TRANSPORTATION
Result 1 of 1
   
 

TITLE 49—TRANSPORTATION

This title was enacted by Pub. L. 95–473, §1, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 97–449, §1, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413; Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745

Subtitle
Sec.
I.
DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
101
II.
OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES
1101
III.
GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS
5101
IV.
INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION
10101
V.
RAIL PROGRAMS
20101
VI.
MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMS
30101
VII.
AVIATION PROGRAMS
40101
VIII.
PIPELINES
60101
IX.
Multimodal Freight Transportation 1
70101

        

X.
MISCELLANEOUS
80101

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VIII, §8001(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1612, substituted "Multimodal Freight Transportation . . .70101" for "[TRANSFERRED]" in item for subtitle IX.

2010Pub. L. 111–314, §4(d)(1)(A), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3440, substituted "[TRANSFERRED]" for "COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION . . .70101" in item for subtitle IX.

1995Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(b), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 852, as amended by Pub. L. 104–287, §6(f)(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3399, substituted "TRANSPORTATION" for "COMMERCE" in item for subtitle IV.

1994Pub. L. 103–272, §1(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745, amended subtitle analysis generally, substituting "OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES . . .1101" for "TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS . . .3101" in item for subtitle II, "GENERAL AND INTERMODAL PROGRAMS . . .5101" for "[RESERVED—AIR TRANSPORTATION]" in item for subtitle III, and "RAIL PROGRAMS . . .20101" for "[RESERVED—MISCELLANEOUS]" in item for subtitle V, and adding items for subtitles VI, VII, VIII, IX, and X.

1983Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, amended subtitle analysis generally, substituting "DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION . . .101" for "[RESERVED—DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION]" in item for subtitle I and "TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS . . .3101" for "[RESERVED—TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS]" in item for subtitle II.

