioned under chapter 563 of title 46, the President is authorized and empowered through the Secretary of Transportation to purchase, or to requisition, or for any part of such period to charter or requisition the use of, or to take over the title to or possession of, for such use or disposition as he shall direct, any merchant vessel not owned by citizens of the United States which is lying idle in waters within the jurisdiction of the United States and which the President finds to be necessary to the national defense. Just compensation shall be determined and made to the owner or owners of any such vessel in accordance with the applicable provisions of chapter 563 of title 46. Such compensation hereunder, or advances on account thereof, shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States in a separate deposit fund. Payments for such compensation and also for payment of any valid claim upon such vessel in accord with the provisions of section 56305 of title 46 shall be made from such fund upon the certificate of the Secretary of Transportation.

(Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, §1, 68 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 96–70, title III, §3302(c), Sept. 27, 1979, 93 Stat. 498; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(152), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 167.)

Codification

In text, "chapter 563 of title 46" substituted for "section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended" in two places and "section 56305 of title 46" substituted for "the second paragraph of subsection (d) of such section 902, as amended," on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted chapter 563 of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–31 substituted references to Secretary of Transportation for references to Secretary of Commerce wherever appearing.

1979—Pub. L. 96–70 struck out ", including the Canal Zone," after "jurisdiction of the United States".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–70 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 3304 of Pub. L. 96–70, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§197. Voluntary purchase or charter agreements

During any period in which vessels may be requisitioned under chapter 563 of title 46, the President is authorized through the Secretary of Transportation to acquire by voluntary agreement of purchase or charter the ownership or use of any merchant vessel not owned by citizens of the United States.

(Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, §2, 68 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(152), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 167.)

Codification

In text, "chapter 563 of title 46" substituted for "section 902 of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted chapter 563 of Title 46, Shipping.

Amendments

1981—Pub. L. 97–31 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary of Commerce".

§198. Requisitioned vessels

(a) Documentation of vessels

Any vessel not documented under the laws of the United States, acquired by or made available to the Secretary of Transportation under sections 196 to 198 of this title, or otherwise, may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the discretion of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating be documented as a vessel of the United States under such rules and regulations or orders, and with such limitations, as the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may prescribe or issue as necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and provisions of sections 196 to 198 of this title, and in accordance with the provisions of subsection (c), engage in the coastwise trade when so documented. Any document issued to a vessel under the provisions of this subsection shall be surrendered at any time that such surrender may be ordered by the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. No vessel, the surrender of the documents of which has been so ordered, shall, after the effective date of such order, have the status of a vessel of the United States unless documented anew.

(b) Waiver of compliance

The President may, notwithstanding any other provisions of law, by rules and regulations or orders, waive compliance with any provision of law relating to masters, officers, members of the crew, or crew accommodations on any vessel documented under authority of this section to such extent and upon such terms as he finds necessary because of the lack of physical facilities on such vessels, and because of the need to employ aliens for their operation. No vessel shall cease to enjoy the benefits and privileges of a vessel of the United States by reason of the employment of any person in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

(c) Coastwise trade; inspection

Any vessel while documented under the provisions of this section, when chartered under sections 196 to 198 of this title by the Secretary of Transportation to Government agencies or departments or to private operators, may engage in the coastwise trade under permits issued by the Secretary of Transportation, who is authorized to issue permits for such purpose pursuant to such rules and regulations as he may prescribe. The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to prescribe such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes and provisions of this section. Section 57109 of title 46 shall not apply with respect to vessels chartered to Government agencies or departments or to private operators or otherwise used or disposed of under sections 196 to 198 of this title. Existing laws covering the inspection of steam vessels are made applicable to vessels documented under this section only to such extent and upon such conditions as may be required by regulations of the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating: Provided, That in determining to what extent those laws should be made applicable, due consideration shall be given to the primary purpose of transporting commodities essential to the national defense.