Table Showing Disposition of Former Sections of Title 49
Title 49

Former Sections

Title 49

New Sections

1(1), (2) 10501
1(3) 10102
1(4) (related to standards) 10701
1(4) (2d sentence last cl.) 10702
1(4) (1st sentence related to through routes and 2d sentence less last cl.) 10703
1(4) (1st sentence 14th–23d words) 11101
1(5)(a) 10701
1(5)(b) (7th and 8th sentences) 10709
1(5)(b) (less 7th and 8th sentences) 10701
1(5)(c)(i) 10709
1(5)(c)(ii) 10102
1(5)(d) Rep.
1(5½) 10749
1(6) (last sentence) 10750
1(6) (less last sentence) 10702 (See also 10701(a))
1(7) (1st sentence, 32 words before 8th semicolon-9th semicolon) 10721
1(7) (1st sentence words before 2d semicolon, words between 5th semicolon and 21st word after 7th semicolon, 1st–18th words after 9th semicolon, 1st proviso (words before semicolon), 2d, and 3d provisos) 10722
1(7) (1st sentence 1st–4th and 13th–20th words after 2d semicolon and words between 3d and 5th semicolons) 10723
1(7) (1st sentence 5th–12th and 21st–29th words after 2d semicolon and last 11 words before 1st proviso) 10723
1(7) (1st sentence 1st proviso, words between semicolon and colon) 10724
1(7) (less 1st sentence) 11905
1(8) 10746
1(9) 11104
1(10) 10102
1(11) 11121
1(12) (3d sentence) 11902
1(12) (less 3d sentence) 11126
1(13) 11121
1(14)(a) 11122
1(14)(b) 11121
1(14)(c) 11105
1(15) (related to car service less last sentence) 11123
1(15) (last sentence) 11128
1(15) (related to service less last sentence) 11127
1(16) (related to traffic less (b)) 11124
1(16) (related to service less (b)) 11127
1(16)(b) 11125
1(17)(a) (1st sentence) 11121
1(17)(a) (last sentence less proviso) 11901
1(17)(a) (last sentence proviso) 10501
1(17)(b) 11907
1(18)(a), (b) 10901
1(18)(c) 10902
1(18)(d) 10907
1(18)(e) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
1(18)(e) (related to Commission action) 11702
1(18)(e) 11901
1(18)(e) (related to State enforcement) 11505
1(19)–(22) Rep.
1 note 10711
1a(1) (1st sentence) 10903
1a(1) (less 1st and last sentences) 10904
1a(1) (last sentence) 10907
1a(2), (3) 10904
1a(4) 10903
1a(5) 10904
1a(6), (7) 10905
1a(8) Rep.
1a(9) (related to Commission action) 11702
1a(9) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
1a(9) (last sentence) 11901
1a(9) (related to State enforcement) 11505
1a(10) 10906
1a(11) 10905
2 10741
3(1) 10741
3(1a) Rep.
3(2) (1st sentence) 10743
3(2) (less 1st sentence) 10744
3(3) 10744
3(4) (1st sentence 2d cl., 2d sentence related to standards) 10701
3(4) (less 1st sentence 2d cl., and 2d sentence related to facilities) 10742
3(5) 11103
4 10726
5(1) (words between semicolon and 1st colon) 11914
5(1) (less words between semicolon and 1st colon) 11342
5(2)(a) 11343
5(2)(b)–(e) 11344
5(2)(f) 11347
5(2)(g), (h) 11345
5(3)(a)–(e) 11346
5(3)(f) (last sentence) 11346
5(3)(f) (less last sentence) 11350
5(3)(g) 11346
5(4) 11348
5(5)–(7) 11343
5(8) (last sentence) 11912
5(8) (less last sentence) 11701
5(9) 11702
5(10) 11351
5(11) 11343
5(12) 11341
5(13) Rep.
5(14) 11343
5(15) (words after semicolon) 11914
5(15) (less words after semicolon) 11321
5(16), (17) 11321
5a Rep.
5b, 5c 10706
6(1) 10762
6(2) 10765
6(3), (4) 10762
6(5) 10764
6(6) 10762
6(7) 10761
6(8) 11128
6(9) 10762
6(10) 11901
6(11) 10503
6(12) 10765
7 10745
8, 9 11705
10(1) 11914
10(2)–(4) 11904
11 10301
12(1)(a) (less 2d sentence words after semicolon and last sentence words after 1st semicolon and before last semicolon) 10321
12(1)(a) (words after semicolon in 2d sentence) 10311
12(1)(a) (last sentence less words before 1st semicolon and after last semicolon) 11703
12(1)(b) 10505
12(2)–(7) 10321
13(1) 11701
13(2) (last sentence) 11502
13(2) (less last sentence) 11701
13(3) 11502
13(4), (5) 11501
13(6) 10326
13a(1) 10908
13a(2) 10909
14(1), (2) 10310
14(3) (last sentence) 10311
14(3) (less last sentence) 10310
15(1) 10704
15(2) 10324
15(3), (4) 10705
15(5) 10748
15(6) 10705
15(7) 10708
15(8) 10707
15(9) 10709
15(10) 10763
15(11) 11710
15(12) 10763
15(13), (14) 11910
15(15) 10747
15(16) 10321
15(17) 10727
15(18) 10728
15(19) 10729
15a(1)–(5) 10704
15a(6), 15b Rep.
16(1), (2) 11705
16(3)(c), (g) 11705
16(3)(h) Rep.
16(3) (less (c), (g), and (h)) 11706
16(4) 11705
16(5) 10329
16(6) 10324
16(7) 11914
16(8)–(10) 11901
16(11) 10301
16(12) (related to Commission action) 11702
16(12) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
16(12) (related to action by private person) 11705
16(12) (enforcement of money award) 11705
16(13) 10303
16a Rep.
17(1) 10302
17(2) (1st sentence 80th–98th words and 2d sentence) 10304
17(2) (less 80th–90th words in 1st sentence, less 2d sentence) 10305
17(3) (less 2d sentence and last 42 words of 3d sentence) 10306
17(3) (2d sentence) 10301
17(3) (last 42 words of 3d sentence) 10321
17(4) (1st and 3d sentences) 10305
17(4) (2d sentence) 10303
17(5) 10322
17(6), (7) 10323
17(8) 10324
17(9)(j) 10310
17(9) (less (j)) 10327
17(10) 10325
17(11) 10305, 10306
17(12) 10328
17(13) 10308
17(14)(a) 11701
17(14)(b) Rep.
17(15) 10309
17 note 10306
18(1) (1st and 3d sentences) 10301
18(1) (2d sentence) 10303
18(1) (4th sentence) 10307
18(1) (last sentence) 10321
18(2) 10301
19 10307
19a(a) (1st and last sentences) 10781
19a(a) (2d and 3d sentences) 10301
19a(b) 10782
19a(c) 10781
19a(d) Rep.
19a(e) 10783
19a(f), (g) 10784
19a(h)–(j) 10785
19a(k) (1st sentence) 10786
19a(k) (less 1st sentence) 11901
19a(l) 11703
20(1), (2) 11145
20(3) (less (e)) 11142
20(3)(e) Rep.
20(4) 11143
20(5) 11144
20(6) (2d sentence, 1st cl.) 11144
20(6) (2d sentence, 2d cl.) 11145
20(6) (less 2d sentence) 11144
20(7)(a) 11901
20(7)(b) (proviso) 11144
20(7)(b) (less proviso) 11909
20(7)(c)–(e) 11901
20(7)(f) 11910
20(8) 11141
20(9) 11703
20(10) 10301
20(11) (2d sentence, 1st proviso) 10103
20(11) (less 1st sentence 2d proviso related to released value, 2d sentence less words before 2d proviso) 11707
20(11) (1st sentence 2d proviso related to released value), 2d sentence (less 1st–5th provisos) 10730
20(12) 11707
20a(1)–(10) 11301
20a(11) (2d and 3d sentences) 11709
20a(11) (less 2d, 3d, and 4th sentences) 11301
20a(11) (last sentence) 11911
20a(12) (last sentence) 11911
20a(12) (less last sentence) 11322
20b(1) 11361
20b(2) (1st–3d sentences, 4th sentence less words between 8th comma and period, 9th sentence) 11362
20b(2) (4th sentence, words between 8th comma and period, 8th comma and period, 8th sentence) 11363
20b(2) (5th and 7th sentences) 11364
20b(2) (less 1st–9th sentences) 11365
20b(3) (1st and last sentences) 11362
20b(3) (less 1st and last sentences) 11363
20b(4) 11365
20b(5) 11361
20b(6) 11366
20b(7) Rep.
20b(8) 11362
20b(9) 11367
20b(10) 10321
20b(11) 11367
20b(12) Rep.
20b(13) 11361
20c 11303
21 10311
22(1) (1st sentence 1st 26th and 62d–76th words) 10721
22(1) (1st sentence 77th–86th words and 2d proviso, 2d–4th sentences) 10722
22(1) (1st sentence words between 2d and 4th semicolons) 10722
22(1) (1st sentence words between 4th and 5th semicolons) 10722
22(1) (1st sentence 27th–61st words and words between 1st and 2d semicolons) 10723
22(1) (1st sentence words between 6th semicolon and 1st proviso) 10723
22(1) (last 2 sentences) 10724
22(1) (1st sentence words between 5th and 6th semicolons) 10103
22(1) (1st proviso 1st sentence) Rep.
22(2) (less 1st sentence proviso) 10721
22(2) (1st sentence proviso) Rep.
23 11703
25 Rep.
26(a) 20102
26(b) 20502
26(c) 20503
26(d) 20504
26(e) 20502
26(f) (words before last semicolon) 20505
26(f) (words after last semicolon) 20902
26(g) 501
26(h) (1st sentence words before last comma) 21302
26(h) (1st sentence words after last comma) 21304
26(h) (2d, 3d sentences, 4th sentence words before last comma) 21302
26(h) (4th sentence words after last comma, 5th sentence) 21304
26(h) (last sentence) 21302
26a 11504
26b 10381–10388
26c 11503
27 Rep.
41(1) (1st sentence) 11915
41(1) (less 1st sentence) 11903
41(2) (related to corporate violations) 11903
41(2) (related to corporate violations) 11915
41(2) (last sentence) 11916
41(3) 11902
42 Rep.
43 11703
44, 45 T. 15 §§28, 29
46 11913
47, 48 Rep.
49 Elim.
50 (related to notice) 10329
50 (related to process) 10330
51 (related to ownership) 11321
51 (related to 49:6(11)) 10503
52 10783
53 Elim.
54–59 Rep.
60 11507
61–64 Rep.
65, 65a 10721
66 T. 31 §3726
67 Elim.
71–79 Rep.
80 T. 40 §316 (See Rev. T. 40 Table)
81 80102
82, 83 80103
84, 85 80112
86, 87 80103
88, 89 80110
90–92 80111
93 80108
94 80114
95 80107
96–99 80110
100–102 80113
103 80115
104 Rep.
105 80109
106 80111
107, 108 80104
109 (1st sentence) 80106
109 (last sentence) 80103
110 80104
111 80105
112, 113 80106
114–116 80107
117, 118 80104
119, 120 80105
121 80116
122 80101
123, 124 Rep.
141 Rep.
142 303a
143 Rep.
151–157 Rep.
171–173a, 174–184 Rep.
201 Rep.
211–213 T. 43 §§1441–1443
214 Rep.
231 Rep.
241–246 T. 50 §§151–154, 156, 157
250–268 Rep.
301 Rep.
302(a), (b)(1) 10521
302(b) (less (1)) 11506
302(c) 10523
303(a)(1) 10102
303(a)(2) 10342
303(a)(3) Rep.
303(a)(4) 10341
303(a)(5)–(7) Rep.
303(a)(8), (9) 10102
303(a)(10) (proviso) 10522
303(a)(10) (less proviso) 10521
303(a)(11) 10521, 10927
303(a)(12), (13) 10102
303(a)(14) (words before 2d comma) 10102
303(a)(14) (words after 2d comma) 10502
303(a)(15)–(19) 10102
303(a)(20), (21) Rep.
303(a)(22), (23) 31501
303(b) 10526
303(c) (words between 6th and 7th commas) 10521
303(c) (words before "nor", less words between 6th and 7th commas) 10921
303(c) (less words before "nor") 10524
304(a) (matter preceding (1)) 10321
304(a)(1) (related to service) 11101
304(a)(1) (related to accounts) 11142
304(a)(1)–(2) (related to qualifications, hours of service, and safety) 31502
304(a)(2) (less "qualifications" through period) 11142
304(a)(3) (1st sentence) 31502
304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to "Secs. 304(c), 305, 320, 321, 322(a), (b), (d), (f), (g)") 502–507, 522, 523, 525, 526
304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to "Sec. 305(d) (related to liability)") 525
304(a)(3) (last sentence) (related to "Sec. 324") 31504
304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to "Secs. 304(c), 305, 320, 321, 322(a), (b), (d), (f), (g)") 502–507, 522, 523, 525, 526
304(a)(3a) (1st sentence) 31502
304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to "Sec. 305(d) (related to liability)") 525
304(a)(3a) (last sentence) (related to "Sec. 324") 31504
304(a)(4) 11142
304(a)(4a) 10525
304(a)(5) 31503
304(a)(6) 10321
304(a)(7) (words after semicolon) 10311
304(a)(7) (less words after semicolon) 10321
304(b) 11102
304(c) 11701
304(d) (related to administration matters) 10303
304(d) (related to reports) 10310
304(d) 10311
304(e) 11107
304(f) 11101
304a(1)–(4) 11706
304a(5), (6) 11705
304a(7) Rep.
304a(8) 11706
305(a) (1st and 2d sentences) 10341
305(a) (3d sentence less proviso) 10342
305(a) (3d sentence proviso) 10344
305(a) (less 1st–3d sentences) 10343
305(b) (2d sentence, 1st 12 words) 10344
305(b) (1st, 3d, 5th, and 12th sentences) 10342
305(b) (2d sentence 13th–37th words) 10341
305(b) (4th and 6th sentences) 10342
305(b) (7th–9th sentences) 10343
305(b) (10th sentence) 10342
305(b) (11th sentence) 10344
305(b) (less 1st–12th sentences) 10342
305(c) (related to the Commission) 10307
305(c) (related to joint boards) 10344
305(d) (related to Commission and employee board subpena power) 10321
305(d) (related to joint boards) 10344
305(d) (related to liability) 11913
305(e) 10328
305(f) (4th sentence) 10344
305(f) (less 4th sentence) 11502
305(g) (proviso) Rep.
305(g) (less proviso) 11705, 11706
305(h) 10301–10306, 10308, 10309, 10321–10325, 10328
305(i) (related to members of Commission) 10301
305(i) (related to joint board) 10344
305(i) (related to examiner) 10306
305(j) 10301
305a 10344 note
306(a)(1) (word before proviso) 10921
306(a)(1) (words after colon) Rep.
306(a)(2) 10932
306(a)(3)–(5) Rep.
306(a)(6) 10931
306(a)(7) 10932
306(b), 307 10922
308(a), (b) 10922
308(c), (d) 10932
309(a)(1) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
309(a)(1) (words between 1st and last colons) Rep.
309(a)(1) (last proviso) 10526
309(a)(2) 10932
309(a)(3)–(5) Rep.
309(b) (last proviso) 10932
309(b) (less last proviso) 10923
310 10930
310a(a) 10928
310a(b) 11349
310a(c) 10928
310a(c) 11349
311(a) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
311(a) (words after 1st colon) 10924
311(b), (c) (words before 2d comma) 10924
311(c) (words after 2d comma) 10927
311(d) 11144
312(a) 10925
312(b) 10926
312(c) Rep.
313 11304
314 (related to securities) 11302
314 (related to penalties) 11911
315 10927
316 (related to standards) 10701
316(a) (1st–24th, 45th–59th words) 10703
316(a) (60th–143d words) 10702
316(a) (25th–44th words) 11101
316(b) (related to standards) 10701
316(b) (16th–33d words) 11101
316(b) (less 16th–33d words) 10702
316(c) (less 2d sentence) 10703
316(c) (2d sentence) 10702
316(d) (1st sentence) 10701
316(d) (less 1st sentence) 10741
316(e) (2d sentence 2d cl.) 10705
316(e) (2d sentence less 2d cl. and less proviso) 10704
316(e) (proviso) 10521
316(e) (less 2d sentence) 11701
316(f) 10705
316(g) (less proviso) 10708
316(g) (proviso) Rep.
316(h) 10701
316(i) 10704
316(j) 10103
317(a) 10762
317(b) (proviso) 10103, 10721–10724
317(b) (less proviso) 10761
317(c) 10762
317(d) 10761
318(a) (1st sentence related to standards) 10701
318(a) (1st and 4th sentences, and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10702
318(a) (2d, 5th, and 6th sentences, and 7th sentence proviso related to general requirements) 10762
318(a) (3d sentence, 7th sentence less proviso, and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10761
318(b) 10704
318(c) (proviso) Rep.
318(c) (less proviso) 10708
319 10730, 11707
320(a) (1st and 2d sentences) 11145
320(a) (less 1st and 2d sentences) 10764
320(b) 11145
320(c) 11143
320(d) 11144
320(e) 11141
320(f) 504
320(g) 11144
321(a) 10329
321(b) 10324
321(c) 10330
321(d) (related to orders) 10324
321(d) (related to notice) 10329
321(d) (related to process) 10330
322(a) 11914
322(b)(1) 11702
322(b) (less (1)) 11708
322(c) (related to rate violations) 11904
322(c) (related to evasion of regulation) 11906
322(d)–(f) 11910
322(g) 11909
322(h) 11901
323 (1st sentence) 10743
323 (less 1st sentence) 10744
324 11106
324a 10747
325 31503
325a 11504
326, 327 Rep.
401–403 Rep.
421–422a Rep.
422b Elim.
423–427 Rep.
451–460 Rep.
461 Elim.
481–496 Rep.
521–524 Rep.
551–560 Rep.
581, 582 Rep.
601–603 Rep.
621–623 Rep.
641–649 Rep.
671–685 Rep.
701–705 Rep.
711–722 Rep.
751–758 Rep.
781 80302
782 80303
783 (1st sentence) 80304
783 (last sentence) 80303
784 (proviso) 80304
784 (less proviso) 80306
785 80305
786 80306
787(a)–(c) 80301
787(d)–(g) 80302
788, 789 80304
901 Rep.
902(a) 10102
902(b) Rep.
902(c), (d) (less exception) 10102
902(d) (words after 1st comma) 10502
902(e) (1st and 2d sentences) 10102
902(e) (3d–5th sentences) 10544
902(f)–(h) 10102
902(i) 10541
902(j)–(m) 10102
903(a) 10541
903(b)–(d) 10542
903(e)(1) 10544
903(e)(2) (last sentence) Rep.
903(e)(2) (less last sentence) 10544
903(e)(3) 10544
903(f) 10543
903(g), (h) 10544
903(i) 10721
903(j), (k) 10541
903(l) 10929
904(a) 10321
904(b) (words after last semicolon) 10311
904(b) (less words after last semicolon) 10321
904(c) 11102
904(d) 11108
904(e) 11701
905(a) (1st sentence related to standards and 2d sentence) 10701
905(a) (1st sentence 1st cl.) 11101
905(a) (less 1st sentence 1st cl. and last sentence) 10702
905(b) (4th sentence) 10701, 10702
905(b) (less 4th sentence) 10703
905(c) 10741
905(d) (1st sentence 2d cl., 2d sentence related to facilities) 10701
905(d) (less 1st sentence 2d cl., 2d sentence related to standards) 10742
906(a), (b) 10762
906(c) (proviso) 10103, 10721–10724
906(c) (less proviso) 10761
906(d) (1st sentence) 10761
906(d) (less 1st sentence) 10762
906(e) (1st sentence related to standards) 10701
906(e) (1st sentence and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10702
906(e) (2d, 4th, 5th, and 6th sentences, and 7th sentence provision, related to general requirements) 10762
906(e) (3d sentence, and 7th sentence less proviso, and 7th sentence proviso related to relief) 10761
907(a) 11701
907(b) 10704
907(c) 10701
907(d), (e) 10705
907(f) 10704
907(g) (proviso) Rep.
907(g) (less proviso) 10708
907(h) 10704
907(i) (proviso) Rep.
907(i) (less proviso) 10708
908(a)–(e), (f)(4) 11705
908(f) (less (4)) 11706
908(g) 11705
909(a) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
909(a) (words after 1st colon) Rep.
909(b)–(e) 10922
909(f) (words before 1st proviso) 10921
909(f) (words after 1st colon) Rep.
909(g) 10923
910 10930
911(a) 10928
911(b) 11349
912 10926
912a 10925
913(a) 11145
913(b) 10764
913(c) 11142
913(d) 11143
913(e)–(g) 11144
913 (less (a)–(g)) 11141
914 10747
915(a) 10329
915(b) 11701
915(c), (d) 10324
915(e) 11914
916(a) 10301–10306, 10308, 10309, 10321–10325, 10328, 11703, 11913
916(b) (related to Commission action) 11702
916(b) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
916(b) (related to action by private person) 11705
916(c) 10310
916(d) 10303
917(a) 11914
917(b), (c) 11904
917(d) 11909
917(e) 11910
917(f) (1st and 2d sentences) 11910
917 (less (a)–(e) and (f) (1st and 2d sentences)) 11910
918 (1st sentence) 10743
918 (less 1st sentence) 10744
919 10301
920–922 Rep.
922a 11303
922b 11504
923 Rep.
1001 Rep.
1002(a)(2) Rep.
1002(a)(1), (3), (4), (5), (8) 10102
1002(a)(6), (7) 10561
1002(b), (c) 10562
1003(a) 10321
1003(b) 11101
1003(c), (d) 10927
1003(e) (words after last semicolon) 10311
1003(e) (less words after last semicolon) 10321
1003(f) 11701
1004(a) (1st cl.) 11101
1004(a) (related to standards) 10701
1004(a) (related to carrier authority) 10702
1004(b), (c) 10741
1004(d) 10766
1005(a), (b) 10762
1005(c) (proviso) 10103, 10721–10724
1005(c) (less proviso) 10761
1005(d) 10762
1005(e) 10761
1006(a) 11701
1006(b) 10704
1006(c) 10701
1006(d) 10704
1006(e) (proviso) Rep.
1006(e) (less proviso) 10708
1006(f) (2d and 3d sentences) 10502
1006(f) (less 2d last sentences) 11502
1006(f) (4th and last sentences) 11501
1006a(5), (6) 11705
1006a (less (5), (6), (7)) 11706
1006a(7) Rep.
1007, 1008 10725
1009 10766
1010(a)(1) (words before semicolon) 10921
1010(a) (less words before semicolon in par. (1)) Rep.
1010(b) 10923
1010(c) (less 2d sentence, words before semicolon) 10923
1010(c) (2d sentence, words before semicolon) 10930
1010(d), (e) 10923
1010(f) 10925
1010(g) 10926
1010(h) 10930
1010(i) (1st sentence) 10933
1010(i) (less 1st sentence and 2d sentence words before semicolon) 11908
1010(i) (related to Commission action) 11702
1010(i) (related to enforcement by the United States) 11703
1010(i) (related to private enforcement) 11704
1010(i) (related to State enforcement) 11505
1011(a) 11323
1011(b) (last proviso) Rep.
1011(b) (less last proviso) 10930
1011(c) 11323
1011(d) 11701
1011(e) 11702
1011(f) 11701
1011(g) 11323
1012(a) (1st and 2d sentences) 11145
1012(a) (3d sentence) 11142
1012(a) (last sentence) 10764
1012(b) 11145
1012(c)–(e) 11144
1012(f) 11141
1013 (1st sentence related to released value) 10730
1013 11707
1014 10743
1015 10747
1016(a) 10329
1016(b), (c) 10324
1016(d) 11914
1017(a) 10301–10306, 10308, 10309, 10311, 10321–10325, 10328, 11703, 11705, 11913
1017(b)(1) (related to Commission action) 11702
1017(b)(1) (related to action by the Attorney General) 11703
1017(b)(1) (related to action by private person) 11705
1017(b) (less (1)) 11708
1017(c) 10310
1017(d) 10303
1018 10749
1019 Rep.
1020 (related to service) 11127
1020 (related to penalties) 11901
1021(a) 11914
1021(b), (c) 11904
1021(d) 11909
1021(e), (f) 11910
1021 (less (a)–(f)) 11703
1022 Rep.
1101–1103 Rep.
1103a Elim.
1104–1120 Rep.
1151 47301
1152 47302
1153 47303
1154 47302
1155–1157(b) 47304
1157(c) Rep.
1158 47304
1159(a) (1st sentence) 47305
1159(a) (last sentence) 47306
1159(b)–(d) 47305
1159a, 1159b 41310
1160 47305
1181–1185 Rep.
1201–1203 80504
1211–1215 Rep.
1231–1240 Rep.
1301(1) Rep.
1301(2), (3) (less proviso) 40102
1301(3) (proviso) 40109
1301(4)–(12) 40102
1301(13) Rep.
1301(14) (related to certificate) 41101
1301(14) (less certificate)–(37) 40102
1301(38) 46501
1301(39)–(41) 40102
1302, 1303 40101
1303 note 44111, 44713, 45302, 46301, 46306, 46315
1304 40103
1305(a), (b)(1) 41713
1305(b)(2) 40102
1305(c), (d) (related to (a), (b)(1)) 41713
1305(d) (related to (b)(2)) 40102
1305(d) (related to (c)) 41713
1306–1308 Rep.
1321–1323 Rep.
1324(a) 40113
1324(b), (c) 41711
1324(d) 40114
1325 Rep.
1341(a), (b) 106
1341(c) Rep.
1342 106
1343(a)(1), (2) (related to cooperative agreements) 324
1343(a)(2) (related to Deputy Administrator) 106
1343(b) 329
1343(c) 40107
1343(d) 323
1343(e) Rep.
1343(f), (g) (1st sentence 33d–43d words) 323
1343(g) (less 1st sentence 33d–43d words) 325
1343(h) Rep.
1343(i) 322
1344(a)–(d) 40110
1344(a) 322
1344(b) 331
1344(c)(1) 326
1344(d) (less words after semicolon) 322
1344(d) (words after semicolon) (See former section 1348(b).)
1344(e) 322, 40111
1344(f) 40112
1344(g) 40110
1344(h) 47124
1345 40107
1346, 1346a 40104
1347 40101
1348(a) 40103
1348(b) (1st sentence cl. (3)) 44721
1348(b) (1st sentence less cl. (3), 2d sentence) 44502
1348(b) (3d, last sentences) 44721
1348(c), (d) 40103
1348(e) 40109
1348(f) 40106
1348 notes 44506, 44514, 44719
1348a 44506
1349(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 44502
1349(a) (3d, last sentences) 40103
1349(b), 1350 44502
1351 44720
1352 329
1353(a) 44501
1353(b) 44504
1353(c) 44505
1353(d) 44501
1353(e) 44507
1353(f) 44508
1353(g) 44511
1353(h) 44512
1353(i) 44513
1353 notes 44506, 48102
1354(a) 40113
1354(b) 40114
1354(c) (related to this chapter) 46104
1354(c) (related to Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982) 47122
1354(c) (related to Federal Airport Act and Airport and Airway Development Act of 1970) Rep.
1354(d) 40108
1354(e) 308(b), 40113
1354(f) 45302
1354 note 44515, 48110
1354a (1st sentence) 44510
1354a (2d sentence) 48106
1354a (3d, last sentences) 44510
1355 (less (a) (last sentence related to fees)) 44702
1355(a) (last sentence related to fees) 45303
1356(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 44901
1356(a) (3d sentence 1st–18th words) 44938
1356(a) (3d sentence 19th–last words) 44901
1356(a) (last sentence), (b) 44938
1356(c) 44901
1356a Rep.
1356b 44903
1357(a), (b) 44903
1357(c) 44935
1357(d)(1), (2) 40119
1357(d)(3)–(8) 44912
1357(d)(9) 48107
1357(e)(1) 40119, 44937
1357(e)(2), (3), (f), (g) 44903
1357(g) 44936
1357(h)–(j) 44935
1357(k)(1)–(3) 44906
1357(k)(4) 44938
1357 notes 44904, 44906, 44914, 44936, 44938
1358 44915
1358a 44932
1358b(a) 44933
1358b(b) 44934
1358b(c) Rep.
1358c 44913
1358d 44905
1358d note 44910
1359 Rep.
1371(a) 41101
1371(b), (c) 41108
1371(d)(1)–(3) 41102
1371(d)(4)(A)(i), (ii) (related to joint services) 41101
1371(d)(4)(A)(ii) (related to joint rates, fares), (B) 41503
1371(d)(5)–(7) Rep.
1371(d)(8) (1st sentence) 41102
1371(d)(8) (last sentence) 41110
1371(d)(9) 41108
1371(e)(1)–(4) 41109
1371(e)(5)–(7)(A) Rep.
1371(e)(7)(B) 41109
1371(e)(7)(C) Rep.
1371(f), (g) 41110
1371(h) 41105
1371(i) 41101
1371(j) 41312
1371(k) 42112
1371(l) 41903
1371(m) 41107
1371(n)(1) Rep.
1371(n)(2)–(6) 41104
1371(o) 41106
1371(p) 41111
1371(q) 41112
1371(r) 41110
1371a (related to certificate) 41110
1371a (related to permit) 41304
1372(a) 41301
1372(b) 41302
1372(c), (d) 41305
1372(e) (related to duration of permits) 41304
1372(e) (related to terms, conditions, or limitations of permits) 41305
1372(f) 41304
1372(g) 41303
1372(h) 41306
1373(a) 41504
1373(b)(1) (1st sentence) 41510
1373(b)(1) (2d–last sentences) 41511
1373(b)(2) 41510
1373(c)(1), (2) 41504
1373(c)(3) 41509
1373(d) 41506
1374(a)(1) 41702
1374(a)(2) 41501
1374(b) 41310
1374(c) 41705
1374(d)(1) 41706
1374(d)(2) 46301
1374 note 41706
1375(a) Rep.
1375(b) 41902
1375(c), (d) 41903
1375(e)(1) 41912
1375(e)(2) 41904
1375(f)(1) (1st sentence) 41905
1375(f)(1) (2d–last sentences), (2) 41908
1375(g) 41911
1375(h) 41906
1375(i) Rep.
1375(j) T. 39 §5007
1376(a)–(e) 41901
1376(f) 41910
1376(g) Rep.
1376(h)(1) 41907
1376(h)(2) 41909
1376(h)(3) 41907
1376a, 1376b Rep.
1377(a) 41708
1377(b), (c) Rep.
1377(d), (e) (1st–3d sentences) 41709
1377(e) (last sentence) 41708
1378, 1379 Rep.
1380, 1380 note 44909
1381(a) 41712
1381(b) 41707
1382(a), (b) 41309
1382(c) 42111
1383 40102
1384 41308
1385 41711
1386(a) 41701
1386(b) 40109
1387, 1388(a)(1)–(3) Rep.
1388(a)(4) 41103
1388(b)(1)(A) Rep.
1388(b)(1)(B), (2) 41103
1388(b)(3) Rep.
1388(b)(4) 41110
1388(c), (d) 41103
1389(a) 41731
1389(b)(1) 41733
1389(b)(2) 41734
1389(b)(3), (4) 41733
1389(b)(5)–(8) 41734
1389(b)(9) 41733
1389(c) 41735
1389(d) 41736
1389(e)(1) 41738
1389(e)(2)–(g) 41737
1389(h) 41741
1389(i) 41739
1389(j) 41740
1389(k)(1) 41732
1389(k)(2)–(5) 41731
1389(l) 41737
1389(m) 41742
1401(a) 44101
1401(b) 44102
1401(c), (d) 44103
1401(e)(1) 44105
1401(e)(2)(A)–(C) 44106
1401(e)(2)(D), (E) 44103
1401(e)(2)(F) 44106
1401(f), (g) 44103
1401(h) 44111
1401 note 44111, 44703, 44713
1402 44104
1403(a), (b) 44107
1403(c), (d) 44108
1403(e), (f) 44107
1403(g) 44110
1403(h) 44704
1404 44112
1405 (1st sentence) 44104
1405 (2d sentence) 44103
1405 (last sentence) 46301
1406, 1406 note 44108
1421(a), (b) (1st sentence related to standards, rules, and regulations) 44701
1421(b) (1st sentence related to issuing certificates) 44702
1421(b) (2d sentence) 44702
1421(b) (last sentence), (c) 44701
1421(d) 44712
1421(e) 44714
1421(f) 44716
1421 notes 44716, 44717, 44722
1422(a) (1st–10th words) 44702
1422(a) (11th–last words), (b)(1), (2)(A), (B) 44703
1422(b)(2)(C) 44710
1422(c), (d) 44703
1423(a)(1) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1423(a)(1) (related to regulations for appliances), (2) 44704
1423(b) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1423(b) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates) 44704
1423(c) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1423(c) (related to basis for issuing, and contents of, certificates) 44704
1424(a) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1424(a) (related to standards) 44701
1424(b) 44705
1425 44713
1426 (1st sentence) 44708
1426 (last sentence) 44702
1427 (1st sentence) 44707
1427 (last sentence), 1428 44702
1429(a) (1st–7th sentences) 44709
1429(a) (8th–last sentences related to Administrator under subchapter VII) 1153
1429(a) (8th–last sentences less Administrator under subchapter VII), (b) 44709
1429(c) 44710
1430 44711
1431(a)–(d) 44715
1431(e) 44709
1432(a) (related to issuing certificates) 44702
1432(a) (related to standards) 44701
1432(b), (c) 44706
1432(d) 44914
1433(a), (b) 40103 note
1433(c) Rep.
1434(a) 45102
1434(b) 45103
1434(c) 45105
1434(d) 45104
1434(e) 45106
1434(f) 45101
1441(a)(1), (2) 1132
1441(a)(3) 1116
1441(a)(4) 1131
1441(a)(5) 1116
1441(b) 1113
1441(c) (1st sentence) 1132
1441(c) (2d, last sentences), (d) 1134
1441(e) 1154
1441(f) 1131
1441(g), 1442 1132
1443 1112
1461(a) 41307
1461(b) 41509
1462 40105
1463 44720
1471(a)(1) (related to subchapter VII) 1155
1471(a)(1) (less subchapter VII), (2) (related to subchapter III, V, VI, or XII, §1501, 1514, or 1515(e)(2)(B), and Postal Service) 46301
1471(a)(2) (related to 1471(c)) 46302
1471(a)(2) (related to 1471(d)) 46303
1471(a)(2) (related to subchapter VII) 1155
1471(a)(3) (less (D)(v) (related to Administrator under subchapter VII)) 46301
1471(a)(3)(D)(v) (related to Administrator under subchapter VII) 1153
1471(b) 46304
1471(c) 46302
1471(d) 46303
1472(a) 46316
1472(b) 46306
1472(c) 46308
1472(d) 46309
1472(e) 46310
1472(f) 46311
1472(g) 46313
1472(h)(1) 40113
1472(h)(2) 46312
1472(h)(3) 40113
1472(i) 46502
1472(j) 46504
1472(k) 46506
1472(l) 46505
1472(m) 46507
1472(n)(1) 46502
1472(n)(2) 46501
1472(n)(3) 46502
1472(n)(4) 46501
1472(o) T. 28 §538
1472(p) 1155
1472(q) 46315
1472(r) 46314
1473(a) Rep.
1473(b)(1) 1155, 46305
1473(b)(2), (3) 46304
1473(b)(4) 1155, 46305
1473(c) 46503
1474 T. 19 §1644a
1475 Rep.
1481 46102
1482(a)–(c) 46101
1482(d), (e) Rep.
1482(f) 41507
1482(g) Rep.
1482(h) 41508
1482(i) Rep.
1482(j)(1)–(7) 41509
1482(j)(8) Rep.
1482(j)(9), (10) 41509
1482(k) Rep.
1482a 41505
1483(a) Rep.
1483(b) 41502
1483(c)–(e) Rep.
1484 46104
1485(a) 46105
1485(b), (c) 46103
1485(d)–(f) 46105
1486 (related to CAB) 1153, 46110
1486 (related to Secretary) 46110
1487(a) (related to CAB) 1151, 46106
1487(a) (related to Attorney General) 46107
1487(a) (related to party in interest) 46108
1487(a) (related to Secretary) 46106
1487(b) (related to CAB) 1151, 46107
1487(b) (related to Secretary) 46107
1488 (related to CAB) 1151, 46107
1488 (related to Secretary) 46107
1489 1152, 46109
1490 41710
1501 44718
1502(a) 40105
1502(b) 40101
1502(c), (d) 40105
1503 40114
1504 40115
1505 40113
1506 40120
1507 44502
1508(a) 40103
1508(b) 41703
1509(a) 40120
1509(b)–(e) T. 19 §1644a
1509(f), 1509 note 44109
1510 40120
1511 44902
1512, 1513(a), (b) 40116
1513(c) Rep.
1513(d) 40116
1513(e) 40117
1513(f) 40116
1514 40106
1515 44907
1515 note 44910
1515a 44908
1516 41704
1517, 1518 40118
1519 44721
1521, 1522 40103
1523 46307
1531 44301
1532(a) 44302
1532(b), (c) 44306
1533 44303
1534 44305
1535 44304
1536(a)–(d) 44307
1536(e) Rep.
1536(f) 44307
1537(a) (1st sentence) 44308
1537(a) (last sentence words between 2d and 3d commas) 44302
1537(a) (last sentence less words between 2d and 3d commas) 44306
1537(b)–(d) 44308
1537(e) Rep.
1537(f) 44308
1538, 1539 Rep.
1540 44309
1541 44302
1542 44310
1551(a)(1)(A) 41102
1551(a)(1)(B) 41102, 41110
1551(a)(1)(C) 41109
1551(a)(1)(D) 41312
1551(a)(1)(E) (related to 49:1371(n)(1)) Rep.
1551(a)(1)(E) (related to 49:1371(n)(4)) 41104
1551(a)(1)(F), (G), (2), (3) Rep.
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1371(l)) 41903
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1371(m)) 41107
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1375(b)) 41902
1551(a)(4)(A) (related to 49:1375(c), (d)) 41903
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(a)) 41504
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(b)) 41510, 41511
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(c)(1), (2)) 41504
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(c)(3)) 41509
1551(a)(4)(B) (related to 49:1373(d)) 41506
1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49:1374(a)(1)) 41702
1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49:1374(a)(2)) Rep.
1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49:1374(b)) 41310
1551(a)(5)(A)–(C), (D) (related to 49:1482(d), (e), (g)) Rep.
1551(a)(5)(D) (related to 49:1482(h)) 41508
1551(a)(5)(D) (related to 49:1482(i)) Rep.
1551(a)(6) (related to 49:1382) 41309
1551(a)(6) (related to 49:1384) 41308
1551(a)(7) Rep.
1551(a)(8) 41107, 41901–41903
1551(b)(1)(A) Rep.
1551(b)(1)(B) 40105
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1378, 1379) Rep.
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1382(a), (b)) 41309
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1382(c)) 42111
1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49:1384) 41308
1551(b)(1)(D) 41901; T. 39 §5402
1551(b)(1)(E) 10526, 10749, 40101–40103, 40105, 40106, 40109, 40113, 40114, 40118, 41102–41112, 41302–41307, 41312, 41502–41511, 41701, 41703, 41704, 41708–41713, 41901–41903, 41907, 41910, 44712, 46101–46107, 46109, 46110, 46301–46305, 46309, 46311, 46313, 46316, 47501; T. 18 §6001; T. 39 §5007
1551(b)(2) Rep.
1551(b)(3) 41107, 41901–41903
1551(c)–(e) Rep.
1552(a)(1) (1st sentence) 42102
1552(a)(1) (last sentence) 42101
1552(a)(2)–(c) 42102
1552(d)(1), (2) (1st–3d sentences) 42103
1552(d)(2)(4th sentence) 42102
1552(d)(2) (last sentence), (3) 42103
1552(e) 42102
1552(f) 42104
1552(g) 42105
1552(h) 42101
1552(i) 42101–42103
1552(j) 42106
1553(a)(1)–(5) Rep.
1553(a)(6) T. 42 §6362
1553(a)(7) T. 2 §451
1553(a)(8)–(10), (b) Rep.
1553(c) 41901
1554–1557 Rep.
1601–1601b 5301
1601c 308(e)
1602(a)(1), (2)(A), (B) 5309
1602(a)(2)(C) 5323
1602(a)(3)–(5) 5309
1602(a)(6)–(8) 5328
1602(b), (c) 5309
1602(d)–(g) 5323
1602(h) 5337
1602(i)–(l) 5309
1602(m) (1st sentence) 5338
1602(m) (2d–last sentences) 5318
1602(n), 1602 note 5309
1602–1 Rep.
1602a 5323
1603(a) 5309
1603(b)(1) 5335
1603(b)(2) Rep.
1603(c) (1st sentence) 5312
1603(c) (last sentence) 5338
1603(d) 5309
1604, 1604a Rep.
1604b 5310
1605(a) 5312
1605(b), (c) Rep.
1605(d) 5312
1606(a) 5324
1606(b) Rep.
1607(a) (1st sentence) 5301
1607(a) (2d–last sentences), (b)–(g) 5303
1607(h) 5304
1607(i), (j) 5305
1607(k) 5334
1607(l) 5305
1607(m) 5306
1607(n) 5303
1607(o) 5306
1607(p) 5303
1607(q) 5323
1607a(a)–(d) 5336
1607a(e)(1) 5307, 5336
1607a(e)(2)–(k)(1) 5307
1607a(k)(2) 5336
1607a(k)(3), (l) Rep.
1607a(m)(1) 5307
1607a(m)(2)–(o) 5336
1607a(p) 5307
1607a(q) 5336
1607a(r) 5307
1607a(s), (t) 5336
1607a note 5307
1607a–1 Rep.
1607a–2(a), (b) 5308
1607a–2(c) 5338
1607b, 1607c(a) 5312
1607c(b)(1)–(8)(B)(ii) 5317
1607c(b)(8)(B)(iii) 5338
1607c(b)(8)(B)(iv)–(10)(B) 5317
1607c(b)(10)(C) 5338
1607c(b)(10)(D)–(12) 5317
1607c(b)(13) 5338
1607c(b)(14), (15) 5317
1607c(c)(1)–(5) 5316
1607c(c)(6) 5338
1607c(c)(7) 5316
1608(a) 5334
1608(b) 5325
1608(c) 5302
1608(d) 5324
1608(e) 5323
1608(f) 10531
1608(g), (h)(1) 5323
1608(h)(2) 5302
1608(i) 5334
1608(j) 5323
1608(k) 5334
1608(l) 5326
1608(m) 5323
1608 notes 5302, 5318
1608 note (related to authority and functions reserved to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development) 5334
1609 5333
1610(a) (1st sentence) 5301
1610(a) (last sentence)–(c) 5324
1611(a), (b) 5335
1611(c) Rep.
1612(a) 5301
1612(b) (1st sentence) 5310
1612(b) (last sentence) 5338
1612(c) 5310
1612(d) 5338
1612(e), (f) 5310
1613 Rep.
1614(a) (1st, 2d sentences) 5311
1614(a) (last sentence) 5338
1614(b)–(f) 5311
1614(g) (related to 1612(b)) 5310
1614(g) (related to this section)–(i) 5311
1615(a)[no (b)] 5332
1616 5322
1617 5338
1618 5329
1618a 5331
1619 5327
1620 5321
1621 5319
1622(a) 5313
1622(b)(1)–(8) (related to this subsection) 5314
1622(b)(8) (related to subsection (a)(1)) 5313
1622(c) 5320
1623 5335
1624 5330
1625(a)–(c) 5315
1625(d) 5338
1631–1633 Elim.
1634 329
1635–1641 Elim.
1642, 1643 Rep.
1651(a), (b)(1) 101
1651(b)(2) 303
1652(a)–(d) 102
1652(e) (related to FAA) 106
1652(e)(1) (related to FHWA) 104
1652(e)(1) (related to FRA) 103
1652(e)(3) (related to USCG) 108
1652(e)(3) (related to FHWA) 104
1652(e)(3) (related to FRA) 103
1652(e)(4) (related to FHWA) 104
1652(e)(4) (related to FRA) 103
1652(f) Rep.
1652a 103
1652b 44931
1652b note 337
1653(a) 301
1653(b) 302
1653(c) 351
1653(d) 352
1653(e) 307
1653(f) 303
1653(g) 304
1653(h) Rep.
1653(i)(1) 5562
1653(i)(2) 5563
1653(i)(3) 5564
1653(i)(4) 5562
1653(i)(5) 5565
1653(i)(6) Rep.
1653(i)(7) 5567
1653(i)(8) 5566
1653(i)(9) 5568
1653(i)(10) 5561
1653(i)(11) 5562
1653 note 335
1653a Rep.
1654(a)–(e) 333
1654(a) 22102
1654(b), (c) 22101
1654(d) 22106
1654(e) 22105
1654(f) 22103
1654(g) 22104
1654(h) 22108
1654(i) 22106
1654(j) 22105
1654(k)–(m) 22107
1654(n)–(p) 22101
1654(q) 22108
1654a 308(d)
1655(a)(1)(A) Rep.
1655(a)(1)(B), (C) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(a)(1)(D) Rep.
1655(a)(1)(E)–(M) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(a)(2)(A) (related to 49:1634) 329
1655(a)(2), (3) Rep.
1655(a)(4) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(a)(5) Rep.
1655(a)(6)(A) 30102
1655(a)(6)(B) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(b)(1), (2) 108
1655(b)(3) Rep.
1655(c)(1) (1st sentence proviso, 2d, last sentences) 106
1655(c)(1) 1116, 1131, 1132, 1153, 40101–40109, 40113, 40114, 44103–44105, 44107, 44110, 44501, 44502, 44504, 44505, 44701–44705, 44707–44709, 44711, 44713, 44720, 44721, 45303, 46101–46107, 46110, 46301, 46304, 46308, 46311, 46313, 46316, 47151–47153, 47302–47306
1655(c)(2) Rep.
1655(d) (1st sentence) 1112, 1113, 1116, 1131, 1132, 1134, 1151–1155
1655(d) (last sentence) 1153
1655(e)(1)(A) 20302, 21302
1655(e)(1)(B) 20302
1655(e)(1)(C) 20302, 21302
1655(e)(1)(D) Rep.
1655(e)(1)(E), (F) 20701–20703, 21302
1655(e)(1)(G) 20702, 20703, 21302
1655(e)(1)(H) Rep.
1655(e)(1)(I) 20305, 20504
1655(e)(1)(J) 20305
1655(e)(1)(K) 20901, 20902, 21302
1655(e)(2) Rep.
1655(e)(3) 80504
1655(e)(4) Rep.
1655(e)(5) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(e)(6)(A) 20502–20505, 21302
1655(e)(6)(B) 3103
1655(e)(6)(C) 3102, 3103
1655(e)(6)(D) (related to "Sec. 321(a), (c)") 503
1655(e)(6)(D) (related to "Sec. 324") 3104
1655(f)(1) Rep.
1655(f)(2) 501, 502, 504–507, 521–526
1655(f)(3)(A), (C) (related to FRA) 103
1655(f)(3)(B), (C) (related to FHWA) 104
1655(g)(1)–(3), (4)(A), (B), (E), (5), (6) (See §2 of Pub. L. 97–449.)
1655(h), (i) Rep.
1656(less (a) next-to-last par.) 305
1656(a) (next-to-last par.) (See T. 42 §1962a–2(a).)
1657(a), (b) 323
1657(c), (d) 324
1657(e)–(g) 322
1657(h), (i) Rep.
1657(j) 327
1657(k) 102
1657(l) 331
1657(m) 326
1657(n) 329
1657(o) 325
1657(p) 324
1657(q)(1)–(3) 330
1657(q)(4) Rep.
1657(r) 328
1657–1 353
1657a 332
1658 308(a)
1659 Rep.
1660 335
1671(1)–(4) (1st–32d words) 60101
1671(4) (33d–last words) 60104
1671(5), (6) 60101
1671(7) 60115
1671(8)–(17) 60101
1671 note 60101
1672(a)(1) (1st–5th sentences) 60102
1672(a)(1) (6th sentence) 60104
1672(a)(1) (7th, 8th sentences) 60102
1672(a)(1) (9th, last sentences) 60104
1672(a)(2), (3), (b) 60102
1672(c) 60104
1672(d) 60118
1672(e)–(g) 60102
1672(h) 60108
1672(i) 60109
1672(j) 60110
1672(k) 60113
1673 60115
1674(a) 60105
1674(b), (c) (related to agreement) 60106
1674(c) (related to certification) 60105
1674(d) 60107
1674(e) 60105
1674(f) 60106
1674a 60103
1674b(a) Rep.
1674b(b)(1)–(3) 60111
1674b(b)(4) 60119
1674b(c) 60111
1675 60119
1676(a) 60104
1676(b) 60117
1677(a), (b)(1) 60118
1677(b)(2), (c) 60120
1678, 1679 Rep.
1679a(a), (b) 60122
1679a(c) 60123
1679a(d) 60122
1679b(a) 60120
1679b(b) 60112
1680 60108
1681(a)–(e) 60117
1681(f) 60120
1682 60117
1682 note 60117
1682a 60301
1683 60124
1684(a) 60125
1684(b) Rep.
1684(c)–(e) 60125
1684(f) Rep.
1685(a) 60116
1685(b) 60113
1686 60121
1687(a)–(e) 60114
1687(f) 60125
1687(g) 60123
1687(h) 60114
1688 60101
1701–1703 Rep.
1704 44503
1711–1713 Rep.
1713a 47127
1714–1730 Rep.
1731 47106
1741 80503
1742 Rep.
1743 44502
1761, 1762 Rep.
1801 5101
1802 5102
1803, 1804(a)(1)–(3) 5103
1804(a)(4), (5) 5125
1804(b)(1)–(3) 5112
1804(b)(4) 5125
1804(b)(5)–(9), (c) 5112
1804(d) 5120
1804(e), (f) 5104
1804(g) 5110
1805(a) 5106
1805(b) 5107
1805(c) 5108
1805(d) 5109
1805(e), (f) Rep.
1805 note 5109
1806 5117
1807 5114
1808(a) (1st sentence, last sentence words before semicolon) 5121
1808(a) (last sentence words after semicolon) 5122
1808(b)–(e) 5121
1809(a) 5123
1809(b) 5124
1810 5122
1811(a)–(e) 5125
1811(f) 5126
1812 5127
1813 5105
1813 note 5105, 5118
1814 5113
1815(a)–(f) 5116
1815(g)(1)–(6) 5115
1815(g)(7) 5116
1815(g)(8) 5115
1815(g)(9) 5116
1815(h)(1)–(5) 5108
1815(h)(6) 5116
1815(i) 5127
1816(a)–(c) 5107
1816(d) 5127
1817 5111
1818 5126
1819(a)–(g) 5119
1819(h) 5127
1901 Rep.
1902 1111
1903(a)(1)(A) 1112, 1113, 1116, 1131, 1132, 1134, 1151, 1152, 1154, 1155
1903(a)(1)(B)–(2) 1131
1903(a)(3)–(8) 1116
1903(a)(9) 1133
1903(b)(1) 1113
1903(b)(2) 1134
1903(b)(3), (4) 1113
1903(b)(5) 1134
1903(b)(6)–(9) 1113
1903(b)(10) 1115
1903(b)(11) 1114
1903(b)(12) 1113
1903(c) 1154
1903(d) 1153
1904 1117
1905(a)–(c)(2) 1114
1905(c)(3) 1114, 1154
1905(d) 1154
1906 1135
1907 1118
2001(1)–(4) (1st–27th words) 60101
2001(4) (28th–last words) 60104
2001(5)–(9) 60101
2001(10) 60115
2001(11) 60101
2001 note 60101
2002(a)–(c) (4th sentence) 60102
2002(c) (last sentence), (d) 60104
2002(e), (f) 60102
2002(g) 60104
2002(h) 60118
2002(i)–(k) 60102
2002(l) 60108
2002(m) 60109
2002(n) 60102
2003 60115
2004(a) 60105
2004(b), (c) (related to agreement) 60106
2004(c) (related to certification) 60105
2004(d) 60107
2004(e), (f) 60105
2004(g) 60106
2005 60119
2006(a), (b)(1) 60118
2006(b)(2), (c) 60120
2007(a), (b) 60122
2007(c) 60123
2007(d) 60122
2008(a) 60120
2008(b) 60112
2009(a), (b) 60108
2009(c) Rep.
2009(d) 60108
2010(a)–(e) 60117
2010(f) 60120
2011 60117
2012 60124
2013(a) 60125
2013(b) Rep.
2014 60121
2015, 2015 note 60102
2016 60101
2101 47501
2102 47502
2103(a) 47503
2103(b) 47505
2104(a)–(d) 47504
2104(e), 2105 Rep.
2106 47507
2107 47506
2108 Rep.
2121 Rep.
2122(a) 47508
2122(b)–2124 Rep.
2125 47510
2151 47521
2152 47523
2153(a)–(g) 47524
2153(h) 47533
2154 47525
2155 47527
2156 47526
2157(a)–(c) 47528
2157(d) 47530
2157(e) 47531
2157(f) 47532
2157(g) 47528
2157(h) 47522
2157(i) 47528
2158 47529
2201 47101
2202(a)(1)–(5) 47102
2202(a)(6) 47107
2202(a)(7) 47102
2202(a)(8) 47102, 47106
2202(a)(9), (10) 47102
2202(a)(11) 47117
2202(a)(12)–(19) 47102
2202(a)(20) 47101
2202(a)(21)–(23) 47102
2202(a)(24) 47104, 47107, 48101–48104, 48108
2202(a)(25) Rep.
2202(b) 47102
2203(a) 47103
2203(b) 44501
2203(c), (d)(1) 47103
2203(d)(2) Rep.
2204(a) (1st sentence) 47104
2204(a) (2d sentence) 48103
2204(a) (last sentence) Rep.
2204(b)(1) 47104
2204(b)(2) 47107
2204(c) Rep.
2204(d) 47113
2204 note 47104
2205(a)(1), (2) 48101
2205(a)(3) 44502
2205(b)(1) 44509
2205(b)(2)–(5) 48102
2205(c) 48104
2205(d) 48105
2205(e)(1)–(3) 48108
2205(e)(4) 47117
2205(e)(5) 48108
2205(f) 48109
2205 note 44502
2206(a), (b)(1)–(5)(C) 47114
2206(b)(5)(D) 47117
2206(b)(5)(E), (F), (6), (7) 47114
2206(c) 47115
2206(d) 47116
2206(e), (f) 47114
2206 note 47115
2207(a)–(e)(2) 47117
2207(e)(3) Rep.
2207(f) 47118
2208(a)(1) 47105
2208(a)(2) Rep.
2208(a)(3) 47105
2208(b)(1)(A)–(D) 47106
2208(b)(1)(E) 47107
2208(b)(2)–(4) 47106
2208(b)(5) (1st sentence, last sentence words before 11th comma) 47101
2208(b)(5) (last sentence words after 11th comma)–(8) 47106
2208(b)(9) 47120
2208(c)–(e) 47105
2209 47109
2210(a), (b) 47107
2210(c) 47105
2210(d)–(h) 47107
2210 note 47107
2211 47108
2212(a), (b)(1) 47110
2212(b)(2)–(4) 47119
2212(b)(5) 47109
2212(b)(6), (c), (d) 47110
2213 47111
2214 47112
2215 47125
2216 47126
2217 47121
2218(a) 47122
2218(b) (related to application) 47106
2218(b) (related to payment) 47111
2219 47123
2220 47129
2221 Rep.
2222, 2222 note 47124
2223 Rep.
2224 44514
2225 44913
2226 49104
2226a 49101
2226b 49105
2226c 49102
2226d 49103
2227 47128
2301 31101
2302 31102
2302 notes 31104, 31307
2303 31103
2304, 2304 note 31104
2305 31105
2306 31106
2307 31107
2311(a)–(i) 31111
2311(j) 31112
2312 31114
2313 31115
2314, 2315 Rep.
2316 31113
2401–2407 Elim.
2421–2433 Elim.
2451–2461 49101–49109
2501 31131
2501 notes 5113, 31161
2502 31131
2503 31132
2504 31135
2505 31136
2505 note 31137
2506 31140
2507 31141
2508 31134
2509 31142
2510 31133
2511 31143
2511a 31162
2512 31144
2513–2517(a) Rep.
2517(b) 31145
2518 31146
2519 31147
2520 Rep.
2521 31137
2601, 2602 70101
2603 70102
2604(a)(1) 70103
2604(a)(2) 70116
2604(b) 70103
2605(a), (b) 70104
2605(c) 70117
2606 (1st sentence) 70105
2606 (last sentence) 70107
2607, 2608(a), (b) 70105
2608(c) 70114
2609 70107
2610 70108
2611 70110
2612 Rep.
2613 70106
2614(a), (b)(1)–(3) 70111
2614(b)(4) 70109
2614(c) 70112
2614(d) 70111
2615(a) 70112
2615(b) 70113
2615(c) 70112
2616–2618 70115
2619 70116
2620 70117
2621, 2622 Rep.
2623 (last sentence) 70118
2623 (less last sentence) 70119
2701 31302
2702 31303
2703 31304
2704(a), (b) 31305
2704(c)–(e) 31312
2705 31308
2706, 2706 note 31309
2707 31310
2708 31311
2709 31313
2710 31314
2711 31315
2712, 2713 Rep.
2714 31316
2715 31317
2716 31301
2717 31306
2718 31310
2801 5701
2801 note 5713
2802 5702
2803 5703
2804 5704
2805 5705
2806 5706
2807 5707
2808 5708
2809 5710
2810 5711
2811 5712
2812 5714

Enacting Clauses

Pub. L. 103–272, §1(a), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745, provided that: "Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to transportation, are revised, codified, and enacted by subsections (c)–(e) of this section without substantive change as subtitles II, III, and V–X of title 49, United States Code, 'Transportation'. Those laws may be cited as '49 U.S.C. ————'."

Pub. L. 97–449, §1(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, provided that: "Certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to transportation, are revised, codified, and enacted by subsection (b) of this section without substantive change as subtitle I and chapter 31 of subtitle II of title 49, United States Code, 'Transportation'. Those laws may be cited as '49 U.S.C. §————'."

Pub. L. 95–473, §1, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1337, provided in part: "That certain general and permanent laws of the United States, related to transportation, are revised, codified, and enacted as [subtitle IV of] title 49, United States Code, 'Transportation'."

Clarification of Congressional Intent

Pub. L. 100–561, title III, §308, Oct. 31, 1988, 102 Stat. 2817, which provided that Pub. L. 95–473 did not repeal and had no substantive effect on any rights, obligations, liabilities, or remedies of oil pipelines, including those arising under any provisions of the Interstate Commerce Act or the Pomerene Bills of Lading Act, before any Federal department or agency or official thereof or a court of competent jurisdiction, was repealed and reenacted as section 60503 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329, 1379.

Legislative Purpose and Construction

Pub. L. 105–102, §4, Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2216, provided that:

"(a) No Substantive Change.—This Act restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before May 1, 1997, that were replaced by this Act. This Act may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after April 30, 1997, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) References.—A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) Continuing Effect.—An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) Actions and Offenses Under Prior Law.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) Inferences.—An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catch line of the provision.

"(f) Severability.—If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 104–287, §9, Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400, provided that:

"(a) No Substantive Change.—This Act restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before March 1, 1996, that were replaced by this Act. This Act may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after February 29, 1996, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) References.—A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) Continuing Effect.—An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) Actions and Offenses Under Prior Law.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) Inferences.—An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catchline of the provision.

"(f) Severability.—If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 103–429, §10, Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, provided that:

"(a) No Substantive Change.—This Act restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before September 26, 1994, that were replaced by this Act. This Act may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after September 25, 1994, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) References.—A reference to a law replaced by this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) Continuing Effect.—An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) Actions and Offenses Under Prior Law.—An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) Inferences.—An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catchline of the provision.

"(f) Severability.—If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 103–272, §6, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, provided that:

"(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before July 1, 1993, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after June 30, 1993, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) An inference of legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of a caption or catch line of the provision.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 98–216, §5, Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that:

"(a) Sections 1–4 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 1, 1983, that were replaced by those sections. Sections 1–4 may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after March 31, 1983, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–4 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline of the provision.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 97–449, §6, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, provided that:

"(a) Sections 1–5 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before November 15, 1982, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after November 14, 1982, that are inconsistent with this Act supersede this Act to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1–5 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1–5 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1–5 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline thereof.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 96–258, §2, June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 427, provided that:

"(a) Section 1 of this Act [enacting section 11351 of this title and amending sections 10324, 10327, 10382, 10525, 10526, 10544, 10706, 10784, 10923, 11101, 11121, 11304, 11707, 11909, 11912, and 11914 of this title] restates, without substantive change, laws enacted before April 24, 1979, that were replaced by that section. That section may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after April 23, 1979, that are inconsistent with this Act are considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by section 1 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by section 1 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by section 1 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline thereof.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Pub. L. 95–473, §3, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, provided that:

"(a) Sections 1 and 2 of this Act restate, without substantive change, laws enacted before May 16, 1978, that were replaced by those sections. Those sections may not be construed as making a substantive change in the laws replaced. Laws enacted after May 15, 1978, that are inconsistent with this Act are considered as superseding it to the extent of the inconsistency.

"(b) A reference to a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act, including a reference in a regulation, order, or other law, is deemed to refer to the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(c) An order, rule, or regulation in effect under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act continues in effect under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act until repealed, amended, or superseded.

"(d) An action taken or an offense committed under a law replaced by sections 1 and 2 of this Act is deemed to have been taken or committed under the corresponding provision enacted by this Act.

"(e) An inference of a legislative construction is not to be drawn by reason of the location in the United States Code of a provision enacted by this Act or by reason of the caption or catchline thereof.

"(f) If a provision enacted by this Act is held invalid, all valid provisions that are severable from the invalid provision remain in effect. If a provision of this Act is held invalid in any of its applications, the provision remains valid for all valid applications that are severable from any of the invalid applications."

Repeals and Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 105–102, §5(a), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2216, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 105–102, §5(b), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2217, as amended by Pub. L. 105–225, §7(c)(2), Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1511, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Nov. 20, 1997.

Pub. L. 104–287, §10(a), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3401, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 104–287, §10(b), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3401, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 11, 1996.

Pub. L. 103–429, §11(a), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 103–429, §11(b), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 31, 1994.

Pub. L. 103–272, §7(a), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative implication that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 103–272, §7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1379, as amended by Pub. L. 103–429, §7(a)(5), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4389, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before July 5, 1994.

Pub. L. 98–216, §6(a), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, provided that: "The repeal of a law enacted [the word "enacted" probably should not appear] by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 98–216, §6(b), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 7, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Feb. 14, 1984.

Pub. L. 97–449, §7(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443, repealed specified laws, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Jan. 12, 1983.

Pub. L. 96–258, §3(a), June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 427, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 96–258, §3(b), June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 427, repealed certain sections and parts of sections of the Interstate Commerce Act and certain other provisions relating to applicability of such Act, except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before June 3, 1980.

Pub. L. 95–473, §4(a), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, provided that: "The repeal of a law by this Act may not be construed as a legislative inference that the provision was or was not in effect before its repeal."

Pub. L. 95–473, §4(b), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1466, repealed the sections and parts of sections of the Interstate Commerce Act and certain other provisions relating to the applicability of such Act, except as provided in section 4(c) of Pub. L. 95–473 and except for rights and duties that matured, penalties that were incurred, and proceedings that were begun before Oct. 17, 1978.

Pub. L. 95–473, §4(c), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1470, which provided that the laws specified in the schedule in section 4(b) of Pub. L. 95–473, as they existed on Oct. 1, 1977, were not repealed to the extent those laws (A) vested functions in the Interstate Commerce Commission, or in the chairman or members of the Commission, related to transportation of oil by pipeline, and (B) vested functions and authority in the Commission, or an officer or component of the Commission, related to the establishment of rates or charges for transportation of oil by pipeline or valuation of any such pipeline, and those functions and authority were transferred by sections 7155 and 7172(b) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, was repealed and reenacted in sections 60501 and 60502 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1329, 1379.

Effective Date of Certain Repeals

Pub. L. 95–473, §4(d), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1470, as amended by Pub. L. 97–449, §4(b)(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2441, provided that: "The repeals, by subsection (b) of this section, of section 1(a)(25), (26) of the Act of July 3, 1952, chapter 570, the Act of June 30, 1953, chapter 165, and the Act of July 31, 1953, chapter 292, are effective on September 14, 1978."

1 So in original. Probably should be uppercase.

SUBTITLE I—DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

Chapter
Sec.
1.
Organization
101
3.
General Duties and Powers
301
5.
Special Authority
501
7.
Surface Transportation Board
701 1

        

Amendments

1995Pub. L. 104–88, title II, §201(b), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 940, added item for chapter 7.

1 So in original. Chapter 7 renumbered chapter 13 and transferred to subtitle II of this title (49 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.) without corresponding amendment of subtitle analysis.

CHAPTER 1—ORGANIZATION

Sec.
101.
Purpose.
102.
Department of Transportation.
103.
Federal Railroad Administration.
104.
Federal Highway Administration.
105.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
106.
Federal Aviation Administration.
107.
Federal Transit Administration.
108.
Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration.
109.
Maritime Administration.
110.
Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation.
[111, 112. Repealed.]
113.
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration.
114.
Transportation Security Administration.
115.
Transportation Security Oversight Board.
116.
National Surface Transportation and Innovative Finance Bureau.
117.
Council on Credit and Finance.

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6012(b), title IX, §§9001(b), 9002(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1570, 1618, 1619, added items 116 and 117 and struck out item 112 which had read "Research and Innovative Technology Administration" and was subsequently changed to "Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation" on authority of title I of div. L of Pub. L. 113–76, set out in part as a note under former section 112 of this title.

2012Pub. L. 112–141, div. E, title II, §52011(c)(1), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 895, struck out item 111 "Bureau of Transportation Statistics".

2004Pub. L. 108–426, §§2(c)(1), 4(e), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2424, 2426, substituted "Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration" for "Coast Guard" in item 108 and "Research and Innovative Technology Administration" for "Research and Special Programs Administration" in item 112.

2001Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §§101(b), 102(d), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 602, 605, added items 114 and 115.

1999Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(c)(1), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1751, added item 113.

1994Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(5)(B), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366, as amended by Pub. L. 103–429, §7(a)(3)(C), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4388, struck out first item 110 "St. Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation".

1992Pub. L. 102–508, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3310, added item 112.

1991Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3004(c)(3), title VI, §6006(c), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088, 2174, substituted "Federal Transit Administration" for "Urban Mass Transportation Administration" in item 107 and added second item 110 and item 111.

§101. Purpose

(a) The national objectives of general welfare, economic growth and stability, and security of the United States require the development of transportation policies and programs that contribute to providing fast, safe, efficient, and convenient transportation at the lowest cost consistent with those and other national objectives, including the efficient use and conservation of the resources of the United States.

(b) A Department of Transportation is necessary in the public interest and to—

(1) ensure the coordinated and effective administration of the transportation programs of the United States Government;

(2) make easier the development and improvement of coordinated transportation service to be provided by private enterprise to the greatest extent feasible;

(3) encourage cooperation of Federal, State, and local governments, carriers, labor, and other interested persons to achieve transportation objectives;

(4) stimulate technological advances in transportation, through research and development or otherwise;

(5) provide general leadership in identifying and solving transportation problems; and

(6) develop and recommend to the President and Congress transportation policies and programs to achieve transportation objectives considering the needs of the public, users, carriers, industry, labor, and national defense.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 102–240, title VI, §6018, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2183.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
101(a) 49:1651(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §2(a), (b)(1), 80 Stat. 931.
101(b) 49:1651(b)(1).

In subsections (a) and (b), the introductory declaratory words are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), the words "national objectives of" are inserted for clarity. The words "United States" are substituted for "Nation" and "Nation's", respectively, for consistency. The word "contribute" is substituted for "conducive" because the substituted word is more commonly used. The word "those" is substituted for "utilization".

In subsection (b)(2), the word "greatest" is substituted for "maximum" for consistency.

In subsection (b)(3) and (6), the word "national" is omitted before "transportation" as unnecessary and for consistency.

In subsection (b)(3), the word "persons" is substituted for "parties" as being more precise.

In subsection (b)(6), the words "transportation objectives" are substituted for "these objectives" for clarity and consistency. The words "full and appropriate" and "for approval" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–240 inserted ", through research and development or otherwise" after "advances in transportation".

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–426, §1, Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2423, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 108 of this title, amending sections 111, 112, 5118, and 5503 of this title, sections 5314 and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, section 844 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, section 2761 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 1121–2 of Title 46, Appendix, Shipping, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 108 and 112 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1135 of this title] may be cited as the 'Norman Y. Mineta Research and Special Programs Improvement Act'."

Short Title of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–159, §1(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1748, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Motor Carrier Safety Improvement Act of 1999'."

Short Title of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–88, §1(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 803, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'ICC Termination Act of 1995'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–411, §1, Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4236, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 1118, 1131, and 40102 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1131 and 40109 of this title] may be cited as the 'Independent Safety Board Act Amendments of 1994'."

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–240, §1, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1914, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991'."

Deemed References to Chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51

Pub. L. 111–314, §4(d)(8), Dec. 18, 2010, 124 Stat. 3443, provided that: "In title 49, United States Code, references to 'this title' are deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and 511 of title 51, United States Code."

Congressional Declaration of Policy Regarding National Intermodal Transportation System

Pub. L. 102–240, §2, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1914, which provided that it was the policy of the United States to develop a National Intermodal Transportation System consisting of all forms of transportation in a unified, interconnected manner, a National Highway System, improvements in public transportation achieving goals for improved air quality, energy conservation, international competitiveness, and mobility for elderly persons, persons with disabilities, and economically disadvantaged persons, was repealed and reenacted as section 5501 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(d), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 848, 1379.

"Secretary" Defined

Pub. L. 106–159, §2, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1749, provided that: "In this Act [see Tables for classification], the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation."

Pub. L. 102–240, §3, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1915, provided that: "As used in this Act [see Short Title of 1991 Amendment note set out above], the term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation."

Ex. Ord. No. 13330. Human Service Transportation Coordination

Ex. Ord. No. 13330, Feb. 24, 2004, 69 F.R. 9185, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to enhance access to transportation to improve mobility, employment opportunities, and access to community services for persons who are transportation-disadvantaged, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. This order is issued consistent with the following findings and principles:

(a) A strong America depends on citizens who are productive and who actively participate in the life of their communities.

(b) Transportation plays a critical role in providing access to employment, medical and health care, education, and other community services and amenities. The importance of this role is underscored by the variety of transportation programs that have been created in conjunction with health and human service programs, and by the significant Federal investment in accessible public transportation systems throughout the Nation.

(c) These transportation resources, however, are often difficult for citizens to understand and access, and are more costly than necessary due to inconsistent and unnecessary Federal and State program rules and restrictions.

(d) A broad range of Federal program funding allows for the purchase or provision of transportation services and resources for persons who are transportation-disadvantaged. Yet, in too many communities, these services and resources are fragmented, unused, or altogether unavailable.

(e) Federally assisted community transportation services should be seamless, comprehensive, and accessible to those who rely on them for their lives and livelihoods. For persons with mobility limitations related to advanced age, persons with disabilities, and persons struggling for self-sufficiency, transportation within and between our communities should be as available and affordable as possible.

(f) The development, implementation, and maintenance of responsive, comprehensive, coordinated community transportation systems is essential for persons with disabilities, persons with low incomes, and older adults who rely on such transportation to fully participate in their communities.

Sec. 2. Definitions. (a) As used in this order, the term "agency" means an executive department or agency of the Federal Government.

(b) For the purposes of this order, persons who are transportation-disadvantaged are persons who qualify for Federally conducted or Federally assisted transportation-related programs or services due to disability, income, or advanced age.

Sec. 3. Establishment of the Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility. (a) There is hereby established, within the Department of Transportation for administrative purposes, the "Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council on Access and Mobility" ("Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council" or "Council"). The membership of the Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council shall consist of:

(i) the Secretaries of Transportation, Health and Human Services, Education, Labor, Veterans Affairs, Agriculture, Housing and Urban Development, and the Interior, the Attorney General, and the Commissioner of Social Security; and

(ii) such other Federal officials as the Chairperson of the Council may designate.

(b) The Secretary of Transportation, or the Secretary's designee, shall serve as the Chairperson of the Council. The Chairperson shall convene and preside at meetings of the Council, determine its agenda, direct its work, and, as appropriate to particular subject matters, establish and direct subgroups of the Council, which shall consist exclusively of the Council's members.

(c) A member of the Council may designate any person who is part of the member's agency and who is an officer appointed by the President or a full-time employee serving in a position with pay equal to or greater than the minimum rate payable for GS–15 of the General Schedule to perform functions of the Council or its subgroups on the member's behalf.

Sec. 4. Functions of the Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council. The Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council shall:

(a) promote interagency cooperation and the establishment of appropriate mechanisms to minimize duplication and overlap of Federal programs and services so that transportation-disadvantaged persons have access to more transportation services;

(b) facilitate access to the most appropriate, cost-effective transportation services within existing resources;

(c) encourage enhanced customer access to the variety of transportation and resources available;

(d) formulate and implement administrative, policy, and procedural mechanisms that enhance transportation services at all levels; and

(e) develop and implement a method for monitoring progress on achieving the goals of this order.

Sec. 5. Report. In performing its functions, the Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council shall present to me a report not later than 1 calendar year from the date of this order. The report shall:

(a) Identify those Federal, State, Tribal and local laws, regulations, procedures, and actions that have proven to be most useful and appropriate in coordinating transportation services for the targeted populations;

(b) Identify substantive and procedural requirements of transportation-related Federal laws and regulations that are duplicative or restrict the laws' and regulations' most efficient operation;

(c) Describe the results achieved, on an agency and program basis, in: (i) simplifying access to transportation services for persons with disabilities, persons with low income, and older adults; (ii) providing the most appropriate, cost-effective transportation services within existing resources; and (iii) reducing duplication to make funds available for more services to more such persons;

(d) Provide recommendations to simplify and coordinate applicable substantive, procedural, and administrative requirements; and

(e) Provide any other recommendations that would, in the judgment of the Council, advance the principles set forth in section 1 of this order.

Sec. 6. General. (a) Agencies shall assist the Interagency Transportation Coordinating Council and provide information to the Council consistent with applicable law as may be necessary to carry out its functions. To the extent permitted by law, and as permitted by available agency resources, the Department of Transportation shall provide funding and administrative support for the Council.

(b) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(c) This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by a party against the United States, its departments, agencies, instrumentalities or entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

§102. Department of Transportation

(a) The Department of Transportation is an executive department of the United States Government at the seat of Government.

(b) The head of the Department is the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(c) The Department has a Deputy Secretary of Transportation appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary—

(1) shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary; and

(2) acts for the Secretary when the Secretary is absent or unable to serve or when the office of Secretary is vacant.


(d) The Department has an Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Under Secretary shall provide leadership in the development of policy for the Department, supervise the policy activities of Assistant Secretaries with primary responsibility for aviation, international, and other transportation policy development and carry out other powers and duties prescribed by the Secretary. The Under Secretary acts for the Secretary when the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary are absent or unable to serve, or when the offices of Secretary and Deputy Secretary are vacant.

(e) Assistant Secretaries; General Counsel.—

(1) Appointment.—The Department has 6 Assistant Secretaries and a General Counsel, including—

(A) an Assistant Secretary for Aviation and International Affairs, an Assistant Secretary for Governmental Affairs, an Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, and an Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy, who shall each be appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate;

(B) an Assistant Secretary for Budget and Programs who shall be appointed by the President;

(C) an Assistant Secretary for Administration, who shall be appointed by the Secretary, with the approval of the President; and

(D) a General Counsel, who shall be appointed by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate.


(2) Duties and powers.—The officers set forth in paragraph (1) shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary. An Assistant Secretary or the General Counsel, in the order prescribed by the Secretary, acts for the Secretary when the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy are absent or unable to serve, or when the offices of the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy are vacant.

(f) Deputy Assistant Secretary for Tribal Government Affairs.—

(1) Establishment.—In accordance with Federal policies promoting Indian self determination, the Department of Transportation shall have, within the office of the Secretary, a Deputy Assistant Secretary for Tribal Government Affairs appointed by the President to plan, coordinate, and implement the Department of Transportation policy and programs serving Indian tribes and tribal organizations and to coordinate tribal transportation programs and activities in all offices and administrations of the Department and to be a participant in any negotiated rulemaking relating to, or having an impact on, projects, programs, or funding associated with the tribal transportation program.

(2) Reservation of trust obligations.—

(A) Responsibility of secretary.—In carrying out this title, the Secretary shall be responsible to exercise the trust obligations of the United States to Indians and Indian tribes to ensure that the rights of a tribe or individual Indian are protected.

(B) Preservation of united states responsibility.—Nothing in this title shall absolve the United States from any responsibility to Indians and Indian tribes, including responsibilities derived from the trust relationship and any treaty, executive order, or agreement between the United States and an Indian tribe.


(g) Office of Climate Change and Environment.—

(1) Establishment.—There is established in the Department an Office of Climate Change and Environment to plan, coordinate, and implement—

(A) department-wide research, strategies, and actions under the Department's statutory authority to reduce transportation-related energy use and mitigate the effects of climate change; and

(B) department-wide research strategies and actions to address the impacts of climate change on transportation systems and infrastructure.


(2) Clearinghouse.—The Office shall establish a clearinghouse of solutions, including cost-effective congestion reduction approaches, to reduce air pollution and transportation-related energy use and mitigate the effects of climate change.


(h) The Department shall have a seal that shall be judicially recognized.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 98–557, §26(a), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2873; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365; Pub. L. 107–295, title II, §215(a), (c), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2101, 2102; Pub. L. 109–59, title I, §1119(l), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1189; Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1101(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1756; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(k)(1), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1286; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6011(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1568.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
102(a) 49:1652(a) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §3(a), (c), (d), 80 Stat. 931.
102(b) 49:1652(a) (less 1st sentence).
102(c) 49:1652(b) (less words between parentheses). Oct 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §3(b), 80 Stat. 931; Oct. 28, 1974, Pub. L. 93–496, §16(a), 88 Stat. 1533.
102(d) 49:1652(b) (words between parentheses), (c), (d).
102(e) 49:1657(k). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(k), 80 Stat. 946.

In subsection (a), the words "There is hereby established" and "to be known as" are omitted as executed. The words "(hereafter referred to in this chapter as the 'Department')" are omitted as unnecessary because of the style used in codifying the revised title. The words "of the United States Government" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b), the words "(hereafter referred to in this chapter as the 'Secretary')" are omitted as unnecessary because of the style used in codifying the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words "carry out duties and powers" and "acts for" are substituted for "act for and exercise the powers of" and "perform such functions, powers, and duties", respectively, for consistency and to eliminate surplus words. The words "unable to serve" are substituted for "disability" for consistency and clarity.

In subsection (d), the words "in the competitive service" are substituted for "under the classified civil service" to conform to 5:2102. The words "from time to time" are omitted as surplus. The words "acts for" are substituted for "act for, and exercise the powers of" for consistency and to eliminate surplus words. The words "when the Secretary and the Deputy Secretary are absent or unable to serve, or when the offices of Secretary and Deputy Secretary are vacant" are substituted for "during the absence or disability of the Deputy Secretary, or in the event of a vacancy in the office of a Deputy Secretary" as being more precise and for consistency.

In subsection (e), the words "The Secretary shall cause a . . . of office" and "of such device" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement. The words "as he shall approve" are omitted as unnecessary because subsection (b) of the section establishes the Secretary of Transportation as the head of the Department of Transportation.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §6011(a)(1), substituted "6" for "5" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–94, §6011(a)(2), inserted "an Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology," after "Governmental Affairs,".