(d) Reconditioning of vessels

The Secretary of Transportation without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41 may repair, reconstruct, or recondition any vessels to be utilized under sections 196 to 198 of this title. The Secretary of Transportation and any other Government department or agency by which any vessel is acquired or chartered, or to which any vessel is transferred or made available under sections 196 to 198 of this title may, with the aid of any funds available and without regard to the provisions of said section 6101, repair, reconstruct, or recondition any such vessels to meet the needs of the services intended, or provide facilities for such repair, reconstruction, or reconditioning. The Secretary of Transportation may operate or charter for operation any vessel to be utilized under sections 196 to 198 of this title to private operators, citizens of the United States, or to any department or agency of the United States Government, without regard to the provisions of chapter 575 of title 46, and any department or agency of the United States Government is authorized to enter into such charters.

(e) Effective period

In case of any voyage of a vessel documented under the provisions of this section begun before the date of termination of an effective period of section 196 of this title, but is completed after such date, the provisions of this section shall continue in effect with respect to such vessel until such voyage is completed.

(f) "Documented" defined

When used in sections 196 to 198 of this title, the term "documented" means "registered", "enrolled and licensed", or "licensed".

(Aug. 9, 1954, ch. 659, §3, 68 Stat. 675; Pub. L. 89–670, §6(b)(1), (2), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(152), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 167.)

Codification

In subsec. (c), "Section 57109 of title 46" substituted for "The second paragraph of section 9 of the Shipping Act, 1916, as amended," and, in subsec. (d), "chapter 575 of title 46" substituted for "title VII of the Merchant Marine Act, 1936" on authority of Pub. L. 109–304, §18(c), Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1709, which Act enacted section 57109 and chapter 575 of Title 46, Shipping.

In subsec. (d), "provisions of section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "provisions of section 3709 of the Revised Statutes" and "said section 6101" substituted for "said section 3709" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Amendments

1981—Subsecs. (a), (c), (d). Pub. L. 97–31 substituted references to Secretary of Transportation for references to Secretary of Commerce wherever appearing.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

"Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating" substituted in subsec. (a) for "Secretary of the Treasury" pursuant to section 6(b)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 89–670, which transferred Coast Guard to Department of Transportation and transferred to and vested in Secretary of Transportation functions, powers, and duties, relating to Coast Guard, of Secretary of the Treasury and of all other officers and offices of Department of the Treasury, and which provided that notwithstanding such transfer Coast Guard shall operate as part of Navy in time of war or when President directs as provided in section 3 of Title 14, Coast Guard. See section 108 of Title 49, Transportation.

Delegation of Functions

For delegation to Secretary of the Treasury of authority vested in President by subsec. (a) of this section, see Ex. Ord. No. 10289, eff. Sept. 17, 1951, 16 F.R. 9499, set out as a note under section 301 of Title 3, The President.

CHAPTER 13—INSURRECTION

Sec.
201 to 204. Repealed.
205.
Suspension of commercial intercourse with State in insurrection.
206.
Suspension of commercial intercourse with part of State in insurrection.
207.
Persons affected by suspension of commercial intercourse.
208.
Licensing or permitting commercial intercourse with State or region in insurrection.
209.
Repealed.
210.
Penalties for unauthorized trading, etc.; jurisdiction of prosecutions.
211.
Investigations to detect and prevent frauds and abuses.
212.
Confiscation of property employed to aid insurrection.
213.
Jurisdiction of confiscation proceedings.
214.
Repealed.
215.
Institution of confiscation proceedings.
216.
Preventing transportation of goods to aid insurrection.
217.
Trading in captured or abandoned property.
218.
Repealed.
219.
Removal of customhouse and detention of vessels thereat.
220.
Enforcement of section 219.
221.
Closing ports of entry; forfeiture of vessels seeking to enter closed port.
222.
Transferred.
223.
Forfeiture of vessels owned by citizens of insurrectionary States.
224.
Refusing clearance to vessels with suspected cargoes; forfeiture for departing without clearance.
225.
Bond to deliver cargo at destination named in clearance.
226.
Protection of liens on condemned vessels.

        

§§201 to 204. Repealed. Aug. 10, 1956, ch. 1041, §53, 70A Stat. 641

Section 201, R.S. §5297, provided for Federal aid for State Governments in case of an insurrection in any State. See section 251 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Section 202, R.S. §5298, related to use of military and naval forces to enforce authority of Federal Government. See section 252 of Title 10.

Section 203, R.S. §5299, related to denial by State of equal protection of laws and