2012—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 112–166 inserted subsec. (e) heading, struck out "The Department has 4 Assistant Secretaries and a General Counsel appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Department also has an Assistant Secretary of Transportation for Administration appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. They shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary. An Assistant Secretary" before "or the General Counsel,", added par. (1), inserted par. (2) designation and heading, and, in par. (2), inserted "The officers set forth in paragraph (1) shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary. An Assistant Secretary".

2007—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 110–140 added subsec. (g) and redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h).

2005—Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 109–59, which directed amendment of this section by adding subsec. (f) and redesignating former subsecs. (f) and (g) as (g) and (h), respectively, was executed by adding subsec. (f) and redesignating former subsec. (f) as (g), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 2002 Amendment note below.

2002—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–295, §215(a)(2), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–295, §215(a)(3), which directed the substitution of "Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy" for "Secretary and the Deputy Secretary" each place it appears in last sentence, was executed by making substitution for "Secretary and the Deputy Secretary" before "are absent" and for "Secretary and Deputy Secretary" before "are vacant", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–295, §215(c), struck out subsec. (g) which read as follows: "The Department has an Associate Deputy Secretary appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Associate Deputy Secretary shall carry out powers and duties prescribed by the Secretary."

Pub. L. 107–295, §215(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (g).

1994—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 103–272 redesignated subsec. (e), relating to judicial recognition of Department seal, as (f).

1984—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 98–557 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d), relating to Assistant Secretaries and General Counsel, as (e).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–295, title II, §215(c), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2102, provided that the amendment to this section made by section 215(c) is effective on the date that an individual is appointed to the position of Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy under subsection (d) of this section. On Mar. 19, 2003, the United States Senate confirmed the appointment of the first Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy.

Deemed References to Chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51

General references to "this title" deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs, see section 4(d)(8) of Pub. L. 111–314, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Coordination

Pub. L. 110–140, title XI, §1101(b), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1756, provided that: "The Office of Climate Change and Environment of the Department of Transportation shall coordinate its activities with the United States Global Change Research Program."

Notice

Pub. L. 109–59, title V, §5510, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1828, provided that:

"(a) Notice of Reprogramming.—If any funds authorized for carrying out this title [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this title are subject to a reprogramming action that requires notice to be provided to the Committees on Appropriations, Transportation and Infrastructure, and Science [now Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Appropriations and Environment and Public Works of the Senate, notice of that action shall be concurrently provided to the Committee of Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate.

"(b) Notice of Reorganization.—On or before the 15th day preceding the date of any major reorganization of a program, project, or activity of the Department [of Transportation] for which funds are authorized by this title or the amendments made by this title, the Secretary [of Transportation] shall provide notice of the reorganization to the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Science [now Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate."

Pub. L. 105–178, title V, §5003, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 422, provided that:

"(a) Notice of Reprogramming.—If any funds authorized for carrying out this title [see Tables for classification] or the amendments made by this title are subject to a reprogramming action that requires notice to be provided to the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate, notice of such action shall concurrently be provided to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate.

"(b) Notice of Reorganization.—On or before the 15th day preceding the date of any major reorganization of a program, project, or activity of the Department of Transportation for which funds are authorized by this title or the amendments made by this title, the Secretary shall provide notice of such reorganization to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate."

Surface Transportation Administration

Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5004, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2160, provided that:

"(a) Study.—Not later than 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1991], the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the National Academy of Public Administration to continue a study of options for organizing the Department of Transportation to increase the effectiveness of program delivery, reduce costs, and improve intermodal coordination among surface transportation-related agencies.

"(b) Report.—The Secretary shall report to Congress on the findings of the study continued under subsection (a) and recommend appropriate organizational changes no later than January 1, 1993. No organizational changes shall be implemented until such changes are approved by law."

Person Holding Position of Associate Deputy Secretary Until April 15, 1985

Pub. L. 98–557, §26(c), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2873, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, until April 15, 1985, the position created by subsection (a) of this section [adding subsec. (d) of this section] may be held by a person named by the President alone from among qualified individuals."

Ex. Ord. No. 11340. Effective Date

Ex. Ord. No. 11340, Mar. 30, 1967, 32 F.R. 5453, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by Section 15 [renumbered section 16] of the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670, approved October 15, 1966; 80 Stat. 950) April 1, 1967, is hereby prescribed as the date on which the Department of Transportation Act shall take effect.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

§103. Federal Railroad Administration

(a) In General.—The Federal Railroad Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) Safety.—To carry out all railroad safety laws of the United States, the Administration is divided on a geographical basis into at least 8 safety offices. The Secretary of Transportation is responsible for all acts taken under those laws and for ensuring that the laws are uniformly administered and enforced among the safety offices.

(c) Safety as Highest Priority.—In carrying out its duties, the Administration shall consider the assignment and maintenance of safety as the highest priority, recognizing the clear intent, encouragement, and dedication of Congress to the furtherance of the highest degree of safety in railroad transportation.

(d) Administrator.—The head of the Administration shall be the Administrator who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be an individual with professional experience in railroad safety, hazardous materials safety, or other transportation safety. The Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(e) Deputy Administrator.—The Administration shall have a Deputy Administrator who shall be appointed by the Secretary. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(f) Chief Safety Officer.—The Administration shall have an Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety appointed in the career service by the Secretary. The Associate Administrator shall be the Chief Safety Officer of the Administration. The Associate Administrator shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(g) Duties and Powers of the Administrator.—The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers related to railroad safety vested in the Secretary by section 20134(c) and chapters 203 through 211 of this title, and by chapter 213 of this title for carrying out chapters 203 through 211;

(2) the duties and powers related to railroad policy and development under subsection (j); and

(3) other duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(h) Limitation.—A duty or power specified in subsection (g)(1) may be transferred to another part of the Department of Transportation or another Federal Government entity only when specifically provided by law. A decision of the Administrator in carrying out the duties or powers of the Administration and involving notice and hearing required by law is administratively final.

(i) Authorities.—Subject to the provisions of subtitle I of title 40 and division C (except sections 3302, 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41, the Secretary of Transportation may make, enter into, and perform such contracts, grants, leases, cooperative agreements, and other similar transactions with Federal or other public agencies (including State and local governments) and private organizations and persons, and make such payments, by way of advance or reimbursement, as the Secretary may determine to be necessary or appropriate to carry out functions at the Administration. The authority of the Secretary granted by this subsection shall be carried out by the Administrator. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, no authority to enter into contracts or to make payments under this subsection shall be effective, except as provided for in appropriations Acts.

(j) Additional Duties of the Administrator.—The Administrator shall—

(1) provide assistance to States in developing State rail plans prepared under chapter 227 and review all State rail plans submitted under that section; 1

(2) develop a long-range national rail plan that is consistent with approved State rail plans and the rail needs of the Nation, as determined by the Secretary in order to promote an integrated, cohesive, efficient, and optimized national rail system for the movement of goods and people;

(3) develop a preliminary national rail plan within a year after the date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008;

(4) develop and enhance partnerships with the freight and passenger railroad industry, States, and the public concerning rail development;

(5) support rail intermodal development and high-speed rail development, including high speed rail planning;

(6) ensure that programs and initiatives developed under this section benefit the public and work toward achieving regional and national transportation goals; and

(7) facilitate and coordinate efforts to assist freight and passenger rail carriers, transit agencies and authorities, municipalities, and States in passenger-freight service integration on shared rights of way by providing neutral assistance at the joint request of affected rail service providers and infrastructure owners relating to operations and capacity analysis, capital requirements, operating costs, and other research and planning related to corridors shared by passenger or commuter rail service and freight rail operations.


(k) Performance Goals and Reports.—

(1) Performance goals.—In conjunction with the objectives established and activities undertaken under subsection (j) of this section, the Administrator shall develop a schedule for achieving specific, measurable performance goals.

(2) Resource needs.—The strategy and annual plans shall include estimates of the funds and staff resources needed to accomplish each goal and the additional duties required under subsection (j).

(3) Submission with president's budget.—Beginning with fiscal year 2010 and each fiscal year thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, at the same time as the President's budget submission, the Administration's performance goals and schedule developed under paragraph (1), including an assessment of the progress of the Administration toward achieving its performance goals.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2414; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(1), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 103–440, title II, §216, Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4624; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(n)(1), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1302; Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title I, §101, div. B, title III, §307, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4851, 4953; Pub. L. 111–350, §5(o)(1), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3853.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
103(a) 49:1652(e)(1) (1st sentence related to FRA). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§3(e) (related to FRA) (1), (3), (4), 6(f)(3)(C) (related to FRA), 80 Stat. 932, 940.
  49:1652a. July 8, 1976, Pub. L. 94–348, §6, 90 Stat. 820.
103(b) 49:1652(e) (related to FRA) (1) (2d, last sentences), (3) (last sentence).
103(c) 49:1655(f)(3)(A). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(3)(A), 80 Stat. 940; Aug. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–401, §6, 86 Stat. 617; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(e)(1), 88 Stat. 2163.
  49:1652(e)(3) (related to FRA) (less last sentence).
103(d) 49:1652(e)(4) (related to FRA).
  49:1655(f)(3)(C) (related to FRA).

In subsection (a), the words "To carry out" are substituted for "for purposes of administering and enforcing" in 49:1652a for consistency and to eliminate surplus words. The words "under those laws" are substituted for "pursuant to Federal railroad safety laws" to eliminate surplus words. The words "is responsible" are substituted for "shall retain full and final responsibility" and "shall be responsible" to eliminate surplus words. The words "and for the establishment of all policies with respect to implementation of such laws" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "Each of these components" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), the words "vested in the Secretary" are substituted for "as set forth in the statutes transferred to the Secretary" in 49:1655(f)(3)(A) for clarity and consistency. The words "section 6(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1655(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A))" are substituted for "subsection (e) of this section (other than subsection (e)(4) of this section)" in 49:1655(f)(3)(A) for clarity.

In subsection (d), the word "law" is substituted for "statute" in 49:1652(e)(4) for consistency. The words after "administratively final" in 49:1655(f)(3)(C) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the revised title and those laws giving a right to appeal.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 5(m)(1) amends 49:103(c)(1) to include a reference to section 20134(c) of the revised title. The reference is included because 45:445 on which section 20134(c) is based provides that the duties and powers under that provision are to be carried out by the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration rather than the Secretary of Transportation.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Passenger Rail Investment and Improvement Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (j)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–350, which directed substitution of "division C (except sections 3302, 3501(b), 3509, 3906, 4710, and 4711) of subtitle I of title 41" for "title III of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.)" in subsec. (e), was executed to subsec. (i), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–432, §307(1), (2), inserted heading and struck out at end "To carry out all railroad safety laws of the United States, the Administration is divided on a geographical basis into at least 8 safety offices. The Secretary of Transportation is responsible for all acts taken under those laws and for ensuring that the laws are uniformly administered and enforced among the safety offices."

Subsecs. (b) to (k). Pub. L. 110–432, §§101, 307(3), (4), added subsecs. (b) to (k) and struck out former subsecs. (b) to (e), which related to: in subsec. (b), Administrator as head of the Administration; in subsec. (c), Administrator's duties and powers; in subsec. (d), transfer of duties or powers and effect of Administrator's decision; and, in subsec. (e), authority of Secretary of Transportation.

2002—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–217 inserted "subtitle I of title 40 and title III of" before "the Federal Property" and substituted "(41 U.S.C. 251 et seq.)" for "(40 U.S.C. 471 et seq.)".

1994—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "section 20134(c) and chapters 203–211 of this title, and chapter 213 of this title in carrying out chapters 203–211" for "section 6(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1655(e)(1), (2), and (6)(A))".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 103–440 added subsec. (e).

1984—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted "49 App. U.S.C." for "49 U.S.C.".

Update of Federal Railroad Administration Web Site

Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title III, §307, Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4881, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(j)(5), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1677, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary shall update the Federal Railroad Administration's public Web site to better facilitate the ability of the public, including those individuals who are not regular users of the public Web site, to find current information regarding the Federal Railroad Administration's activities.

"(b) Public Reporting of Violations.—On the Federal Railroad Administration's public Web site's home page, the Secretary shall provide a mechanism for the public to submit written reports of potential violations of Federal railroad safety and hazardous materials transportation laws, regulations, and orders to the Federal Railroad Administration."

[For definitions of "Secretary" and "railroad", as used in section 307 of Pub. L. 110–432, set out above, see section 2(a) of Pub. L. 110–432, set out as a note under section 20102 of this title.]

Funds for Broadband High Speed Internet Service Connection for Federal Railroad Administration Employees

Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title I, §151, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3222, provided that: "Notwithstanding any provisions of this or any other Act, during the fiscal year ending September 30, 2005, and hereafter, the Federal Railroad Administration may use funds appropriated by this or any other Act to provide for the installation of a broadband high speed internet service connection, including necessary equipment, for Federal Railroad Administration employees, and to either pay directly recurring monthly charges or to reimburse a percentage of such monthly charges which are paid by such employees: Provided, That the Federal Railroad Administration certifies that adequate safeguards against private misuse exist, and that the service is necessary for direct support of the agency's mission."

1 So in original. Probably should be "chapter;".

§104. Federal Highway Administration

(a) The Federal Highway Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b)(1) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(2) The Administration has a Deputy Federal Highway Administrator who is appointed by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(3) The Administration has an Assistant Federal Highway Administrator appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Assistant Administrator is the chief engineer of the Administration. The Assistant Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers vested in the Secretary by chapter 4 of title 23 for highway safety programs, research, and development related to highway design, construction and maintenance, traffic control devices, identification and surveillance of accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian safety; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(d) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 101(d) and 144 of title 23, highway bridges determined to be unreasonable obstructions to navigation under the Truman-Hobbs Act may be funded from amounts set aside from the discretionary bridge program. The Secretary shall transfer these allocations and the responsibility for administration of these funds to the United States Coast Guard.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2415; Pub. L. 103–272, §§4(j)(2), 5(m)(2), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365, 1375; Pub. L. 104–324, title I, §101(b)(1), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3905; Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(c)(2), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1751.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
104(a) 49:1652(e)(1) (1st sentence related to FHWA). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§3(e) (related to FHWA) (1), (3), (4), 6(f)(3)(C) (related to FHWA), 80 Stat. 932, 940.
104(b)(1) 49:1652(e) (related to FHWA) (1) (less 1st sentence), (3) (last sentence).
104(b)(2) 23:303(a)(1) (1st, 2d sentences).
104(b)(3) 23:303(a)(1) (last sentence), (b), (c).
104(c) 49:1655(f)(3)(B). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(f)(3)(B), 80 Stat. 940; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(e)(2), 88 Stat. 2163.
  23:401 (note). Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L. 89–564, §201(b)(1), 80 Stat. 735; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(h), 80 Stat. 943; restated Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–605, §202(a), 84 Stat. 1740.
  49:1652(e)(3) (related to FHWA) (less last sentence).
104(d) 49:1652(e)(4) (related to FHWA).
  49:1655(f)(3)(C) (related to FHWA).

In subsection (b)(1), the words "Each of these components" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "In addition to the Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration authorized by section 3(e) of the Department of Transportation Act" in 23:303(a)(1) (1st sentence) are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "in the competitive service" are substituted for "under the classified civil service" to conform to 5:2102. The text of 23:303(b), (c) is omitted as unnecessary because sections 322 and 323 of the revised title restate the authority of the Secretary of Transportation.

In subsection (c), the source provisions are consolidated. The words "The Administrator shall carry out duties and powers" are substituted for "The Secretary shall carry out through the Federal Highway Administration those provisions of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 . . . for" in 23:401 (note) and "carry out the functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary" in 49:1655(f)(3)(B) as being more precise, to eliminate unnecessary words, and for consistency. The words "vested in the Secretary" are substituted for "as set forth in the statutes transferred to the Secretary" in 49:1655(f)(3)(B) for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (d), the word "law" is substituted for "statute" in 49:1652(e)(4) for consistency. The words after "administratively final" in 49:1655(f)(3)(C) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the revised title and those laws giving the right to appeal.

References in Text

The Truman-Hobbs Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is act June 21, 1940, ch. 409, 54 Stat. 497, as amended, also known as the Hobbs Bridge Act, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§511 et seq.) of chapter 11 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–159, §101(c)(2)(A), substituted "; and" for the semicolon at end of par. (1), redesignated par. (3) as (2), and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "duties and powers related to motor carrier safety vested in the Secretary by chapters 5 and 315 of this title; and".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 106–159, §101(c)(2)(B), (C), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: "A duty or power specified by subsection (c)(2) of this section may be transferred to another part of the Department only when specifically provided by law or a reorganization plan submitted under chapter 9 of title 5. A decision of the Administrator in carrying out those duties or powers and involving notice and hearing required by law is administratively final."

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–324 added subsec. (e).

1994—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Admininstrator" before "who is".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(2), substituted "315" for "31".

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §107(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1758, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 9, 1999]; except that the amendments made by section 101 [enacting section 113 of this title and amending this section, sections 5314 and 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, and section 104 of Title 23, Highways] shall take effect on January 1, 2000."

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Elimination of Regional Office Responsibilities

Pub. L. 105–178, title I, §1220, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 221, provided that:

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Elimination.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall eliminate any programmatic decisionmaking responsibility of the regional offices of the Federal Highway Administration for the Federal-aid highway program as part of the Administration's efforts to restructure its field organization.

"(2) Activities.—In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall eliminate regional offices, create technical resource centers, and, to the maximum extent practicable, delegate authority to State offices of the Federal Highway Administration.

"(b) Preference.—In locating the technical resource centers, the Secretary shall give preference to cities that house, on the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998], the Federal Highway Administration regional offices and are in locations that minimize the travel distance between the technical resource centers and the Federal Highway Administration division offices that will be served by the new technical resource centers.

"(c) Report to Congress.—The Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a detailed implementation plan to carry out this section not later than September 30, 1998, and thereafter provide periodic progress reports on carrying out this section to such Committees.

"(d) Implementation.—The Secretary shall begin implementation of the plan transmitted under subsection (c) not later than December 31, 1998."

§105. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

(a) The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administration has a Deputy Administrator who is appointed by the Secretary of Transportation, with the approval of the President.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers vested in the Secretary by chapter 4 of title 23, except those related to highway design, construction and maintenance, traffic control devices, identification and surveillance of accident locations, and highway-related aspects of pedestrian safety; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(d) The Secretary may carry out chapter 301 of this title through the Administrator.

(e) The Administrator shall consult with the Federal Highway Administrator on all matters related to the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of highways.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2415; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(3), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
105 23:401 (note). Sept. 9, 1966, Pub. L. 89–564, §201(a) (less pay of Administrator and Deputy Administrator), (b)(2), (c), (d), 80 Stat. 735; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(h), 80 Stat. 943; restated Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–605, §202(a), 84 Stat. 1739.

In subsection (a), the words "The . . . is an administration in the" are substituted for "There is hereby established within the", in section 201(a) (1st sentence) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 (Pub. L. 89–564, 80 Stat. 731) to conform to other sections of the revised title. The words "(hereafter in this section referred to as the 'Administration')" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (c), the words "carry out . . . duties and powers . . . prescribed by the Secretary" are substituted for "perform such duties as are delegated to him by the Secretary" to eliminate surplus words and for consistency. The list of excepted programs in clause (1) is substituted for "highway safety programs, research and development not specifically referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection", in section 201(b)(2) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 for clarity.

In subsection (d), the words "Administration . . . authorized by this section" are omitted as surplus.

The text of section 201(d) of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 is omitted as executed.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "chapter 301 of this title" for "the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.)".

Required Reporting of NHTSA Agenda

Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §24401, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1720, provided that: "Not later than December 1 of the year beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], and each year thereafter, the Administrator of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration shall publish on the public website of the Administration, and file with the Committees on Energy and Commerce and Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate an annual plan for the following calendar year detailing the Administration's projected activities, including—

"(1) the Administrator's policy priorities;

"(2) any rulemakings projected to be commenced;

"(3) any plans to develop guidelines;

"(4) any plans to restructure the Administration or to establish or alter working groups;

"(5) any planned projects or initiatives of the Administration, including the working groups and advisory committees of the Administration; and

"(6) any projected dates or timetables associated with any of the items described in paragraphs (1) through (5)."

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Electronics, Software, and Engineering Expertise

Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, §31401, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 772, provided that:

"(a) Council for Vehicle Electronics, Vehicle Software, and Emerging Technologies.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall establish, within the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, a Council for Vehicle Electronics, Vehicle Software, and Emerging Technologies (referred to in this section as the 'Council') to build, integrate, and aggregate the Administration's expertise in passenger motor vehicle electronics and other new and emerging technologies.

"(2) Implementation of roadmap.—The Council shall research the inclusion of emerging lightweight plastic and composite technologies in motor vehicles to increase fuel efficiency, lower emissions, meet fuel economy standards, and enhance passenger motor vehicle safety through continued utilization of the Administration's Plastic and Composite Intensive Vehicle Safety Roadmap (Report No. DOT HS 810 863).

"(3) Intra-agency coordination.—The Council shall coordinate with all components of the Administration responsible for vehicle safety, including research and development, rulemaking, and defects investigation.

"(b) Honors Recruitment Program.—

"(1) Establishment.—The Secretary shall establish, within the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, an honors program for engineering students, computer science students, and other students interested in vehicle safety that will enable such students to train with engineers and other safety officials for careers in vehicle safety.

"(2) Stipend.—The Secretary is authorized to provide a stipend to any student during the student's participation in the program established under paragraph (1).

"(c) Assessment.—The Council, in consultation with affected stakeholders, shall periodically assess the implications of emerging safety technologies in passenger motor vehicles, including the effect of such technologies on consumers, product availability, and cost."

§106. Federal Aviation Administration

(a) The Federal Aviation Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator, who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. When making an appointment, the President shall consider the fitness of the individual to carry out efficiently the duties and powers of the office. Except as provided in subsection (f) or in other provisions of law, the Administrator reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation. The term of office for any individual appointed as Administrator after August 23, 1994, shall be 5 years.

(c) The Administrator must—

(1) be a citizen of the United States;

(2) be a civilian; and

(3) have experience in a field directly related to aviation.


(d)(1) The Administration has a Deputy Administrator, who shall be appointed by the President. In making an appointment, the President shall consider the fitness of the appointee to efficiently carry out the duties and powers of the office. The Deputy Administrator shall be a citizen of the United States and have experience in a field directly related to aviation. An officer on active duty in an armed force may be appointed as Deputy Administrator. However, if the Administrator is a former regular officer of an armed force, the Deputy Administrator may not be an officer on active duty in an armed force, a retired regular officer of an armed force, or a former regular officer of an armed force.

(2) The annual rate of basic pay of the Deputy Administrator shall be set by the Secretary but shall not exceed the annual rate of basic pay payable to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.

(3) An officer on active duty or a retired officer serving as Deputy Administrator is entitled to hold a rank and grade not lower than that held when appointed as Deputy Administrator. The Deputy Administrator may elect to receive (A) the pay provided by law for the Deputy Administrator, or (B) the pay and allowances or the retired pay of the military grade held. If the Deputy Administrator elects to receive the military pay and allowances or retired pay, the Administration shall reimburse the appropriate military department from funds available for the expenses of the Administration.

(4) The appointment and service of a member of the armed forces as a Deputy Administrator does not affect the status, office, rank, or grade held by that member, or a right or benefit arising from the status, office, rank, or grade. The Secretary of a military department does not control the member when the member is carrying out duties and powers of the Deputy Administrator.

(e) The Administrator and the Deputy Administrator may not have a pecuniary interest in, or own stock in or bonds of, an aeronautical enterprise, or engage in another business, vocation, or employment.

(f) Authority of the Secretary and the Administrator.—

(1) Authority of the secretary.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary of Transportation shall carry out the duties and powers, and controls the personnel and activities, of the Administration. Neither the Secretary nor the Administrator may submit decisions for the approval of, or be bound by the decisions or recommendations of, a committee, board, or organization established by executive order.

(2) Authority of the administrator.—The Administrator—

(A) is the final authority for carrying out all functions, powers, and duties of the Administration relating to—

(i) the appointment and employment of all officers and employees of the Administration (other than Presidential and political appointees);

(ii) the acquisition and maintenance of property, services, and equipment of the Administration;

(iii) except as otherwise provided in paragraph (3), the promulgation of regulations, rules, orders, circulars, bulletins, and other official publications of the Administration; and

(iv) any obligation imposed on the Administrator, or power conferred on the Administrator, by the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996 (or any amendment made by that Act);


(B) shall offer advice and counsel to the President with respect to the appointment and qualifications of any officer or employee of the Administration to be appointed by the President or as a political appointee;

(C) may delegate, and authorize successive redelegations of, to an officer or employee of the Administration any function, power, or duty conferred upon the Administrator, unless such delegation is prohibited by law; and

(D) except as otherwise provided for in this title, and notwithstanding any other provision of law, shall not be required to coordinate, submit for approval or concurrence, or seek the advice or views of the Secretary or any other officer or employee of the Department of Transportation on any matter with respect to which the Administrator is the final authority.


(3) Regulations.—

(A) In general.—In the performance of the functions of the Administrator and the Administration, the Administrator is authorized to issue, rescind, and revise such regulations as are necessary to carry out those functions. The issuance of such regulations shall be governed by the provisions of chapter 5 of title 5. The Administrator shall act upon all petitions for rulemaking no later than 6 months after the date such petitions are filed by dismissing such petitions, by informing the petitioner of an intention to dismiss, or by issuing a notice of proposed rulemaking or advanced notice of proposed rulemaking. The Administrator shall issue a final regulation, or take other final action, not later than 16 months after the last day of the public comment period for the regulations or, in the case of an advanced notice of proposed rulemaking, if issued, not later than 24 months after the date of publication in the Federal Register of notice of the proposed rulemaking. On February 1 and August 1 of each year the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a letter listing each deadline the Administrator missed under this subparagraph during the 6-month period ending on such date, including an explanation for missing the deadline and a projected date on which the action that was subject to the deadline will be taken.

(B) Approval of secretary of transportation.—(i) The Administrator may not issue a proposed regulation or final regulation that is likely to result in the expenditure by State, local, and tribal governments in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $250,000,000 or more (adjusted annually for inflation beginning with the year following the date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century) in any year, or any regulation which is significant, unless the Secretary of Transportation approves the issuance of the regulation in advance. For purposes of this paragraph, a regulation is significant if the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary (as appropriate), determines that the regulation is likely to—

(I) have an annual effect on the economy of $250,000,000 or more or adversely affect in a substantial and material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities; or

(II) raise novel or significant legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates that may substantially and materially affect other transportation modes.


(ii) In an emergency, the Administrator may issue a regulation described in clause (i) without prior approval by the Secretary, but any such emergency regulation is subject to ratification by the Secretary after it is issued and shall be rescinded by the Administrator within 5 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and legal public holidays) after issuance if the Secretary fails to ratify its issuance.

(iii) Any regulation that does not meet the criteria of clause (i), and any regulation or other action that is a routine or frequent action or a procedural action, may be issued by the Administrator without review or approval by the Secretary.

(iv) The Administrator shall submit a copy of any regulation requiring approval by the Secretary under clause (i) to the Secretary, who shall either approve it or return it to the Administrator with comments within 45 days after receiving it.

(C) Periodic review.—(i) Beginning on the date which is 3 years after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, the Administrator shall review any unusually burdensome regulation issued by the Administrator after such date of enactment beginning not later than 3 years after the effective date of the regulation to determine if the cost assumptions were accurate, the benefit of the regulations, and the need to continue such regulations in force in their present form.

(ii) The Administrator may identify for review under the criteria set forth in clause (i) unusually burdensome regulations that were issued before the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996 and that have been in force for more than 3 years.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "unusually burdensome regulation" means any regulation that results in the annual expenditure by State, local, and tribal governments in the aggregate, or by the private sector, of $25,000,000 or more (adjusted annually for inflation beginning with the year following the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Act of 1996) in any year.

(iv) The periodic review of regulations may be performed by advisory committees and the Management Advisory Council established under subsection (p).


(4) Definition of political appointee.—For purposes of this subsection, the term "political appointee" means any individual who—

(A) is employed in a position listed in sections 5312 through 5316 of title 5 (relating to the Executive Schedule);

(B) is a limited term appointee, limited emergency appointee, or noncareer appointee in the Senior Executive Service, as defined under paragraphs (5), (6), and (7), respectively, of section 3132(a) of title 5; or

(C) is employed in a position in the executive branch of the Government of a confidential or policy-determining character under schedule C of subpart C of part 213 of title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations.


(g) Duties and Powers of Administrator.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the Administrator shall carry out—

(A) duties and powers of the Secretary of Transportation under subsection (f) of this section related to aviation safety (except those related to transportation, packaging, marking, or description of hazardous material) and stated in sections 308(b), 1132(c) and (d), 40101(c), 40103(b), 40106(a), 40108, 40109(b), 40113(a), 40113(c), 40113(d), 40113(e), 40114(a), and 40119, chapter 445 (except sections 44501(b), 44502(a)(2), 44502(a)(3), 44502(a)(4), 44503, 44506, 44509, 44510, 44514, and 44515), chapter 447 (except sections 44717, 44718(a), 44718(b), 44719, 44720, 44721(b), 44722, and 44723), chapter 449 (except sections 44903(d), 44904, 44905, 44907–44911, 44913, 44915, and 44931–44934), chapter 451, chapter 453, sections 46104, 46301(d) and (h)(2), 46303(c), 46304–46308, 46310, 46311, and 46313–46316, chapter 465, and sections 47504(b) (related to flight procedures), 47508(a), and 48107 of this title; and

(B) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary of Transportation.


(2) In carrying out sections 40119, 44901, 44903(a)–(c) and (e), 44906, 44912, 44935–44937, 44938(a) and (b), and 48107 of this title, paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection does not apply to duties and powers vested in the Director of Intelligence and Security by section 44931 1 of this title.

(h) Section 40101(d) of this title applies to duties and powers specified in subsection (g)(1) of this section. Any of those duties and powers may be transferred to another part of the Department only when specifically provided by law or a reorganization plan submitted under chapter 9 of title 5. A decision of the Administrator in carrying out those duties or powers is administratively final.

(i) The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator acts for the Administrator when the Administrator is absent or unable to serve, or when the office of the Administrator is vacant.

(j) There is established within the Federal Aviation Administration an institute to conduct civil aeromedical research under section 44507 of this title. Such institute shall be known as the "Civil Aeromedical Institute". Research conducted by the institute should take appropriate advantage of capabilities of other government agencies, universities, or the private sector.

(k) Authorization of Appropriations for Operations.—

(1) Salaries, operations, and maintenance.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for salaries, operations, and maintenance of the Administration—

(A) $9,653,000,000 for fiscal year 2012;

(B) $9,539,000,000 for fiscal year 2013;

(C) $9,596,000,000 for fiscal year 2014;

(D) $9,653,000,000 for fiscal year 2015; and

(E) $9,909,724,000 for each of fiscal years 2016 and 2017.


Such sums shall remain available until expended.

(2) Authorized expenditures.—Out of amounts appropriated under paragraph (1), the following expenditures are authorized:

(A) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2012 through 2015 to carry out and expand the Air Traffic Control Collegiate Training Initiative.

(B) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2012 through 2015 for the completion of the Alaska aviation safety project with respect to the 3 dimensional mapping of Alaska's main aviation corridors.

(C) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2012 through 2015 to carry out the Aviation Safety Reporting System and the development and maintenance of helicopter approach procedures.


(3) Administering program within available funding.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in each of fiscal years 2012 through 2017, if the Secretary determines that the funds appropriated under paragraph (1) are insufficient to meet the salary, operations, and maintenance expenses of the Federal Aviation Administration, as authorized by this section, the Secretary shall reduce nonsafety-related activities of the Administration as necessary to reduce such expenses to a level that can be met by the funding available under paragraph (1).


(l) Personnel and Services.—

(1) Officers and employees.—Except as provided in subsections (a) and (g) of section 40122, the Administrator is authorized, in the performance of the functions of the Administrator, to appoint, transfer, and fix the compensation of such officers and employees, including attorneys, as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Administrator and the Administration. In fixing compensation and benefits of officers and employees, the Administrator shall not engage in any type of bargaining, except to the extent provided for in section 40122(a), nor shall the Administrator be bound by any requirement to establish such compensation or benefits at particular levels.

(2) Experts and consultants.—The Administrator is authorized to obtain the services of experts and consultants in accordance with section 3109 of title 5.

(3) Transportation and per diem expenses.—The Administrator is authorized to pay transportation expenses, and per diem in lieu of subsistence expenses, in accordance with chapter 57 of title 5.

(4) Use of personnel from other agencies.—The Administrator is authorized to utilize the services of personnel of any other Federal agency (as such term is defined under section 551(1) of title 5).

(5) Voluntary services.—

(A) General rule.—In exercising the authority to accept gifts and voluntary services under section 326 of this title, and without regard to section 1342 of title 31, the Administrator may not accept voluntary and uncompensated services if such services are used to displace Federal employees employed on a full-time, part-time, or seasonal basis.

(B) Incidental expenses.—The Administrator is authorized to provide for incidental expenses, including transportation, lodging, and subsistence, for volunteers who provide voluntary services under this subsection.

(C) Limited treatment as federal employees.—An individual who provides voluntary services under this subsection shall not be considered a Federal employee for any purpose other than for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, relating to compensation for work injuries, and chapter 171 of title 28, relating to tort claims.


(6) Contracts.—The Administrator is authorized to enter into and perform such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, or other transactions as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Administrator and the Administration. The Administrator may enter into such contracts, leases, cooperative agreements, and other transactions with any Federal agency (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) or any instrumentality of the United States, any State, territory, or possession, or political subdivision thereof, any other governmental entity, or any person, firm, association, corporation, or educational institution, on such terms and conditions as the Administrator may consider appropriate.


(m) Cooperation by Administrator.—With the consent of appropriate officials, the Administrator may, with or without reimbursement, use or accept the services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of any other Federal agency (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) and any other public or private entity. The Administrator may also cooperate with appropriate officials of other public and private agencies and instrumentalities concerning the use of services, equipment, personnel, and facilities. The head of each Federal agency shall cooperate with the Administrator in making the services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of the Federal agency available to the Administrator. The head of a Federal agency is authorized, notwithstanding any other provision of law, to transfer to or to receive from the Administration, with or without reimbursement, supplies, personnel, services, and equipment other than administrative supplies or equipment.

(n) Acquisition.—

(1) In general.—The Administrator is authorized—

(A) to acquire (by purchase, lease, condemnation, or otherwise), construct, improve, repair, operate, and maintain—

(i) air traffic control facilities and equipment;

(ii) research and testing sites and facilities; and

(iii) such other real and personal property (including office space and patents), or any interest therein, within and outside the continental United States as the Administrator considers necessary;


(B) to lease to others such real and personal property; and

(C) to provide by contract or otherwise for eating facilities and other necessary facilities for the welfare of employees of the Administration at the installations of the Administration, and to acquire, operate, and maintain equipment for these facilities.


(2) Title.—Title to any property or interest therein acquired pursuant to this subsection shall be held by the Government of the United States.


(o) Transfers of Funds.—The Administrator is authorized to accept transfers of unobligated balances and unexpended balances of funds appropriated to other Federal agencies (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) to carry out functions transferred by law to the Administrator or functions transferred pursuant to law to the Administrator on or after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996.

(p) Management Advisory Council and Air Traffic Services Board.—

(1) Establishment.—Within 3 months after the date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, the Administrator shall establish an advisory council which shall be known as the Federal Aviation Management Advisory Council (in this subsection referred to as the "Council"). With respect to Administration management, policy, spending, funding, and regulatory matters affecting the aviation industry, the Council may submit comments, recommended modifications, and dissenting views to the Administrator. The Administrator shall include in any submission to Congress, the Secretary, or the general public, and in any submission for publication in the Federal Register, a description of the comments, recommended modifications, and dissenting views received from the Council, together with the reasons for any differences between the views of the Council and the views or actions of the Administrator.

(2) Membership.—The Council shall consist of 13 members, who shall consist of—

(A) a designee of the Secretary of Transportation;

(B) a designee of the Secretary of Defense;

(C) 10 members representing aviation interests, appointed by—

(i) in the case of initial appointments to the Council, the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, except that initial appointments made after May 1, 2003, shall be made by the Secretary of Transportation; and

(ii) in the case of subsequent appointments to the Council, the Secretary of Transportation; and


(D) 1 member appointed, from among individuals who are the leaders of their respective unions of air traffic control system employees, by the Secretary of Transportation.


(3) Qualifications.—No officer or employee of the United States Government may be appointed to the Council under paragraph (2)(C) or to the Air Traffic Services Committee.

(4) Functions.—

(A) In general.—(i) The Council shall provide advice and counsel to the Administrator on issues which affect or are affected by the operations of the Administrator. The Council shall function as an oversight resource for management, policy, spending, and regulatory matters under the jurisdiction of the Administration.

(ii) The Council shall review the rulemaking cost-benefit analysis process and develop recommendations to improve the analysis and ensure that the public interest is fully protected.

(iii) The Council shall review the process through which the Administration determines to use advisory circulars and service bulletins.

(B) Meetings.—The Council shall meet on a regular and periodic basis or at the call of the chairman or of the Administrator.

(C) Access to documents and staff.—The Administration may give the Council or Air Traffic Services Committee appropriate access to relevant documents and personnel of the Administration, and the Administrator shall make available, consistent with the authority to withhold commercial and other proprietary information under section 552 of title 5 (commonly known as the "Freedom of Information Act"), cost data associated with the acquisition and operation of air traffic service systems. Any member of the Council or Air Traffic Services Committee who receives commercial or other proprietary data from the Administrator shall be subject to the provisions of section 1905 of title 18, pertaining to unauthorized disclosure of such information.


(5) Federal advisory committee act not to apply.—The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) does not apply to the Council, the Air Traffic Services Committee, or such aviation rulemaking committees as the Administrator shall designate.

(6) Administrative matters.—

(A) Terms of members appointed under paragraph (2)(c).—Members of the Council appointed under paragraph (2)(C) shall be appointed for a term of 3 years. Of the members first appointed by the President under paragraph (2)(C)—

(i) 3 shall be appointed for terms of 1 year;

(ii) 4 shall be appointed for terms of 2 years; and

(iii) 3 shall be appointed for terms of 3 years.


(B) Term for air traffic control representative.—The member appointed under paragraph (2)(D) shall be appointed for a term of 3 years, except that the term of such individual shall end whenever the individual no longer meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(D).

(C) Terms for air traffic services committee members.—The members appointed to the Air Traffic Services Committee shall be appointed for a term of 5 years, except that the first members of the Committee shall be the members of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Council on the day before the date of enactment of the Vision 100—Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act who shall serve in an advisory capacity until such time as the President appoints the members of the Committee under paragraph (7).

(D) Reappointment.—An individual may not be appointed to the Committee to more than two 5-year terms.

(E) Vacancy.—Any vacancy on the Council or Committee shall be filled in the same manner as the original appointment, except that any vacancy caused by a member appointed by the President under paragraph (2)(C)(i) shall be filled by the Secretary in accordance with paragraph (2)(C)(ii). Any member appointed to fill a vacancy occurring before the expiration of the term for which the member's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.

(F) Continuation in office.—A member of the Council or Committee whose term expires shall continue to serve until the date on which the member's successor takes office.

(G) Removal.—Any member of the Council appointed under paragraph (2)(D) may be removed for cause by the President or Secretary whoever makes the appointment. Any member of the Committee may be removed for cause by the Secretary.

(H) Claims against members of committee.—

(i) In general.—A member appointed to the Committee shall have no personal liability under Federal law with respect to any claim arising out of or resulting from an act or omission by such member within the scope of service as a member of the Committee.

(ii) Effect on other law.—This subparagraph shall not be construed—

(I) to affect any other immunity or protection that may be available to a member of the Subcommittee under applicable law with respect to such transactions;

(II) to affect any other right or remedy against the United States under applicable law; or

(III) to limit or alter in any way the immunities that are available under applicable law for Federal officers and employees.


(I) Ethical considerations.—

(i) Financial disclosure.—During the entire period that an individual is serving as a member of the Committee, such individual shall be treated as serving as an officer or employee referred to in section 101(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 for purposes of title I of such Act; except that section 101(d) of such Act shall apply without regard to the number of days of service in the position.

(ii) Restrictions on post-employment.—For purposes of section 207(c) of title 18, an individual who is a member of the Committee shall be treated as an employee referred to in section 207(c)(2)(A)(i) of such title during the entire period the individual is a member of the Committee; except that subsections (c)(2)(B) and (f) of section 207 of such title shall not apply.


(J) Chairman; vice chairman.—The Council shall elect a chair and a vice chair from among the members appointed under paragraph (2)(C), each of whom shall serve for a term of 1 year. The vice chair shall perform the duties of the chairman in the absence of the chairman.

(K) Travel and per diem.—Each member of the Council or Committee shall be paid actual travel expenses, and per diem in lieu of subsistence expenses when away from his or her usual place of residence, in accordance with section 5703 of title 5.

(L) Detail of personnel from the administration.—The Administrator shall make available to the Council or Committee such staff, information, and administrative services and assistance as may reasonably be required to enable the Council or Committee to carry out its responsibilities under this subsection.


(7) Air traffic services committee.—

(A) Establishment.—The Administrator shall establish a committee that is independent of the Council by converting the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Council, as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of the Vision 100—Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act, into such committee. The committee shall be known as the Air Traffic Services Committee (in this subsection referred to as the "Committee").

(B) Membership and qualifications.—Subject to paragraph (6)(C), the Committee shall consist of five members, one of whom shall be the Administrator and shall serve as chairperson. The remaining members shall be appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate and—

(i) shall have a fiduciary responsibility to represent the public interest;

(ii) shall be citizens of the United States; and

(iii) shall be appointed without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of their professional experience and expertise in one or more of the following areas and, in the aggregate, should collectively bring to bear expertise in all of the following areas:

(I) Management of large service organizations.

(II) Customer service.

(III) Management of large procurements.

(IV) Information and communications technology.

(V) Organizational development.

(VI) Labor relations.


(C) Prohibitions on members of committee.—No member of the Committee may—

(i) have a pecuniary interest in, or own stock in or bonds of, an aviation or aeronautical enterprise, except an interest in a diversified mutual fund or an interest that is exempt from the application of section 208 of title 18;

(ii) engage in another business related to aviation or aeronautics; or

(iii) be a member of any organization that engages, as a substantial part of its activities, in activities to influence aviation-related legislation.


(D) General responsibilities.—

(i) Oversight.—The Committee shall oversee the administration, management, conduct, direction, and supervision of the air traffic control system.

(ii) Confidentiality.—The Committee shall ensure that appropriate confidentiality is maintained in the exercise of its duties.


(E) Specific responsibilities.—The Committee shall have the following specific responsibilities:

(i) Strategic plans.—To review, approve, and monitor the strategic plan for the air traffic control system, including the establishment of—

(I) a mission and objectives;

(II) standards of performance relative to such mission and objectives, including safety, efficiency, and productivity; and

(III) annual and long-range strategic plans.


(ii) Modernization and improvement.—To review and approve—

(I) methods to accelerate air traffic control modernization and improvements in aviation safety related to air traffic control; and

(II) procurements of air traffic control equipment in excess of $100,000,000.


(iii) Operational plans.—To review the operational functions of the air traffic control system, including—

(I) plans for modernization of the air traffic control system;

(II) plans for increasing productivity or implementing cost-saving measures; and

(III) plans for training and education.


(iv) Management.—To—

(I) review and approve the Administrator's appointment of a Chief Operating Officer under section 106(r);

(II) review the Administrator's selection, evaluation, and compensation of senior executives of the Administration who have program management responsibility over significant functions of the air traffic control system;

(III) review and approve the Administrator's plans for any major reorganization of the Administration that would impact on the management of the air traffic control system;

(IV) review and approve the Administrator's cost accounting and financial management structure and technologies to help ensure efficient and cost-effective air traffic control operation; and

(V) review the performance and compensation of managers responsible for major acquisition projects, including the ability of the managers to meet schedule and budget targets.


(v) Budget.—To—

(I) review and make recommendations on the budget request of the Administration related to the air traffic control system prepared by the Administrator;

(II) submit such budget recommendations to the Secretary; and

(III) base such budget recommendations on the annual and long-range strategic plans.


(F) Committee personnel matters and expenses.—

(i) Personnel matters.—The Committee may appoint and terminate for purposes of employment by the Committee any personnel that may be necessary to enable the Committee to perform its duties, and may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 40122.

(ii) Travel expenses.—Each member of the Committee shall receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with applicable provisions under subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code.


(G) Administrative matters.—

(i) Powers of chair.—Except as otherwise provided by a majority vote of the Committee, the powers of the chairperson shall include—

(I) establishing committees;

(II) setting meeting places and times;

(III) establishing meeting agendas; and

(IV) developing rules for the conduct of business.


(ii) Meetings.—The Committee shall meet at least quarterly and at such other times as the chairperson determines appropriate.

(iii) Quorum.—Three members of the Committee shall constitute a quorum. A majority of members present and voting shall be required for the Committee to take action.


(H) Authorization.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Committee such sums as may be necessary for the Committee to carry out its activities.


(8) Air traffic control system defined.—In this section, the term "air traffic control system" has the meaning such term has under section 40102(a).


(q) Aircraft Noise Ombudsman.—

(1) Establishment.—There shall be in the Administration an Aircraft Noise Ombudsman.

(2) General duties and responsibilities.—The Ombudsman shall—

(A) be appointed by the Administrator;

(B) serve as a liaison with the public on issues regarding aircraft noise; and

(C) be consulted when the Administration proposes changes in aircraft routes so as to minimize any increases in aircraft noise over populated areas.


(3) Number of full-time equivalent employees.—The appointment of an Ombudsman under this subsection shall not result in an increase in the number of full-time equivalent employees in the Administration.


(r) Chief Operating Officer.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Appointment.—There shall be a Chief Operating Officer for the air traffic control system to be appointed by the Administrator, with the approval of the Air Traffic Services Committee. The Chief Operating Officer shall report directly to the Administrator and shall be subject to the authority of the Administrator.

(B) Qualifications.—The Chief Operating Officer shall have a demonstrated ability in management and knowledge of or experience in aviation.

(C) Term.—The Chief Operating Officer shall be appointed for a term of 5 years.

(D) Removal.—The Chief Operating Officer shall serve at the pleasure of the Administrator, except that the Administrator shall make every effort to ensure stability and continuity in the leadership of the air traffic control system.

(E) Vacancy.—Any individual appointed to fill a vacancy in the position of Chief Operating Officer occurring before the expiration of the term for which the individual's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.


(2) Compensation.—

(A) In general.—The Chief Operating Officer shall be paid at an annual rate of basic pay to be determined by the Administrator, with the approval of the Air Traffic Services Committee. The annual rate may not exceed the annual compensation paid under section 102 of title 3. The Chief Operating Officer shall be subject to the post-employment provisions of section 207 of title 18 as if the position of Chief Operating Officer were described in section 207(c)(2)(A)(i) of that title.

(B) Bonus.—In addition to the annual rate of basic pay authorized by subparagraph (A), the Chief Operating Officer may receive a bonus for any calendar year not to exceed 30 percent of the annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Administrator's evaluation of the Chief Operating Officer's performance in relation to the performance goals set forth in the performance agreement described in paragraph (3).


(3) Annual performance agreement.—The Administrator and the Chief Operating Officer, in consultation with the Air Traffic Services Committee, shall enter into an annual performance agreement that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals for the Chief Operating Officer in key operational areas. The agreement shall be subject to review and renegotiation on an annual basis.

(4) Annual performance report.—The Chief Operating Officer shall prepare and transmit to the Secretary of Transportation, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate an annual management report containing such information as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(5) Responsibilities.—The Administrator may delegate to the Chief Operating Officer, or any other authority within the Administration responsibilities, including the following:

(A) Strategic plans.—To implement the strategic plan of the Administration for the air traffic control system in order to further—

(i) a mission and objectives;

(ii) standards of performance relative to such mission and objectives, including safety, efficiency, and productivity;

(iii) annual and long-range strategic plans; and

(iv) methods of the Administration to accelerate air traffic control modernization and improvements in aviation safety related to air traffic control.


(B) Operations.—To oversee the day-to-day operational functions of the Administration for air traffic control, including—

(i) modernization of the air traffic control system;

(ii) increasing productivity or implementing cost-saving measures;

(iii) training and education; and

(iv) the management of cost-reimbursable contracts.


(C) Budget.—To—

(i) develop a budget request of the Administration related to the air traffic control system;

(ii) submit such budget request to the Administrator and the Committee; and

(iii) ensure that the budget request supports the agency's annual and long-range strategic plans for air traffic control services.


(s) Chief NextGen Officer.—

(1) In general.—

(A) Appointment.—There shall be a Chief NextGen Officer appointed by the Administrator, with the approval of the Secretary. The Chief NextGen Officer shall report directly to the Administrator and shall be subject to the authority of the Administrator.

(B) Qualifications.—The Chief NextGen Officer shall have a demonstrated ability in management and knowledge of or experience in aviation and systems engineering.

(C) Term.—The Chief NextGen Officer shall be appointed for a term of 5 years.

(D) Removal.—The Chief NextGen Officer shall serve at the pleasure of the Administrator, except that the Administrator shall make every effort to ensure stability and continuity in the leadership of the implementation of NextGen.

(E) Vacancy.—Any individual appointed to fill a vacancy in the position of Chief NextGen Officer occurring before the expiration of the term for which the individual's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.


(2) Compensation.—

(A) In general.—The Chief NextGen Officer shall be paid at an annual rate of basic pay to be determined by the Administrator. The annual rate may not exceed the annual compensation paid under section 102 of title 3. The Chief NextGen Officer shall be subject to the postemployment provisions of section 207 of title 18 as if the position of Chief NextGen Officer were described in section 207(c)(2)(A)(i) of that title.

(B) Bonus.—In addition to the annual rate of basic pay authorized by subparagraph (A), the Chief NextGen Officer may receive a bonus for any calendar year not to exceed 30 percent of the annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Administrator's evaluation of the Chief NextGen Officer's performance in relation to the performance goals set forth in the performance agreement described in paragraph (3).


(3) Annual performance agreement.—The Administrator and the Chief NextGen Officer, in consultation with the Federal Aviation Management Advisory Council, shall enter into an annual performance agreement that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals for the Chief NextGen Officer in key operational areas. The agreement shall be subject to review and renegotiation on an annual basis.

(4) Annual performance report.—The Chief NextGen Officer shall prepare and transmit to the Secretary of Transportation, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate an annual management report containing such information as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(5) Responsibilities.—The responsibilities of the Chief NextGen Officer include the following:

(A) Implementing NextGen activities and budgets across all program offices of the Federal Aviation Administration.

(B) Coordinating the implementation of NextGen activities with the Office of Management and Budget.

(C) Reviewing and providing advice on the Administration's modernization programs, budget, and cost accounting system with respect to NextGen.

(D) With respect to the budget of the Administration—

(i) developing a budget request of the Administration related to the implementation of NextGen;

(ii) submitting such budget request to the Administrator; and

(iii) ensuring that the budget request supports the annual and long-range strategic plans of the Administration with respect to NextGen.


(E) Consulting with the Administrator on the Capital Investment Plan of the Administration prior to its submission to Congress.

(F) Developing an annual NextGen implementation plan.

(G) Ensuring that NextGen implementation activities are planned in such a manner as to require that system architecture is designed to allow for the incorporation of novel and currently unknown technologies into NextGen in the future and that current decisions do not bias future decisions unfairly in favor of existing technology at the expense of innovation.

(H) Coordinating with the NextGen Joint Planning and Development Office with respect to facilitating cooperation among all Federal agencies whose operations and interests are affected by the implementation of NextGen.


(6) Exception.—If the Administrator appoints as the Chief NextGen Officer, pursuant to paragraph (1)(A), an Executive Schedule employee covered by section 5315 of title 5, then paragraphs (1)(B), (1)(C), (2), and (3) of this subsection shall not apply to such employee.

(7) Nextgen defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term "NextGen" means the Next Generation Air Transportation System.


(t) Aviation Safety Whistleblower Investigation Office.—

(1) Establishment.—There is established in the Federal Aviation Administration (in this subsection referred to as the "Agency") an Aviation Safety Whistleblower Investigation Office (in this subsection referred to as the "Office").

(2) Director.—

(A) Appointment.—The head of the Office shall be the Director, who shall be appointed by the Secretary of Transportation.

(B) Qualifications.—The Director shall have a demonstrated ability in investigations and knowledge of or experience in aviation.

(C) Term.—The Director shall be appointed for a term of 5 years.

(D) Vacancies.—Any individual appointed to fill a vacancy in the position of the Director occurring before the expiration of the term for which the individual's predecessor was appointed shall be appointed for the remainder of that term.


(3) Complaints and investigations.—

(A) Authority of director.—The Director shall—

(i) receive complaints and information submitted by employees of persons holding certificates issued under title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (if the certificate holder does not have a similar in-house whistleblower or safety and regulatory noncompliance reporting process) and employees of the Agency concerning the possible existence of an activity relating to a violation of an order, a regulation, or any other provision of Federal law relating to aviation safety;

(ii) assess complaints and information submitted under clause (i) and determine whether a substantial likelihood exists that a violation of an order, a regulation, or any other provision of Federal law relating to aviation safety has occurred; and

(iii) based on findings of the assessment conducted under clause (ii), make recommendations to the Administrator of the Agency, in writing, regarding further investigation or corrective actions.


(B) Disclosure of identities.—The Director shall not disclose the identity of an individual who submits a complaint or information under subparagraph (A)(i) unless—

(i) the individual consents to the disclosure in writing; or

(ii) the Director determines, in the course of an investigation, that the disclosure is required by regulation, statute, or court order, or is otherwise unavoidable, in which case the Director shall provide the individual reasonable advanced notice of the disclosure.


(C) Independence of director.—The Secretary, the Administrator, or any officer or employee of the Agency may not prevent or prohibit the Director from initiating, carrying out, or completing any assessment of a complaint or information submitted under subparagraph (A)(i) or from reporting to Congress on any such assessment.

(D) Access to information.—In conducting an assessment of a complaint or information submitted under subparagraph (A)(i), the Director shall have access to all records, reports, audits, reviews, documents, papers, recommendations, and other material of the Agency necessary to determine whether a substantial likelihood exists that a violation of an order, a regulation, or any other provision of Federal law relating to aviation safety may have occurred.


(4) Responses to recommendations.—Not later than 60 days after the date on which the Administrator receives a report with respect to an investigation, the Administrator shall respond to a recommendation made by the Director under paragraph (3)(A)(iii) in writing and retain records related to any further investigations or corrective actions taken in response to the recommendation.

(5) Incident reports.—If the Director determines there is a substantial likelihood that a violation of an order, a regulation, or any other provision of Federal law relating to aviation safety has occurred that requires immediate corrective action, the Director shall report the potential violation expeditiously to the Administrator and the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation.

(6) Reporting of criminal violations to inspector general.—If the Director has reasonable grounds to believe that there has been a violation of Federal criminal law, the Director shall report the violation expeditiously to the Inspector General.

(7) Annual reports to congress.—Not later than October 1 of each year, the Director shall submit to Congress a report containing—

(A) information on the number of submissions of complaints and information received by the Director under paragraph (3)(A)(i) in the preceding 12-month period;

(B) summaries of those submissions;

(C) summaries of further investigations and corrective actions recommended in response to the submissions; and

(D) summaries of the responses of the Administrator to such recommendations.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2416; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 100–591, §5(a), Nov. 3, 1988, 102 Stat. 3013; Pub. L. 101–508, title IX, §9106, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–355; Pub. L. 101–604, title I, §101(c), Nov. 16, 1990, 104 Stat. 3068; Pub. L. 102–581, title I, §104, Oct. 31, 1992, 106 Stat. 4877; Pub. L. 103–272, §§4(j)(3), 5(m)(4), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365, 1375; Pub. L. 103–305, title I, §103, title II, §201, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1571, 1581; Pub. L. 104–264, title I, §103(a), title II, §§223(a), 224–230, 276(c), title XII, §1210, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3216, 3229-3234, 3282; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(1), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3388; Pub. L. 105–102, §3(c)(3), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2215; Pub. L. 106–6, §4, Mar. 31, 1999, 113 Stat. 10; Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §103(a), title III, §§302(a)–(c), 303, 305, 306, 307(c)(1), title VII, §701, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 66, 115-118, 121, 123, 124, 126, 154; Pub. L. 106–528, §8(a), Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2522; Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §101(c)(3), (d), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 602, 603; Pub. L. 108–176, title I, §103(a),(b), title II, §§201–204, 224(c), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2495, 2496, 2522-2526, 2528; Pub. L. 110–330, §6, Sept. 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 3719; Pub. L. 111–12, §6, Mar. 30, 2009, 123 Stat. 1458; Pub. L. 111–69, §6, Oct. 1, 2009, 123 Stat. 2055; Pub. L. 111–116, §6, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3032; Pub. L. 111–153, §6, Mar. 31, 2010, 124 Stat. 1085; Pub. L. 111–161, §6, Apr. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1127; Pub. L. 111–197, §6, July 2, 2010, 124 Stat. 1354; Pub. L. 111–216, title I, §105, Aug. 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 2350; Pub. L. 112–30, title II, §206, Sept. 16, 2011, 125 Stat. 359; Pub. L. 112–91, §6, Jan. 31, 2012, 126 Stat. 4; Pub. L. 112–95, title I, §103, title II, §§203, 204, title III, §§306(b), 341, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 16, 37, 61, 78; Pub. L. 112–166, §2(k)(2), Aug. 10, 2012, 126 Stat. 1286; Pub. L. 113–188, title XV, §1501(a), Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2023; Pub. L. 114–55, title I, §103, Sept. 30, 2015, 129 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 114–141, title I, §103, Mar. 30, 2016, 130 Stat. 323; Pub. L. 114–190, title I, §1103, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 618.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
106(a) 49:1341(a) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§301(a), (b), 302(a), (b), 72 Stat. 744; Aug. 14, 1964, Pub. L. 88–426, §305(16) (B), (C), 78 Stat. 424.
  49:1652(e)(1) (related to FAA). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §3(e) (related to FAA), 80 Stat. 932.
106(b) 49:1341(a) (2d sentence), (b) (1st sentence less 1st–10th words).
  49:1342(a) (1st sentence), (b) (1st sentence less 1st–11th words).
  49:1652(e) (related to FAA) (1) (less 1st sentence), (3) (last sentence).
106(c) 49:1341(b) (1st sentence 1st–10th words, 2d sentence).
  49:1652(e)(2) (related to Administrator).
106(d) 49:1342(b) (1st sentence 1st–11th words, 2d sentence, 4th–6th sentences).
  49:1652(e)(2) (1st sentence less Administrator).
  49:1343(a)(2) (related to Deputy Administrator). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §302(c)(2) (related to Deputy Administrator), 72 Stat. 745.
106(e) 49:1341(b) (less 1st, 2d sentences).
  49:1342(b) (3d sentence).
106(f) 49:1341(a) (less 1st, 2d sentences).
106(g) 49:1652(e)(3) (related to FAA) (less last sentence).
  49:1655(c)(1) (1st sentence proviso). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1) (1st sentence proviso, 2d, last sentences), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–633, §113(d), 88 Stat. 2163.
106(h) 49:1652(e)(4) (related to FAA).
  49:1655(c)(1) (2d, last sentences).
106(i) 49:1342(a) (2d, last sentences).

In subsections (a) and (b), the source provisions are combined for clarity.

In subsection (a), the words "referred to in this chapter as the 'Administration' " are omitted because of the style of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the word "due" in 49:1342(b) (1st sentence less 1st–11th words) is omitted as surplus. The words "the duties and powers" are substituted for "the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon him by this chapter" to eliminate surplus words and for consistency. The word "consider" is substituted for "with . . . regard to" for clarity.

In subsections (c) and (d), the words "At the time of his nomination" are omitted as unnecessary and for consistency.

In subsection (c), the text of 49:1652(e)(2) (last sentence) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "Nothing in this chapter or other law shall preclude" in 49:1342(b) (4th sentence) are omitted as unnecessary because of the positive statement of authority. The words "armed force" are substituted for "armed services" to conform to title 10. The words "to the position of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(2), the word "continue" is omitted as surplus. The words "pay provided by law for the Deputy Administrator" are substituted for "compensation provided for the Deputy Administrator" in 49:1342(b) because the pay provisions were repealed and replaced by 5:5315. The words "(including personal money allowance)" are omitted as being within the meaning of "allowance" in title 37. The words "as the case may be" are omitted as surplus. The words "of the military grade held" are substituted for "military . . . payable to a commissioned officer of his grade and length of service" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "Administration" and "military" are added for clarity. The words "to defray" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(3), the words "acceptance of, and" are omitted as unnecessary. The word "held" is substituted for "may occupy or hold" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "right or benefit" are substituted for "emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "incident to or" before "arising" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the word "Secretary" is substituted for "Administrator" because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1). The words "In the exercise of his duties and the discharge of his responsibilities under this chapter" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (g), the words "are hereby transferred to" in 49:1655(c)(1) are omitted as executed. The words "carry out" are substituted for "it shall be his duty to exercise" in 49:1655(c)(1) for clarity, consistency, and to eliminate surplus words. The words "In addition to such functions, powers, and duties as are specified in this chapter" in 49:1652(e)(3) are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

In subsection (h), the first sentence is substituted for 49:1655(c)(1) (2d sentence) for clarity and consistency. The word "law" is substituted for "statute" in 49:1652(e)(4) for consistency. The words "carrying out" in 49:1655(c)(1) (last sentence) are substituted for "the exercise of" for consistency. The words after "administratively final" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the revised title and those laws giving a right of appeal.

In subsection (i), the words "and exercise the powers of" are omitted as surplus. The words "when the office of the Administrator is vacant" are inserted to conform to section 102 of the revised title.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(3)(B) amends 49:106(g) to list the duties and powers of the Secretary of Transportation that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration carries out. The duties and powers are derived from 2 sources. Some were transferred by former 49 App.:1655(c)(1), restated as 49:106 in section 1 of the Act of January 12, 1983 (Public Law 97–449, 96 Stat. 2417). The others are from laws enacted after October 15, 1966, in which the duties and powers are to be carried out by the Administrator rather than the Secretary.

References in Text

The Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(A)(iv), is title II of Pub. L. 104–264, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3227. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 40101 of this title and Tables.

The date of the enactment of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century, referred to in subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

The date of the enactment of the Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996, referred to in subsecs. (f)(3)(C), (o), and (p)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 104–264, which was approved Oct. 9, 1996.

Section 44931 of this title, referred to in subsec. (g)(2), was repealed by Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §101(f)(6), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 603.

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (p)(5), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The date of enactment of the Vision 100—Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act, referred to in subsec. (p)(6)(C), (7)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–176, which was approved Dec. 12, 2003.

The Ethics in Government Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (p)(6)(I)(i), is Pub. L. 95–521, Oct. 26, 1978, 92 Stat. 1824. Title I of the Act is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 101 of Pub. L. 95–521 in the Appendix to Title 5 and Tables.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (k)(1)(E). Pub. L. 114–190, §1103(1), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: "$7,711,387,500 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on July 15, 2016."

Pub. L. 114–141, §103(1), amended subpar. (E) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (E) read as follows: "$4,870,350,000 for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on March 31, 2016."

Subsec. (k)(3). Pub. L. 114–190, §1103(2), substituted "fiscal years 2012 through 2017," for "fiscal years 2012 through 2015 and for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on July 15, 2016,".

Pub. L. 114–141, §103(2), substituted "July 15, 2016" for "March 31, 2016".

2015—Subsec. (k)(1)(E). Pub. L. 114–55, §103(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (k)(3). Pub. L. 114–55, §103(2), inserted "and for the period beginning on October 1, 2015, and ending on March 31, 2016" after "fiscal years 2012 through 2015".

2014—Subsec. (p)(7)(H), (I). Pub. L. 113–188 redesignated subpar. (I) as (H) and struck out former subsec. (H) which related to reports and other actions by the Air Traffic Services Committee, Administrator, and Comptroller General.

2012—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–166, §2(k)(2)(A), substituted ", who shall be appointed" for ". The Administration has a Deputy Administrator. They are appointed".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 112–166, §2(k)(2)(B), substituted "The Administration has a Deputy Administrator, who shall be appointed by the President. In making an appointment, the President shall consider the fitness of the appointee to efficiently carry out the duties and powers of the office. The Deputy Administrator shall" for "The Deputy Administrator must".

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 112–95, §103(a), added subpars. (A) to (D) and struck out former subpars. (A) to (H) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 2004 through 2011 and for the period beginning Oct. 1, 2011, and ending Feb. 17, 2012.

Subsec. (k)(1)(H). Pub. L. 112–91 amended subpar. (H) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (H) read as follows: "$3,197,315,080 for the period beginning on October 1, 2011, and ending on January 31, 2012."

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 112–95, §103(b), redesignated subpars. (E) to (G) as (A) to (C), respectively, substituted "2012 through 2015" for "2004 through 2007" in subpars. (A) to (C), and struck out former subpars. (A) to (D) which read as follows:

"(A) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2004 through 2007 to support infrastructure systems development for both general aviation and the vertical flight industry.

"(B) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2004 through 2007 to establish helicopter approach procedures using current technologies (such as the Global Positioning System) to support all-weather, emergency medical service for trauma patients.

"(C) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2004 through 2007 to revise existing terminal and en route procedures and instrument flight rules to facilitate the takeoff, flight, and landing of tiltrotor aircraft and to improve the national airspace system by separating such aircraft from congested flight paths of fixed-wing aircraft.

"(D) Such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 2004 through 2007 for the Center for Management Development of the Federal Aviation Administration to operate training courses and to support associated student travel for both residential and field courses."

Subsec. (k)(2)(C). Pub. L. 112–95, §306(b), inserted "and the development and maintenance of helicopter approach procedures" before period at end.

Subsec. (k)(3). Pub. L. 112–95, §103(c), added par. (3).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 112–95, §203, in last sentence, inserted "with or" after "from the Administration,".

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 112–95, §204, added subsec. (s).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 112–95, §341, added subsec. (t).

2011—Subsec. (k)(1)(G), (H). Pub. L. 112–30 added subpars. (G) and (H).

2010—Subsec. (k)(1)(F). Pub. L. 111–216 amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "$7,813,037,096 for the period beginning on October 1, 2009, and ending on August 1, 2010."

Pub. L. 111–197 amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "$7,070,158,159 for the period beginning on October 1, 2009, and ending on July 3, 2010."

Pub. L. 111–161 amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "$5,454,183,000 for the 7-month period beginning on October 1, 2009."

Pub. L. 111–153 amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "$4,676,574,750 for the 6-month period beginning on October 1, 2009."

2009—Subsec. (k)(1)(E). Pub. L. 111–12 substituted "$9,042,467,000 for fiscal year 2009" for "$4,516,364,500 for the 6-month period beginning on October 1, 2008".

Subsec. (k)(1)(F). Pub. L. 111–116 amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "$2,338,287,375 for the 3-month period beginning on October 1, 2009."

Subsec. (k)(1)(F). Pub. L. 111–69 added subpar. (F).

2008—Subsec. (k)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–330 added subpar. (E).

2003—Subsec. (d)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 108–176, §204, added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (f)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 108–176, §224(c), inserted ", services," after "property".

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 108–176, §103(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows:

"(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for operations of the Administration—

"(A) such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2000;

"(B) $6,592,235,000 for fiscal year 2001;

"(C) $6,886,000,000 for fiscal year 2002; and

"(D) $7,357,000,000 for fiscal year 2003.

Such sums shall remain available until expended."

Subsec. (k)(2). Pub. L. 108–176, §103(b), redesignated subpars. (C) to (E) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, in subpars. (A) to (C), substituted "fiscal years 2004 through 2007" for "fiscal years 2000 through 2003", added subpars. (D) to (G), struck out former subpars. (A) and (B), which related to expenditures for wildlife measures and a university consortium for an air safety and security management certificate program, and struck out former subpars. (F) to (I), which related to expenditures for the 1998 airport surface operations safety action plan, United States membership obligations in the International Civil Aviation Organization, additional inspectors to enhance air cargo security programs, and improved training programs for airport security screening personnel.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 108–176, §201(1), inserted "and Air Traffic Services Board" after "Council" in heading.

Subsec. (p)(2). Pub. L. 108–176, §201(2)(A), substituted "consist of 13 members, who" for "consist of 18 members, who" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (p)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 108–176, §201(2)(B), inserted ", except that initial appointments made after May 1, 2003, shall be made by the Secretary of Transportation" after "Senate".

Subsec. (p)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 108–176, §201(2)(C)(ii), substituted "; and" for semicolon at end.

Subsec. (p)(2)(D). Pub. L. 108–176, §201(2)(D), substituted "employees, by the Secretary of Transportation." for "employees, by—

"(i) in the case of initial appointments to the Council, the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate; and

"(ii) in the case of subsequent appointments to the Council, the Secretary of Transportation; and".

Subsec. (p)(2)(E). Pub. L. 108–176, §201(2)(D), struck out subpar. (E) which read as follows: "5 members appointed by the Secretary after consultation with the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate."

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(1), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which related to qualifications for serving on the Council.

Subsec. (p)(4)(C). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(2), inserted "or Air Traffic Services Committee" after "Council" in two places.

Subsec. (p)(5). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(3), inserted ", the Air Traffic Services Committee," after "Council".

Subsec. (p)(6)(C). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(4), in heading substituted "committee" for "subcommittee" and in text substituted "members appointed" for "member appointed", "to the Air Traffic Services Committee shall" for "under paragraph (2)(E) shall", and "the first members of the Committee shall be the members of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Council on the day before the date of enactment of the Vision 100—Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act who shall serve in an advisory capacity until such time as the President appoints the members of the Committee under paragraph (7)." for "of the members first appointed under paragraph (2)(E)—

"(i) 2 members shall be appointed for a term of 3 years;

"(ii) 2 members shall be appointed for a term of 4 years; and

"(iii) 1 member shall be appointed for a term of 5 years."

Subsec. (p)(6)(D). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(5), substituted "to the Committee" for "under paragraph (2)(E)".

Subsec. (p)(6)(E). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(6), inserted "or Committee" after "Council".

Subsec. (p)(6)(F). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(7), inserted "of the Council or Committee" after "member".

Subsec. (p)(6)(G). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(8), in second sentence substituted "Committee" for "Council" and struck out "appointed under paragraph (2)(E)" before "may be removed".

Subsec. (p)(6)(H). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(9)(A), substituted "committee" for "subcommittee" in heading.

Subsec. (p)(6)(H)(i). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(9)(B), (C), substituted "to the Committee" for "under paragraph (2)(E)" and "of the Committee" for "of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee".

Subsec. (p)(6)(I)(i). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(10), substituted "is serving as" for "appointed under paragraph (2)(E) is" and "Committee" for "Subcommittee".

Subsec. (p)(6)(I)(ii). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(11), substituted "who is a member of the Committee" for "appointed under paragraph (2)(E)" and "Committee;" for "Subcommittee;".

Subsec. (p)(6)(K). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(12), inserted "or Committee" after "Council".

Subsec. (p)(6)(L). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(13), inserted "or Committee" after "Council" in two places.

Subsec. (p)(7). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(A), substituted "committee" for "subcommittee" in heading.

Subsec. (p)(7)(A). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(B), added subpar. (A) and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (A). Text read as follows: "The Management Advisory Council shall have an air traffic services subcommittee (in this paragraph referred to as the 'Subcommittee') composed of the five members appointed under paragraph (2)(E)."

Subsec. (p)(7)(B), (C). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(D), added subpars. (B) and (C). Former subpars. (B) and (C) redesignated (D) and (E), respectively.

Subsec. (p)(7)(D). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(E), substituted "Committee" for "Subcommittee" in two places.

Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(C), redesignated subpar. (B) as (D). Former subpar. (D) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (p)(7)(E). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(I), struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: "The Secretary shall submit the budget request referred to in clause (v)(II) for any fiscal year to the President who shall transmit such request, without revision, to the Committees on Transportation and Infrastructure and Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and Appropriations of the Senate, together with the President's annual budget request for the Federal Aviation Administration for such fiscal year."

Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(E), substituted "Committee" for "Subcommittee" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(C), redesignated subpar. (C) as (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (G).

Subsec. (p)(7)(E)(v)(I). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(F), substituted "make recommendations on" for "approve".

Subsec. (p)(7)(E)(v)(II). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(G), substituted "recommendations" for "request".

Subsec. (p)(7)(E)(v)(III). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(H), substituted "base such budget recommendations on" for "ensure that the budget request supports".

Subsec. (p)(7)(F). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(J), added subpar. (F) and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (F). Text read as follows:

"(i) Compensation of members.—Each member of the Subcommittee shall be compensated at a rate of $25,000 per year.

"(ii) Compensation of chairperson.—Notwithstanding clause (i), the chairperson of the Subcommittee shall be compensated at a rate of $40,000 per year.

"(iii) Staff.—The chairperson of the Subcommittee may appoint and terminate any personnel that may be necessary to enable the Subcommittee to perform its duties.

"(iv) Procurement of temporary and intermittent services.—The chairperson of the Subcommittee may procure temporary and intermittent services under section 3109(b) of title 5, United States Code."

Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(C), redesignated subpar (D) as (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (H).

Subsec. (p)(7)(G). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(K), substituted "Committee" for "Subcommittee" wherever appearing, redesignated cls. (ii) to (iv) as (i) to (iii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "Term of chair.—The members of the Subcommittee shall elect for a 2-year term a chairperson from among the members of the Subcommittee."

Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(C), redesignated subpar. (E) as (G).

Subsec. (p)(7)(H). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(C), redesignated subpar. (F) as (H).

Subsec. (p)(7)(H)(i). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(L)(i), (ii), substituted "Committee shall" for "Subcommittee shall" and "Secretary" for "Administrator, the Council".

Subsec. (p)(7)(H)(ii). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(L), substituted "Committee under" for "Subcommittee under", "subparagraph (D)(i)" for "subparagraph (B)(i)", "Committee shall" for "Subcommittee shall", and "Secretary" for "Administrator, the Council".

Subsec. (p)(7)(H)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(L)(i), in cl. (iii) substituted "Committee under" for "Subcommittee under" and "Committee, the" for "Subcommittee, the" and in cl. (iv) substituted "Committee in" for "Subcommittee in".

Subsec. (p)(7)(I). Pub. L. 108–176, §202(14)(M), added subpar. (I).

Subsec. (r)(1)(A), (2)(A). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(1), substituted "Air Traffic Services Committee" for "Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Council".

Subsec. (r)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(2), inserted "in" before "paragraph (3)".

Subsec. (r)(3). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(3), substituted "Air Traffic Services Committee" for "Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee".

Subsec. (r)(4). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(4), substituted "Transportation, the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate" for "Transportation and Congress".

Subsec. (r)(5)(A). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(5), in introductory provisions substituted "implement the" for "develop a" and "in order to further" for ", including the establishment of".

Subsec. (r)(5)(B). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(6)(A), substituted "oversee the day-to-day operational functions of the Administration for air traffic control," for "review the operational functions of the Administration," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (r)(5)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(6)(B)–(D), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (r)(5)(C)(i). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(7), struck out "prepared by the Administrator" after "air traffic control system".

Subsec. (r)(5)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(8), substituted "and the Committee" for "and the Secretary of Transportation".

Subsec. (r)(5)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 108–176, §203(9), inserted "agency's" before "annual" and substituted "for air traffic control services" for "developed under subparagraph (A) of this subsection".

2001—Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 107–71, §101(d), substituted "supplies, personnel, services, and" for "supplies and" in last sentence.

Subsec. (r)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–71, §101(c)(3), amended heading and text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Chief Operating Officer shall be paid at an annual rate of basic pay equal to the annual rate of basic pay of the Administrator. The Chief Operating Officer shall be subject to the post-employment provisions of section 207 of title 18 as if this position were described in section 207(c)(2)(A)(i) of that title."

2000—Subsec. (f)(3)(A). Pub. L. 106–181, §306, inserted at end "On February 1 and August 1 of each year the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a letter listing each deadline the Administrator missed under this subparagraph during the 6-month period ending on such date, including an explanation for missing the deadline and a projected date on which the action that was subject to the deadline will be taken."

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–181, §305(1), (2), in introductory provisions, substituted "$250,000,000" for "$100,000,000" and "Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century" for "Air Traffic Management System Performance Improvement Act of 1996".

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 106–181, §305(1), (3), substituted "$250,000,000" for "$100,000,000" and inserted "substantial and" before "material" and "or" after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (f)(3)(B)(i)(II) to (IV). Pub. L. 106–181, §305(4), added subcl. (II) and struck out former subcls. (II) to (IV) which read as follows:

"(II) create a serious inconsistency or otherwise interfere with an action taken or planned by another agency;

"(III) materially alter the budgetary impact of entitlements, grants, user fees, or loan programs or the rights and obligations of recipients thereof; or

"(IV) raise novel legal or policy issues arising out of legal mandates."

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 106–181, §701, substituted "40113(a), 40113(c), 40113(d), 40113(e), 40114(a), and 40119, chapter 445 (except sections 44501(b), 44502(a)(2), 44502(a)(3), 44502(a)(4), 44503, 44506, 44509, 44510, 44514, and 44515), chapter 447 (except sections 44717, 44718(a), 44718(b), 44719, 44720, 44721(b), 44722, and 44723), chapter 449 (except sections 44903(d), 44904, 44905, 44907–44911, 44913, 44915, and 44931–44934), chapter 451, chapter 453, sections" for "40113(a), (c), and (d), 40114(a), 40119, 44501(a) and (c), 44502(a)(1), (b), and (c), 44504, 44505, 44507, 44508, 44511–44513, 44701–44716, 44718(c), 44721(a), 44901, 44902, 44903(a)–(c) and (e), 44906, 44912, 44935–44937, and 44938(a) and (b), chapter 451, sections 45302–45304,".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–181, §103(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Transportation for operations of the Administration $5,632,000,000 for fiscal year 1999."

Subsec. (l)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §307(c)(1), substituted "subsections (a) and (g) of section 40122" for "section 40122(a) of this title and section 347 of Public Law 104–50".

Subsec. (p)(2). Pub. L. 106–528, which directed the substitution of "18" for "15" in section 106(p)(2), without specifying the Code title to be amended, was executed by making the substitution in the introductory provisions of subsec. (p)(2) of this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (p)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(a)(1), added subpars. (C) to (E) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "13 members representing aviation interests, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate."

Subsec. (p)(3). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(a)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. heading, realigned margins, inserted "or (2)(E)" after "paragraph (2)(C)", and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (p)(6). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(b), added subpars. (A) to (I), redesignated former subpars. (B) to (D) as (J) to (L), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (A) which related to terms of members appointed to the Advisory Council.

Subsec. (p)(7), (8). Pub. L. 106–181, §302(c), added pars. (7) and (8).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 106–181, §303, added subsec. (r).

1999—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 106–6 substituted "$5,632,000,000 for fiscal year 1999." for "$5,158,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 and $5,344,000,000 for fiscal year 1998."

1997—Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–102 added Pub. L. 104–264, §276(c). See 1996 Amendment note below.

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "August 23, 1994," for "the date of the enactment of this sentence".

Pub. L. 104–264, §223(a)(1), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (f) or in other provisions of law, the Administrator" for "The Administrator".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–264, §223(a)(2), inserted subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. (1) heading, substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary" for "The Secretary", realigned margins, substituted "Neither the Secretary nor the Administrator may" for "The Secretary may not" and "or be bound" for "nor be bound", and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 104–264, §224(2), added par. (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (4).

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 104–264, §224(1), redesignated par. (3) as (4).

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–264, §276(c), as added by Pub. L. 105–102, substituted "45302–45304" for "45302, 45303".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104–264, §103(a), substituted "$5,158,000,000 for fiscal year 1997 and $5,344,000,000 for fiscal year 1998." for "$4,088,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, $4,412,600,000 for fiscal year 1992, $4,716,500,000 for fiscal year 1993, $4,576,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $4,674,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and $4,810,000,000 for fiscal year 1996."

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–264, §225, added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (l)(6). Pub. L. 104–264, §226, added par. (6).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 104–264, §227, added subsec. (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 104–264, §228, added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 104–264, §229, added subsec. (o).

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 104–264, §230, added subsec. (p).

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 104–264, §1210, added subsec. (q).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–305, §201, inserted at end "The term of office for any individual appointed as Administrator after the date of the enactment of this sentence shall be 5 years."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(3)(A), substituted "Secretary of Transportation shall" for "Secretary shall".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(3)(B), inserted heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Administrator shall carry out—

"(1) duties and powers of the Secretary related to aviation safety (except those related to transportation, packaging, marking, or description of hazardous materials) and vested in the Secretary by section 308(b) of this title and sections 306–309, 312–314, 315–316 (except for the duties and powers vested in the Director of Intelligence and Security by or under section 101 of the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990), 1101, 1105, and 1111 and titles VI, VII, IX, and XII of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1347–1350, 1353–1355, 1421 et seq., 1441 et seq., 1471 et seq., 1501, 1505, 1511, and 1521 et seq.); and

"(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(4)(A), substituted "Section 40101(d) of this title" for "Section 103 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1303)".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(4)(B), substituted "section 44507 of this title" for "section 312(e) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 103–305, §103, substituted ", $4,576,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, $4,674,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and $4,810,000,000 for fiscal year 1996" for ", $5,100,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and $5,520,000,000 for fiscal year 1995".

Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(3)(C), inserted "to the Secretary of Transportation" after "appropriated".

1992—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–581 substituted "1991," for "1991 and" and inserted before period at end ", $4,716,500,000 for fiscal year 1993, $5,100,000,000 for fiscal year 1994, and $5,520,000,000 for fiscal year 1995".

1990—Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 101–604 inserted "315–316 (except for the duties and powers vested in the Director of Intelligence and Security by or under section 101 of the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990)," after "312–314,".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–508 added subsec. (k).

1988—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–591 added subsec. (j).

1984—Subsecs. (g)(1), (h). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted "49 App. U.S.C." for "49 U.S.C.".

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–166 effective 60 days after Aug. 10, 2012, and applicable to appointments made on and after that effective date, including any nomination pending in the Senate on that date, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 112–166, set out as a note under section 113 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–176, §3, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2493, provided that: "Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act shall apply only to fiscal years beginning after September 30, 2003."

Effective Date of 2000 Amendments

Pub. L. 106–528, §9, Nov. 22, 2000, 114 Stat. 2523, provided that: "Except as otherwise expressly provided, this Act [amending this section and sections 41104, 44903, 44935, and 44936 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 40101, 44903, and 44936 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 40128 and 47501 of this title] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 22, 2000]."

Pub. L. 106–181, §3, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 64, provided that: "Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act shall apply only to fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1999."

Pub. L. 106–181, title III, §302(d), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 121, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000].

"(2) Initial nominations to air traffic services subcommittee.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall make the initial appointments of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Council not later than 3 months after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) Effect on actions prior to appointment of subcommittee.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to invalidate the actions and authority of the Federal Aviation Administration prior to the appointment of the members of the Air Traffic Services Subcommittee."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–102, §3(c), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2215, provided that the amendment made by section 3(c)(3) is effective Oct. 9, 1996.

Pub. L. 105–102, §3(f), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2216, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) through (d) of this section [amending this section and sections 5302, 30501 to 30504, 45301, 46301, 46316, 47117, and 47128 of this title, renumbering section 40121 of this title as 40124 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 5303 and 47117 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Acts to which the amendments relate."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–264, §3, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3215, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise specifically provided, this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act apply only to fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1996.

"(b) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this Act or any amendment made by this Act shall be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before October 1, 1996."

Pub. L. 104–264, title II, §203, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3227, provided that: "The provisions of this title [enacting sections 40121, 40122, 45301, 45303, 48111, and 48201 of this title, amending this section and section 41742 of this title, renumbering section 45303 of this title as section 45304, repealing section 45301 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 40101, 40110, and 41742 of this title] and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on the date that is 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996]."

Deemed References to Chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51

General references to "this title" deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs, see section 4(d)(8) of Pub. L. 111–314, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Educational Requirements

Pub. L. 112–95, title II, §223, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 55, provided that: "The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make payments to the Department of Defense for the education of dependent children of those Administration employees in Puerto Rico and Guam as they are subject to transfer by policy and practice and meet the eligibility requirements of section 2164(c) of title 10, United States Code."

FAA Review and Reform

Pub. L. 112–95, title VIII, §812, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 124, provided that:

"(a) Agency Review.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall undertake a thorough review of each program, office, and organization within the Administration, including the Air Traffic Organization, to identify—

"(1) duplicative positions, programs, roles, or offices;

"(2) wasteful practices;

"(3) redundant, obsolete, or unnecessary functions;

"(4) inefficient processes; and

"(5) ineffectual or outdated policies.

"(b) Actions To Streamline and Reform FAA.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall undertake such actions as may be necessary to address the Administrator's findings under subsection (a), including—

"(1) consolidating, phasing-out, or eliminating duplicative positions, programs, roles, or offices;

"(2) eliminating or streamlining wasteful practices;

"(3) eliminating or phasing-out redundant, obsolete, or unnecessary functions;

"(4) reforming and streamlining inefficient processes so that the activities of the Administration are completed in an expedited and efficient manner; and

"(5) reforming or eliminating ineffectual or outdated policies.

"(c) Authority.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator shall have the authority to undertake the actions required under subsection (b).

"(d) Report to Congress.—Not later than 150 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report on the actions taken by the Administrator under this section, including any recommendations for legislative or administrative actions."

Orphan Aviation Earmarks

Pub. L. 112–95, title VIII, §825, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 131, provided that:

"(a) Earmark Defined.—In this section, the term 'earmark' means a statutory provision or report language included primarily at the request of a Senator or a Member, Delegate, or Resident Commissioner of the House of Representatives providing, authorizing, or recommending a specific amount of discretionary budget authority, credit authority, or other spending authority for a contract, loan, loan guarantee, grant, or other expenditure with or to an entity or a specific State, locality, or Congressional district, other than through a statutory or administrative formula-driven or competitive award process.

"(b) Rescission.—If any earmark relating to the Federal Aviation Administration has more than 90 percent of applicable appropriated amounts remaining available for obligation at the end of the 9th fiscal year beginning after the fiscal year in which those amounts were appropriated, the unobligated portion of those amounts is rescinded effective at the end of that 9th fiscal year, except that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may delay any such rescission if the Administrator determines that an obligation with respect to those amounts is likely to occur during the 12-month period beginning on the last day of that 9th fiscal year.

"(c) Identification and Report.—

"(1) Agency identification.—At the end of each fiscal year, the Administrator shall identify and report to the Director of the Office of Management and Budget every earmark related to the Administration and with respect to which there is an unobligated balance of appropriated amounts.

"(2) Annual report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], and annually thereafter, the Director shall submit to Congress and make available to the public on the Internet Web site of the Office a report that includes—

"(A) a listing of each earmark related to the Administration and with respect to which there is an unobligated balance of appropriated amounts, which shall include the amount of the original earmark, the amount of the unobligated balance related to that earmark, and the date on which the funding expires, if applicable;

"(B) the number of rescissions under subsection (b) and the savings resulting from those rescissions for the previous fiscal year; and

"(C) a listing of earmarks related to the Administration with amounts scheduled for rescission at the end of the current fiscal year."

Federal Aviation Administration Science and Technology Scholarship Program

Pub. L. 108–176, title VII, §702, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2576, provided that:

"(a)(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a Federal Aviation Administration Science and Technology Scholarship Program to award scholarships to individuals that is designed to recruit and prepare students for careers in the Federal Aviation Administration.

"(2) Individuals shall be selected to receive scholarships under this section through a competitive process primarily on the basis of academic merit, with consideration given to financial need and the goal of promoting the participation of individuals identified in section 33 or 34 of the Science and Engineering Equal Opportunities Act [42 U.S.C. 1885a, 1885b].

"(3) To carry out the Program the Administrator shall enter into contractual agreements with individuals selected under paragraph (2) under which the individuals agree to serve as full-time employees of the Federal Aviation Administration, for the period described in subsection (f)(1), in positions needed by the Federal Aviation Administration and for which the individuals are qualified, in exchange for receiving a scholarship.

"(b) In order to be eligible to participate in the Program, an individual must—

"(1) be enrolled or accepted for enrollment as a full-time student at an institution of higher education, as a junior or senior undergraduate or graduate student, in an academic field or discipline described in the list made available under subsection (d);

"(2) be a United States citizen or permanent resident; and

"(3) at the time of the initial scholarship award, not be an employee (as defined in section 2105 of title 5, United States Code).

"(c) An individual seeking a scholarship under this section shall submit an application to the Administrator at such time, in such manner, and containing such information, agreements, or assurances as the Administrator may require.

"(d) The Administrator shall make publicly available a list of academic programs and fields of study for which scholarships under the Program may be utilized and shall update the list as necessary.

"(e)(1) The Administrator may provide a scholarship under the Program for an academic year if the individual applying for the scholarship has submitted to the Administrator, as part of the application required under subsection (c), a proposed academic program leading to a degree in a program or field of study on the list made available under subsection (d).

"(2) An individual may not receive a scholarship under this section for more than 4 academic years, unless the Administrator grants a waiver.

"(3) The dollar amount of a scholarship under this section for an academic year shall be determined under regulations issued by the Administrator, but shall in no case exceed the cost of attendance.

"(4) A scholarship provided under this section may be expended for tuition, fees, and other authorized expenses as established by the Administrator by regulation.

"(5) The Administrator may enter into a contractual agreement with an institution of higher education under which the amounts provided for a scholarship under this section for tuition, fees, and other authorized expenses are paid directly to the institution with respect to which the scholarship is provided.

"(f)(1) The period of service for which an individual shall be obligated to serve as an employee of the Federal Aviation Administration is, except as provided in subsection (h)(2), 24 months for each academic year for which a scholarship under this section is provided.

"(2)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), obligated service under paragraph (1) shall begin not later than 60 days after the individual obtains the educational degree for which the scholarship was provided.

"(B) The Administrator may defer the obligation of an individual to provide a period of service under paragraph (1) if the Administrator determines that such a deferral is appropriate. The Administrator shall prescribe the terms and conditions under which a service obligation may be deferred through regulation.

"(g)(1) Scholarship recipients who fail to maintain a high level of academic standing, as defined by the Administrator by regulation, who are dismissed from their educational institutions for disciplinary reasons, or who voluntarily terminate academic training before graduation from the educational program for which the scholarship was awarded, shall be in breach of their contractual agreement and, in lieu of any service obligation arising under such agreement, shall be liable to the United States for repayment within 1 year after the date of default of all scholarship funds paid to them and to the institution of higher education on their behalf under the agreement, except as provided in subsection (h)(2). The repayment period may be extended by the Administrator when determined to be necessary, as established by regulation.

"(2) Scholarship recipients who, for any reason, fail to begin or complete their service obligation after completion of academic training, or fail to comply with the terms and conditions of deferment established by the Administrator pursuant to subsection (f)(2)(B), shall be in breach of their contractual agreement. When recipients breach their agreements for the reasons stated in the preceding sentence, the recipient shall be liable to the United States for an amount equal to—

"(A) the total amount of scholarships received by such individual under this section; plus

"(B) the interest on the amounts of such awards which would be payable if at the time the awards were received they were loans bearing interest at the maximum legal prevailing rate, as determined by the Treasurer of the United States,

multiplied by 3.

"(h)(1) Any obligation of an individual incurred under the Program (or a contractual agreement thereunder) for service or payment shall be canceled upon the death of the individual.

"(2) The Administrator shall by regulation provide for the partial or total waiver or suspension of any obligation of service or payment incurred by an individual under the Program (or a contractual agreement thereunder) whenever compliance by the individual is impossible or would involve extreme hardship to the individual, or if enforcement of such obligation with respect to the individual would be contrary to the best interests of the Government.

"(i) For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'cost of attendance' has the meaning given that term in section 472 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1087ll];

"(2) the term 'institution of higher education' has the meaning given that term in section 101(a) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 1001(a)]; and

"(3) the term 'Program' means the Federal Aviation Administration Science and Technology Scholarship Program established under this section.

"(j)(1) There is authorized to be appropriated to the Federal Aviation Administration for the Program $10,000,000 for each fiscal year.

"(2) Amounts appropriated under this section shall remain available for 2 fiscal years.

"(k) The Administrator may provide temporary internships to full-time students enrolled in an undergraduate or post-graduate program leading to an advanced degree in an aerospace-related or aviation safety-related field of endeavor."

Internet Availability of Information

Pub. L. 106–181, title IX, §903, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 196, provided that: "The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall make available through the Internet home page of the Federal Aviation Administration the abstracts relating to all research grants and awards made with funds authorized by the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification]. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require or permit the release of any information prohibited by law or regulation from being released to the public."

Findings

Pub. L. 104–264, title II, §221, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3227, provided that: "Congress finds the following:

"(1) In many respects the Administration is a unique agency, being one of the few non-defense government agencies that operates 24 hours a day, 365 days of the year, while continuing to rely on outdated technology to carry out its responsibilities for a state-of-the-art industry.

"(2) Until January 1, 1996, users of the air transportation system paid 70 percent of the budget of the Administration, with the remaining 30 percent coming from the General Fund. The General Fund contribution over the years is one measure of the benefit received by the general public, military, and other users of Administration's services.

"(3) The Administration must become a more efficient, effective, and different organization to meet future challenges.

"(4) The need to balance the Federal budget means that it may become more and more difficult to obtain sufficient General Fund contributions to meet the Administration's future budget needs.

"(5) Congress must keep its commitment to the users of the national air transportation system by seeking to spend all moneys collected from them each year and deposited into the Airport and Airway Trust Fund. Existing surpluses representing past receipts must also be spent for the purposes for which such funds were collected.

"(6) The aviation community and the employees of the Administration must come together to improve the system. The Administration must continue to recognize who its customers are and what their needs are, and to design and redesign the system to make safety improvements and increase productivity.

"(7) The Administration projects that commercial operations will increase by 18 percent and passenger traffic by 35 percent by the year 2002. Without effective airport expansion and system modernization, these needs cannot be met.

"(8) Absent significant and meaningful reform, future challenges and needs cannot be met.

"(9) The Administration must have a new way of doing business.

"(10) There is widespread agreement within government and the aviation industry that reform of the Administration is essential to safely and efficiently accommodate the projected growth of aviation within the next decade.

"(11) To the extent that Congress determines that certain segments of the aviation community are not required to pay all of the costs of the government services which they require and benefits which they receive, Congress should appropriate the difference between such costs and any receipts received from such segment.

"(12) Prior to the imposition of any new charges or user fees on segments of the industry, an independent review must be performed to assess the funding needs and assumptions for operations, capital spending, and airport infrastructure.

"(13) An independent, thorough, and complete study and assessment must be performed of the costs to the Administration and the costs driven by each segment of the aviation system for safety and operational services, including the use of the air traffic control system and the Nation's airports.

"(14) Because the Administration is a unique Federal entity in that it is a participant in the daily operations of an industry, and because the national air transportation system faces significant problems without significant changes, the Administration has been authorized to change the Federal procurement and personnel systems to ensure that the Administration has the ability to keep pace with new technology and is able to match resources with the real personnel needs of the Administration.

"(15) The existing budget system does not allow for long-term planning or timely acquisition of technology by the Administration.

"(16) Without reforms in the areas of procurement, personnel, funding, and governance, the Administration will continue to experience delays and cost overruns in its major modernization programs and needed improvements in the performance of the air traffic management system will not occur.

"(17) All reforms should be designed to help the Administration become more responsive to the needs of its customers and maintain the highest standards of safety."

Purposes

Pub. L. 104–264, title II, §222, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3229, provided that: "The purposes of this title [see Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note set out above] are—

"(1) to ensure that final action shall be taken on all notices of proposed rulemaking of the Administration within 18 months after the date of their publication;

"(2) to permit the Administration, with Congressional review, to establish a program to improve air traffic management system performance and to establish appropriate levels of cost accountability for air traffic management services provided by the Administration;

"(3) to establish a more autonomous and accountable Administration within the Department of Transportation; and

"(4) to make the Administration a more efficient and effective organization, able to meet the needs of a dynamic, growing industry, and to ensure the safety of the traveling public."

Preservation of Existing Authority

Pub. L. 104–264, title II, §223(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3230, provided that: "Nothing in this title [see Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note set out above] or the amendments made by this title limits any authority granted to the Administrator by statute or by delegation that was in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 9, 1996]."

Personnel Management System for Federal Aviation Administration

Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §347, Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 460, as amended by Pub. L. 104–122, Mar. 29, 1996, 110 Stat. 876; Pub. L. 105–339, §5, Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3187, which required the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to develop and implement, not later than Jan. 1, 1996, a personnel management system, exempt from most provisions of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, to provide for greater flexibility in the hiring, training, compensation, and location of personnel, was repealed by Pub. L. 106–181, title III, §307(d), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 126.

Dependents of Federal Aviation Administration Personnel

Pub. L. 106–346, §101(a) [title III, §303], Oct. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A-23, as amended by Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(x), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2172, provided that: "Hereafter, funds appropriated under this or any other Act for expenditures by the Federal Aviation Administration shall be available: (1) except as otherwise authorized by title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7701 et seq.], for expenses of primary and secondary schooling for dependents of Federal Aviation Administration personnel stationed outside the continental United States at costs for any given area not in excess of those of the Department of Defense for the same area, when it is determined by the Secretary that the schools, if any, available in the locality are unable to provide adequately for the education of such dependents; and (2) for transportation of said dependents between schools serving the area that they attend and their places of residence when the Secretary, under such regulations as may be prescribed, determines that such schools are not accessible by public means of transportation on a regular basis."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 106–69, title III, §303, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1015.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §303], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681-464.

Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §303, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1441.

Pub. L. 104–205, title III, §303, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 2968.

Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §303, Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 453.

Pub. L. 103–331, title III, §303, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2488.

Pub. L. 103–122, title III, §303, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1219.

Pub. L. 102–388, title III, §303, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1543.

Pub. L. 102–143, title III, §303, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 939.

Pub. L. 101–516, title III, §303, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2178.

Pub. L. 101–164, title III, §303, Nov. 21, 1989, 103 Stat. 1091.

Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §303, Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2146.

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §303], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329-377.

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(l) [H.R. 5205, title III, §303], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–308, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(l), Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–308.

Pub. L. 99–190, §101(e) [title III, §303], Dec. 19, 1985, 99 Stat. 1267, 1284.

Pub. L. 98–473, title I, §101(i) [title III, §303], Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 1944, 1961.

Pub. L. 98–78, title III, §303, Aug. 15, 1983, 97 Stat. 470.

Pub. L. 97–369, title III, §306, Dec. 18, 1982, 96 Stat. 1781.

Pub. L. 97–102, title III, §306, Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1458.

Pub. L. 96–400, title III, §306, Oct. 9, 1980, 94 Stat. 1695.

Pub. L. 96–131, title III, §307, Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1037.

Pub. L. 95–335, title III, §310, Aug. 4, 1978, 92 Stat. 448.

Pub. L. 95–85, title III, §310, Aug. 2, 1977, 91 Stat. 416.

Pub. L. 94–387, title III, §312, Aug. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1185.

Pub. L. 94–134, title III, §310, Nov. 24, 1975, 89 Stat. 711.

Pub. L. 93–391, title III, §311, Aug. 28, 1974, 88 Stat. 780.

Pub. L. 93–98, title III, §313, Aug. 16, 1973, 87 Stat. 340.

Pub. L. 92–398, title III, §313, Aug. 22, 1972, 86 Stat. 591.

Pub. L. 92–74, title I, Aug. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 203.

Pub. L. 91–168, title I, Dec. 26, 1969, 83 Stat. 455.

Pub. L. 90–464, title I, Aug. 8, 1968, 82 Stat. 655.

Pub. L. 90–112, title II, Oct. 23, 1967, 81 Stat. 312.

Pub. L. 89–474, title I, June 29, 1966, 80 Stat. 223.

Pub. L. 89–57, title I, June 30, 1965, 79 Stat. 197.

Pub. L. 88–392, title I, Aug. 1, 1964, 78 Stat. 369.

Pub. L. 88–39, title I, June 13, 1963, 77 Stat. 59.

Pub. L. 87–575, title I, Aug. 6, 1962, 76 Stat. 311.

Pub. L. 87–159, title I, Aug. 21, 1961, 75 Stat. 395.

Pub. L. 86–561, title I, June 30, 1960, 74 Stat. 285.

Pub. L. 86–39, title I, June 11, 1959, 73 Stat. 67.

Pub. L. 85–354, title I, Mar. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 63.

Pub. L. 85–37, title I, May 27, 1957, 71 Stat. 37.

Apr. 2, 1956, ch. 161, title I, 70 Stat. 94.

June 1, 1955, ch. 113, title I, 69 Stat. 74.

May 28, 1954, ch. 242, title I, 68 Stat. 146.

June 18, 1953, ch. 132, title I, 67 Stat. 69.

Aviation Safety Commission

Pub. L. 99–500, title V, §§501–507, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–370 to 1783-373, and Pub. L. 99–591, title V, §§501–507, Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–373 to 3341-376, known as the Aviation Safety Commission Act of 1986, established Aviation Safety Commission, directed Commission to study organization and functions of Federal Aviation Administration and means by which it could most efficiently and effectively perform its responsibilities and increase aviation safety and to submit reports to the President and the two houses of Congress within 9 months after Oct. 18, 1986, and within 18 months after Oct. 18, 1986, and provided that Commission was to cease to exist 18 months after Oct. 18, 1986.

Appointment of Retired Military Officer as Administrator

Pub. L. 102–308, June 26, 1992, 106 Stat. 273, provided: "That notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 of title 49, United States Code, or any other provision of law, the President, acting by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, is authorized to appoint General Thomas C. Richards, United States Air Force, Retired, to the Office of Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. General Richards' appointment to, acceptance of, and service in that Office shall in no way affect the status, rank, and grade which he shall hold as an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force, or any emolument, perquisite, right, privilege, or benefit incident to or arising out of any such status, office, rank, or grade, except to the extent that subchapter IV of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code, affects the amount of retired pay to which he is entitled by law during his service as Administrator. So long as he serves as Administrator, General Richards shall receive the compensation of that Office at the rate which would be applicable if he were not an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force, shall retain the status, rank, and grade which he now holds as an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force, shall retain all emoluments, perquisites, rights, privileges, and benefits incident to or arising out of such status, office, rank, or grade, and shall in addition continue to receive the retired pay to which he is entitled by law, subject to the provisions of subchapter IV of chapter 55 of title 5, United States Code.

"Sec. 2. In the performance of his duties as Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, General Richards shall be subject to no supervision, control, restriction, or prohibition (military or otherwise) other than would be operative with respect to him if he were not an officer on the retired list of the United States Air Force.

"Sec. 3. Nothing in this Act shall be construed as approval by the Congress of any future appointments of military persons to the Office of Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration."

Prior provisions authorizing the appointment of a retired military officer as Administrator were contained in the following acts:

Pub. L. 102–223, Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1678.

Pub. L. 101–47, June 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 134.

Pub. L. 98–256, Apr. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 125.

Pub. L. 89–46, June 22, 1965, 79 Stat. 171.

Ex. Ord. No. 13180. Air Traffic Performance-Based Organization

Ex. Ord. No. 13180, Dec. 7, 2000, 65 F.R. 77493, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13264, June 4, 2002, 67 F.R. 39243, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and in order to further improve the provision of air traffic services in ways that increase efficiency, take better advantage of new technologies, accelerate modernization efforts, and respond more effectively to the needs of the traveling public, while enhancing the safety, security, and efficiency of the Nation's air transportation system, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Establishment of the Air Traffic Organization. (a) The Secretary of Transportation (Secretary) shall, consistent with his legal authorities, move to establish within the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) a performance-based organization to be known as the "Air Traffic Organization" (ATO).

(b) The ATO shall be composed of those elements of the FAA's Air Traffic Services and Research and Acquisition organizations that have direct connection and give support to the provision of day-to-day operational air traffic services, as determined by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration (Administrator). The Administrator may delegate responsibility for any operational activity of the air traffic control system to the head of the ATO. The Administrator's responsibility for general safety, security, and policymaking functions for the National Airspace System is unaffected by this order.

(c) The Chief Operating Officer (COO) of the Air Traffic Control System, established by the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment and Reform Act for the 21st Century (Air-21) (Public Law 106–181) [see Short Title of 2000 Amendments note set out under section 40101 of this title], shall head the ATO and shall report directly to the Administrator and be subject to the authority of the Administrator. The COO, in consultation with the Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee, shall enter into an annual performance agreement with the Administrator that sets forth measurable organization and individual goals in key operational areas and describes specific targets and how such goals will be achieved. The COO may receive an annual bonus not to exceed 30 percent of the annual rate of basic pay, based upon the Administrator's evaluation of the COO's performance in relation to the targets and goals described above.

(d) The COO shall develop a 5-year strategic plan for the air traffic control system, including a clear statement of the mission and objectives for the system's safety, efficiency, and productivity. This strategic plan must ensure that ATO actions are consistent with long-term FAA strategies for the aviation system as a whole.

(e) The COO shall also enter into a framework agreement with the Administrator that will establish the relationship of the ATO with the other organizations of the FAA.

Sec. 2. Purpose. The FAA's primary mission is to ensure the safety, security, and efficiency of the National Airspace System. The purpose of this order is to enhance that mission and further improve the delivery of air traffic services to the American public by reorganizing the FAA's air traffic services and related offices into a performance-based, results-oriented, organization. The ATO will be better able to make use of the unique procurement and personnel authorities that the FAA currently has and to better use the additional management reforms enacted by the Congress this year under Air-21. Specifically, the ATO shall:

(a) optimize use of existing management flexibilities and authorities to improve the efficiency of air traffic services and increase the capacity of the system;

(b) develop methods to accelerate air traffic control modernization and to improve aviation safety related to air traffic control;

(c) develop agreements with the Administrator of the FAA and users of the products, services, and capabilities it will provide;

(d) operate in accordance with safety performance standards developed by the FAA and rapidly respond to FAA safety and security oversight findings;

(e) consult with its customers, the traveling public, including direct users such as airlines, cargo carriers, manufacturers, airports, general aviation, and commercial space transportation providers, and focus on producing results that satisfy the FAA's external customer needs;

(f) consult with appropriate Federal, State, and local public agencies, including the Department of Defense and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to determine the best practices for meeting the diverse needs throughout the National Airspace System;

(g) establish strong incentives to managers for achieving results; and

(h) formulate and recommend to the Administrator any management, fiscal, or legislative changes necessary for the organization to achieve its performance goals.

Sec. 3. Aviation Management Advisory Committee. The Air Traffic Control Subcommittee of the Aviation Management Advisory Committee shall provide, consistent with its responsibilities under Air-21, general oversight to ATO regarding the administration, management, conduct, direction, and supervision of the air traffic control system.

Sec. 4. Evaluation and Report. Not later than 5 years after the date of this order, the Aviation Management Advisory Committee shall provide to the Secretary and the Administrator a report on the operation and effectiveness of the ATO, together with any recommendations for management, fiscal, or legislative changes to enable the organization to achieve its goals.

Sec. 5. Definitions. The term "air traffic control system" has the same meaning as the term defined by section 40102(a)(42) [now 40102(a)(47)] of title 49, United States Code.

Sec. 6. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the executive branch and is not intended to, nor does it, create any right to administrative or judicial review, or any right, whether substantive or procedural, enforceable by any party against the United States, its agencies or instrumentalities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

Definitions for Title II of Pub. L. 104–264

Pub. L. 104–264, title II, §202, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3227, provided that: "In this title [see Effective Date of 1996 Amendment note set out above], the following definitions apply:

"(1) Administration.—The term 'Administration' means the Federal Aviation Administration.

"(2) Administrator.—The term 'Administrator' means the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration.

"(3) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Transportation."

1 See References in Text note below.

§107. Federal Transit Administration

(a) The Federal Transit Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) The head of the Administration is the Administrator who is appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(c) The Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3004(c)(1), (2), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
107 49:1608 (note). Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1968, eff. July 1, 1968, §3, 82 Stat. 1369.

In subsection (b), the words "and shall be compensated at the rate now or hereafter provided for Level III of the Executive Schedule Pay Rates (5 U.S.C. 5314)" are omitted as surplus because of 5:5314.

Amendments

1991—Pub. L. 102–240 substituted "Federal Transit Administration" for "Urban Mass Transportation Administration" in section catchline and subsec. (a).

Change of Name

Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3004(a), (b), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088, provided that:

"(a) Redesignation of UMTA.—The Urban Mass Transportation Administration of the Department of Transportation shall be known and designated as the 'Federal Transit Administration'.

"(b) References.—Any reference in a law, map, regulation, document, paper, or other record of the United States to the Urban Mass Transportation Administration shall be deemed to be a reference to the 'Federal Transit Administration'."

§108. Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration

(a) In General.—The Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration shall be an administration in the Department of Transportation.

(b) Safety as Highest Priority.—In carrying out its duties, the Administration shall consider the assignment and maintenance of safety as the highest priority, recognizing the clear intent, encouragement, and dedication of Congress to the furtherance of the highest degree of safety in pipeline transportation and hazardous materials transportation.

(c) Administrator.—The head of the Administration shall be the Administrator who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be an individual with professional experience in pipeline safety, hazardous materials safety, or other transportation safety. The Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(d) Deputy Administrator.—The Administration shall have a Deputy Administrator who shall be appointed by the Secretary. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(e) Chief Safety Officer.—The Administration shall have an Assistant Administrator for Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary. The Assistant Administrator shall be the Chief Safety Officer of the Administration. The Assistant Administrator shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(f) Duties and Powers of the Administrator.—The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers related to pipeline and hazardous materials transportation and safety vested in the Secretary by chapters 51, 57, 61, 601, and 603; and

(2) other duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(g) Limitation.—A duty or power specified in subsection (f)(1) may be transferred to another part of the Department of Transportation or another government entity only if specifically provided by law.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(4), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1365; Pub. L. 108–426, §2(a), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2423.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
108(a) 49:1655(b)(1), (2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §§3(e)(3) (related to USCG), 6(b)(1), (2), 80 Stat. 932, 938.
108(b) 49:1652(e)(3) (related to USCG).

Subsection (a) reflects the transfer of the Coast Guard to the Department of Transportation as provided by the source provisions and 14:1. The words "Except when operating as a service of the Navy" are substituted for 49:1655(b)(2) because of 14:3. The words "The Secretary of Transportation exercises . . . vested in the Secretary of the Treasury . . . immediately before April 1, 1967" are substituted for "and there are hereby transferred to and vested in the Secretary . . . of the Secretary of the Treasury" to reflect the transfer of duties and powers to the Secretary of Transportation on April 1, 1967, the effective date of the Department of Transportation Act (Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931).

In subsection (b), the first sentence is included to provide the name of the officer in charge of the Coast Guard, as reflected in 14:44. In the 2d sentence, the words "carrying out the duties and powers specified by law" are substituted for "such functions, powers, and duties as are specified in this chapter to be carried out", and the words "carry out duties and powers prescribed" are substituted for "carry out such additional functions, powers, and duties as", for consistency.

Pub. L. 103–272

Section 4(j)(4) amends 49:108(a) to reflect the intent of 49 App.:1655(b)(2), on which 49:108(a) was based.

Amendments

2004—Pub. L. 108–426 amended section catchline and text generally, substituting provisions relating to Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration for provisions relating to Coast Guard.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–272 designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "The Coast Guard" for "Except when operating as a service in the Navy, the Coast Guard", and added par. (2).

Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 108–426, §5, Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2426, as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, title III, §302(h), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1618, provided that:

"(a) Transfer of Assets and Personnel.—Personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with functions transferred within the Department of Transportation by this Act [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title] shall be transferred for use in connection with the functions transferred, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds (including funds of any predecessor entity) shall also be transferred accordingly.

"(b) Legal Documents.—All orders (including delegations by the Secretary of Transportation), determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants, loans, contracts, settlements, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges—

"(1) that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective by any officer or employee, or any other Government official, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the performance of any function that is transferred by this Act; and

"(2) that are in effect on the effective date of such transfer (or become effective after such date pursuant to their terms as in effect on such effective date),

shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by the Department, any other authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or operation of law.

"(c) Proceedings.—The provisions of this Act shall not affect any proceedings, including administrative enforcement actions, pending before this Act takes effect, insofar as those functions are transferred by this Act; but such proceedings, to the extent that they relate to functions so transferred, shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations. Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the conclusion or modification of any proceeding described in this subsection under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been concluded or modified if this Act had not been enacted. The Secretary of Transportation is authorized to provide for the orderly transfer of pending proceedings.

"(d) Suits.—

"(1) In general.—This Act shall not affect suits commenced before the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 2004], except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). In all such suits, proceedings shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted.

"(2) Suits by or against department.—Any suit by or against the Department begun before the date of enactment of this Act, shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations, insofar as it involves a function retained and transferred under this Act.

"(3) Procedures for remanded cases.—If the court in a suit described in paragraph (1) remands a case, subsequent proceedings related to such case shall proceed under procedures that are in accordance with applicable law and regulations as in effect at the time of such subsequent proceedings.

"(e) Continuance of Actions Against Officers.—No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his or her official capacity shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act.

"(f) Exercise of Authorities.—An officer or employee of the Department, for purposes of performing a function transferred by this Act, may exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date of the transfer of the function by this Act.

"(g) References.—A reference relating to an agency, officer, or employee affected by this Act in any Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or in any document pertaining to an officer or employee, is deemed to refer, as appropriate, to the agency, officer, or employee who succeeds to the functions transferred by this Act.

"(h) Definition.—In this section, the term 'this Act' includes the amendments made by this Act."

Workforce Management

Pub. L. 114–183, §9, June 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 520, provided that:

"(a) Review.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 22, 2016], the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate, a review of Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration staff resource management, including—

"(1) geographic allocation plans, hiring and time-to-hire challenges, and expected retirement rates and recruitment and retention strategies;

"(2) an identification and description of any previous periods of macroeconomic and pipeline industry conditions under which the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration has encountered difficulty in filling vacancies, and the degree to which special hiring authorities, including direct hiring authority authorized by the Office of Personnel Management, could have ameliorated such difficulty; and

"(3) recommendations to address hiring challenges, training needs, and any other identified staff resource challenges.

"(b) Direct Hiring.—Upon identification of a period described in subsection (a)(2), the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration may apply to the Office of Personnel Management for the authority to appoint qualified candidates to any position relating to pipeline safety, as determined by the Administrator, without regard to sections 3309 through 3319 of title 5, United States Code.

"(c) Savings Clause.—Nothing in this section shall preclude the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration from applying to the Office of Personnel Management for the authority described in subsection (b) prior to the completion of the report required under subsection (a)."

Transfer of Duties and Powers of Research and Special Programs Administration

Pub. L. 108–426, §2(b), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2424, provided that: "The authority of the Research and Special Programs Administration exercised under chapters 51, 57, 61, 601, and 603 of title 49, United States Code, is transferred to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration."

For transfer of authority of the Research and Special Programs Administration, other than authority exercised under chapters 51, 57, 61, 601, and 603 of this title, to the Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 108–426, set out as a note under former section 112 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–426, §7, Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2428, provided that: "The Secretary shall provide for the orderly transfer of duties and powers under this Act [see Short Title of 2004 Amendment note set out under section 101 of this title], including the amendments made by this Act, as soon as practicable but not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 2004]."

Reports

Pub. L. 108–426, §6, Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2428, provided that:

"(a) Reports by the Inspector General.—Not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 2004], the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration a report containing the following:

"(1) A list of each statutory mandate regarding pipeline safety or hazardous materials safety that has not been implemented.

"(2) A list of each open safety recommendation made by the National Transportation Safety Board or the Inspector General regarding pipeline safety or hazardous materials safety.

"(b) Reports by the Secretary.—

"(1) Statutory mandates.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act, and every 180 days thereafter until each of the mandates referred to in subsection (a)(1) has been implemented, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the specific actions taken to implement such mandates.

"(2) NTSB and inspector general recommendations.—Not later than January 1st of each year, the Secretary shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing each recommendation referred to in subsection (a)(2) and a copy of the Department of Transportation response to each such recommendation."

§109. Maritime Administration

(a) Organization and Mission.—The Maritime Administration is an administration in the Department of Transportation. The mission of the Maritime Administration is to foster, promote, and develop the merchant maritime industry of the United States.

(b) Maritime Administrator.—The head of the Maritime Administration is the Maritime Administrator, who is appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary of Transportation and carry out the duties prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Deputy Maritime Administrator.—The Maritime Administration shall have a Deputy Maritime Administrator, who is appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, after consultation with the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out the duties prescribed by the Administrator. The Deputy Administrator shall be Acting Administrator during the absence or disability of the Administrator and, unless the Secretary designates another individual, during a vacancy in the office of Administrator.

(d) Duties and Powers Vested in Secretary.—All duties and powers of the Maritime Administration are vested in the Secretary.

(e) Regional Offices.—The Maritime Administration shall have regional offices for the Atlantic, Gulf, Great Lakes, and Pacific port ranges, and may have other regional offices as necessary. The Secretary shall appoint a qualified individual as Director of each regional office. The Secretary shall carry out appropriate activities and programs of the Maritime Administration through the regional offices.

(f) Interagency and Industry Relations.—The Secretary shall establish and maintain liaison with other agencies, and with representative trade organizations throughout the United States, concerned with the transportation of commodities by water in the export and import foreign commerce of the United States, for the purpose of securing preference to vessels of the United States for the transportation of those commodities.

(g) Detailing Officers From Armed Forces.—To assist the Secretary in carrying out duties and powers relating to the Maritime Administration, not more than five officers of the armed forces may be detailed to the Secretary at any one time, in addition to details authorized by any other law. During the period of a detail, the Secretary shall pay the officer an amount that, when added to the officer's pay and allowances as an officer in the armed forces, makes the officer's total pay and allowances equal to the amount that would be paid to an individual performing work the Secretary considers to be of similar importance, difficulty, and responsibility as that performed by the officer during the detail.

(h) Contracts, Cooperative Agreements, and Audits.—

(1) Contracts and cooperative agreements.—In the same manner that a private corporation may make a contract within the scope of its authority under its charter, the Secretary may make contracts and cooperative agreements for the United States Government and disburse amounts to—

(A) carry out the Secretary's duties and powers under this section, subtitle V of title 46, and all other Maritime Administration programs; and

(B) protect, preserve, and improve collateral held by the Secretary to secure indebtedness.


(2) Audits.—The financial transactions of the Secretary under paragraph (1) shall be audited by the Comptroller General. The Comptroller General shall allow credit for an expenditure shown to be necessary because of the nature of the business activities authorized by this section or subtitle V of title 46. At least once a year, the Comptroller General shall report to Congress any departure by the Secretary from this section or subtitle V of title 46.


(i) Grant Administrative Expenses.—Except as otherwise provided by law, the administrative and related expenses for the administration of any grant programs by the Maritime Administrator may not exceed 3 percent.

(j) Authorization of Appropriations.—

(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, there are authorized to be appropriated such amounts as may be necessary to carry out the duties and powers of the Secretary relating to the Maritime Administration.

(2) Limitations.—Only those amounts specifically authorized by law may be appropriated for the use of the Maritime Administration for—

(A) acquisition, construction, or reconstruction of vessels;

(B) construction-differential subsidies incident to the construction, reconstruction, or reconditioning of vessels;

(C) costs of national defense features;

(D) payments of obligations incurred for operating-differential subsidies;

(E) expenses necessary for research and development activities, including reimbursement of the Vessel Operations Revolving Fund for losses resulting from expenses of experimental vessel operations;

(F) the Vessel Operations Revolving Fund;

(G) National Defense Reserve Fleet expenses;

(H) expenses necessary to carry out part B of subtitle V of title 46; and

(I) other operations and training expenses related to the development of waterborne transportation systems, the use of waterborne transportation systems, and general administration.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2417; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(5), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 109–304, §12, Oct. 6, 2006, 120 Stat. 1698; Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3508, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2721; Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d)(26), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4374; Pub. L. 112–213, title IV, §409, Dec. 20, 2012, 126 Stat. 1572; Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3505(g), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2776.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
109 (no source).

The section is included to provide in chapter 1 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of Transportation or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

Pub. L. 109–304
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
109(a) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 21 of 1950, eff. May 24, 1950, §201, 64 Stat. 1276.
  46 App.:1601. Pub. L. 97–31, §2, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.
109(b) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 7 of 1961, eff. Aug. 12, 1961, §201, 75 Stat. 842; Pub. L. 88–426, title III, §305(19)(B), Aug. 14, 1964, 78 Stat. 425; Pub. L. 91–469, §38(a), Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1036.
  46 App.:1603. Pub. L. 97–31, §4, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.
109(c) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 21 of 1950, eff. May 24, 1950, §203, 64 Stat. 1276.
109(d) 46 App.:1111 note. Reorg. Plan No. 21 of 1950, eff. May 24, 1950, §204, 64 Stat. 1276.
  46 App.:1602. Pub. L. 97–31, §3, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 151.
109(e) 46 App.:1213(b). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title VIII, §809(b), as added Pub. L. 94–10, §3, Mar. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 16; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(121), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 164.
109(f) 46 App.:1122(d). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §212(d), 49 Stat. 1990; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(69), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
109(g) 46 App.:1111(f) (2d sentence related to Secretary). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §201(f) (2d sentence related to Secretary), 49 Stat. 1986; Aug. 4, 1939, ch. 417, §4, 53 Stat. 1182; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(58)(D), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 158.
109(h) 46 App.:1117 (related to Secretary). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §207 (related to Secretary), 49 Stat. 1988; June 23, 1938, ch. 600, §2, 52 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(64), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 108–271, §8(b), July 7, 2004, 118 Stat. 814.
109(i)(1) 46 App.:1119(a). June 29, 1936, ch. 858, title II, §209, 49 Stat. 1988; Aug. 26, 1937, ch. 822, §3, 50 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 90–81, Sept. 5, 1967, 81 Stat. 193; Pub. L. 91–469, §2, Oct. 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 1018; Pub. L. 95–173, Nov. 12, 1977, §6(a), 91 Stat. 1360; Pub. L. 96–387, §4, Oct. 7, 1980, 94 Stat. 1546; Pub. L. 96–453, §3(a), Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2008; Pub. L. 97–31, §12(66), Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 159.
109(i)(2) 46 App.:1119(b).
109(i)(3) 46 App.:1295c–1. Pub. L. 100–202, §101(a) [title V (4th proviso on p. 1329–28)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329, 1329-28.

In subsection (b), the words "The Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Maritime Affairs shall, ex officio, be the Administrator" in section 201 of Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1961 are omitted as superseded by 46 App. U.S.C. 1601 and 1603. The words "and who shall be compensated at the rate provided for level III of the Executive Schedule" in 46 App. U.S.C. 1603 are omitted as unnecessary because of 5 U.S.C. 5314.

In subsection (c), the word "Secretary" means the "Secretary of Transportation" because under 46 App. U.S.C. 1602 all functions, powers, and duties relating to the Maritime Administration were transferred from the Secretary of Commerce to the Secretary of Transportation. The words "in the competitive service" are substituted for "under the classified civil service" because of 5 U.S.C. 2102(c). The words "Provided, That such Deputy Administrator shall at no time sit as a member or acting member of the Federal Maritime Board" are omitted as obsolete because the Federal Maritime Board was abolished by section 304 of Reorganization Plan No. 7 of 1961 (46 App. U.S.C. 1111 note).

In subsection (f), the words "vessels of the United States" are substituted for "vessels of United States registry" because of the definition of "vessel of the United States" in chapter 1 of the revised title.

In subsection (g), the words "equal to the amount that would be paid to an individual performing work the Secretary considers to be of similar importance, difficulty, and responsibility" are substituted for "equal to the pay and allowances he would receive if he were the incumbent of an office or position in such service (or in the corresponding executive department), which, in the opinion of . . . the Secretary of Transportation, involves the performance of work similar in importance, difficulty, and responsibility" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (h)(2), the words "according to approved commercial practice as provided in the Act of March 20, 1922 (42 Stat. 444)" are omitted as obsolete and unnecessary.

In subsection (i)(2), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter or any other law" are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (G), the words "National Defense Reserve Fleet" are substituted for "reserve fleet" for clarity. Clause (H) is substituted for "(7) maritime training at the Merchant Marine Academy at Kings Point, New York", "(8) financial assistance to State maritime academies under section 1295c of this Appendix", "(10) expenses necessary for additional training provided under section 1295d of this Appendix", and "(10) expenses necessary to carry out subchapter XIII of this chapter" because of the reorganization of revised title 46 and to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 46 App. U.S.C. 1119 (proviso) is omitted as obsolete.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 114–328 struck out par. (3). Text read as follows: "Amounts may not be appropriated for the purchase or construction of training vessels for State maritime academies unless the Secretary has approved a plan for sharing training vessels between State maritime academies."

2012—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–213 substituted "Organization and Mission" for "Organization" in heading and inserted at end of text "The mission of the Maritime Administration is to foster, promote, and develop the merchant maritime industry of the United States."

2011—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–383 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 111–84, §3508(1). See 2009 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–84, §3508(1), as amended by Pub. L. 111–383, substituted "Contracts, Cooperative Agreements, and Audits" for "Contracts and Audits" in heading.

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 111–84, §3508(2), (3), substituted "Contracts and cooperative agreements" for "Contracts" in heading and "make contracts and cooperative agreements" for "make contracts" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 111–84, §3508(4), (5), substituted "section," for "section and" and "title 46, and all other Maritime Administration programs;" for "title 46;".

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 111–84, §3508(6), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

2006—Pub. L. 109–304 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows:

"(a) The Maritime Administration transferred by section 2 of the Maritime Act of 1981 (46 App. U.S.C. 1601) is an administration in the Department of Transportation.

"(b) The Administrator of the Administration appointed under section 4 of the Maritime Act of 1981 (46 App. U.S.C. 1603) reports directly to the Secretary of Transportation."

1994—Pub. L. 103–272 inserted "App." after "(46" in subsecs. (a) and (b).

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–383, div. A, title X, §1075(d), Jan. 7, 2011, 124 Stat. 4372, provided that the amendment by section 1075(d)(26) is effective as of Oct. 28, 2009, and as if included in Pub. L. 111–84 as enacted.

References in Other Federal Laws to Functions or Offices Transferred

Pub. L. 97–31, §10, Aug. 6, 1981, 95 Stat. 153, provided that: "With respect to any function or office transferred by this Act [see Tables for classification] and exercised on or after the effective date of this Act [Aug. 6, 1981], reference in any other Federal law to the Maritime Administration or any of its predecessor agencies or any officer or office the functions of which are so transferred shall be deemed to refer to the Secretary of Transportation, other official, or component of the Department of Transportation to which this Act transfers such functions."

Workforce Plans and Onboarding Policies

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3519, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2792, provided that:

"(a) Workforce Plans.—Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Maritime Administrator shall review the Maritime Administration's workforce plans, including its Strategic Human Capital Plan and Leadership Succession Plan, and fully implement competency models for mission-critical occupations, including—

"(1) leadership positions;

"(2) human resources positions; and

"(3) transportation specialist positions.

"(b) Onboarding Policies.—Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Maritime Administrator shall—

"(1) review the Maritime Administration's policies related to new hire orientation, training, and misconduct;

"(2) align the onboarding policies and procedures at headquarters and the field offices to ensure consistent implementation and provision of critical information across the Maritime Administration; and

"(3) update the Maritime Administration's training policies and training systems to include controls that ensure that all completed training is tracked in a standardized training repository.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Maritime Administrator shall submit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that describes the Maritime Administration's compliance with the requirements under this section."

Drug and Alcohol Policy

Pub. L. 114–328, div. C, title XXXV, §3520, Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2792, provided that:

"(a) Review.—Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Maritime Administrator shall—

"(1) review the Maritime Administration's drug and alcohol policies, procedures, and training practices;

"(2) ensure that all fleet managers have received training on the Department of Transportation's drug and alcohol policy, including the testing procedures used by the Department and the Maritime Administration in cases of reasonable suspicion; and

"(3) institute a system for tracking all drug and alcohol policy training conducted under paragraph (2) in a standardized training repository.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2016], the Maritime Administrator shall submit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Armed Services and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that describes the Maritime Administration's compliance with the requirements under this section."

Expansion of the Marine View System

Pub. L. 111–84, div. C, title XXXV, §3516, Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2725, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Marine transportation system.—The term 'marine transportation system' means the navigable water transportation system of the United States, including the vessels, ports (and intermodal connections thereto), and shipyards and other vessel repair facilities that are components of that system.

"(2) Marine view system.—The term 'Marine View system' means the information system of the Maritime Administration known as Marine View.

"(b) Purposes.—The purposes of this section are—

"(1) to expand the Marine View system; and

"(2) to provide support for the strategic requirements of the marine transportation system and its contribution to the economic viability of the United States.

"(c) Expansion of Marine View System.—To accomplish the purposes of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall expand the Marine View system so that such system is able to identify, collect, integrate, secure, protect, store, and securely distribute throughout the marine transportation system information that—

"(1) provides access to many disparate marine transportation system data sources;

"(2) enables a system-wide view of the marine transportation system;

"(3) fosters partnerships between the Government of the United States and private entities;

"(4) facilitates accurate and efficient modeling of the entire marine transportation system environment;

"(5) monitors and tracks threats to the marine transportation system, including areas of severe weather or reported piracy; and

"(6) provides vessel tracking and rerouting, as appropriate, to ensure that the economic viability of the United States waterways is maintained."

§110. Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation

(a) The Saint Lawrence Seaway Development Corporation established under section 1 of the Act of May 13, 1954 (33 U.S.C. 981), is subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

(b) The Administrator of the Corporation appointed under section 2 of the Act of May 13, 1954 (33 U.S.C. 982), reports directly to the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2418; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(5)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
110(a) (no source).
110(b) 33:981 (note). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §8(g)(2), 80 Stat. 943.

Subsection (a) is included to provide in chapter 1 of the revised title a complete list of the organizational units established by law that are in the Department of Transportation or are subject to the direction and supervision of the Secretary of Transportation.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "Saint Lawrence" for "St. Lawrence".

[§111. Repealed. Pub. L. 112–141, div. E, title II, §52011(c)(1), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 895]

Section, added Pub. L. 102–240, title VI, §6006(a), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2172; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(2), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 104–324, title XI, §1131, Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3985; Pub. L. 105–130, §4(b)(1), Dec. 1, 1997, 111 Stat. 2556; Pub. L. 105–178, title V, §5109(a), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 437; Pub. L. 108–426, §3(a), (b), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2424, 2425; Pub. L. 109–59, title V, §5601(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1833, established the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. See chapter 63 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

[§112. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6012(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1570]

Section, added Pub. L. 102–508, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3310; amended Pub. L. 103–429, §6(1), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378; Pub. L. 108–426, §4(a), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2425; Pub. L. 109–59, title VII, §7301, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1914; Pub. L. 112–141, div. E, title II, §52012, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 896; Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title I, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 574, related to establishment of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration, whose functions were subsequently transferred to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation. See Transfer of Duties and Powers note below.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Transfer of Duties and Powers

Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title I, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 574, provided in part: "That notwithstanding any other provision of law, the powers and duties, functions, authorities and personnel of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration are hereby transferred to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology in the Office of the Secretary: Provided further, That notwithstanding section 102 of title 49 and section 5315 of title 5, United States Code, there shall be an Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology within the Office of the Secretary, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate, to lead such office: Provided further, That any reference in law, regulation, judicial proceedings, or elsewhere to the Research and Innovative Technology Administration shall be deemed to be a reference to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation."

[Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title I, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2835, provided in part: "That any reference in law, regulation, judicial proceedings, or elsewhere to the Research and Innovative Technology Administration shall continue to be deemed to be a reference to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation."]

[Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title I, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2696, provided in part: "That any reference in law, regulation, judicial proceedings, or elsewhere to the Research and Innovative Technology Administration shall continue to be deemed to be a reference to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology of the Department of Transportation."]

Pub. L. 108–426, §4(d), Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2426, provided that: "The authority of the Research and Special Programs Administration, other than authority exercised under chapters 51, 57, 61, 601, and 603 of title 49, United States Code, is transferred to the Administrator of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration."

For transfer of authority of the Research and Special Programs Administration exercised under chapters 51, 57, 61, 601, and 603 of this title to the Administrator of the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, see section 2(b) of Pub. L. 108–426, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

§113. Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

(a) In General.—The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall be an administration of the Department of Transportation.

(b) Safety as Highest Priority.—In carrying out its duties, the Administration shall consider the assignment and maintenance of safety as the highest priority, recognizing the clear intent, encouragement, and dedication of Congress to the furtherance of the highest degree of safety in motor carrier transportation.

(c) Administrator.—The head of the Administration shall be the Administrator who shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall be an individual with professional experience in motor carrier safety. The Administrator shall report directly to the Secretary of Transportation.

(d) Deputy Administrator.—The Administration shall have a Deputy Administrator appointed by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Deputy Administrator shall carry out duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(e) Chief Safety Officer.—The Administration shall have an Assistant Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administrator appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President. The Assistant Administrator shall be the Chief Safety Officer of the Administration. The Assistant Administrator shall carry out the duties and powers prescribed by the Administrator.

(f) Powers and Duties.—The Administrator shall carry out—

(1) duties and powers related to motor carriers or motor carrier safety vested in the Secretary by chapters 5, 51, 55, 57, 59, 133 through 149, 311, 313, 315, and 317 and by section 18 of the Noise Control Act of 1972 (42 U.S.C. 4917; 86 Stat. 1249–1250); except as otherwise delegated by the Secretary to any agency of the Department of Transportation other than the Federal Highway Administration, as of October 8, 1999; and

(2) additional duties and powers prescribed by the Secretary.


(g) Limitation on Transfer of Powers and Duties.—A duty or power specified in subsection (f)(1) may only be transferred to another part of the Department when specifically provided by law.

(h) Effect of Certain Decisions.—A decision of the Administrator involving a duty or power specified in subsection (f)(1) and involving notice and hearing required by law is administratively final.

(i) Consultation.—The Administrator shall consult with the Federal Highway Administrator and with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrator on matters related to highway and motor carrier safety.

(Added Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §101(a), Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1750.)

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 2000, see section 107(a) of Pub. L. 106–159, set out as an Effective Date of 1999 Amendment note under section 104 of this title.

Guidance

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5203, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1535, provided that:

"(a) In General.—

"(1) Date of issuance and point of contact.—Each guidance document issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall have a date of issuance or a date of revision, as applicable, and shall include the name and contact information of a point of contact at the Administration who can respond to questions regarding the guidance.

"(2) Public accessibility.—

"(A) In general.—Each guidance document issued or revised by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall be published on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department [of Transportation] on the date of issuance or revision.

"(B) Redaction.—The Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration may redact from a guidance document published under subparagraph (A) any information that would reveal investigative techniques that would compromise Administration enforcement efforts.

"(3) Incorporation into regulations.—Not later than 5 years after the date on which a guidance document is published under paragraph (2) or during an applicable review under subsection (c), whichever is earlier, the Secretary [of Transportation] shall revise regulations to incorporate the guidance document to the extent practicable.

"(4) Reissuance.—If a guidance document is not incorporated into regulations in accordance with paragraph (3), the Administrator shall—

"(A) reissue an updated version of the guidance document; and

"(B) review and reissue an updated version of the guidance document every 5 years until the date on which the guidance document is removed or incorporated into applicable regulations.

"(b) Initial Review.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Administrator shall review all guidance documents issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration and in effect on such date of enactment to ensure that such documents are current, are readily accessible to the public, and meet the standards specified in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of subsection (c)(1).

"(c) Regular Review.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), not less than once every 5 years, the Administrator shall conduct a comprehensive review of the guidance documents issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration to determine whether such documents are—

"(A) consistent and clear;

"(B) uniformly and consistently enforced; and

"(C) still necessary.

"(2) Notice and comment.—Prior to beginning a review under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register a notice and request for comment that solicits input from stakeholders on which guidance documents should be updated or eliminated.

"(3) Report.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than 60 days after the date on which a review under paragraph (1) is completed, the Administrator shall publish on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department a report detailing the review and a full inventory of the guidance documents of the Administration.

"(B) Contents.—A report under subparagraph (A) shall include a summary of the response of the Administration to comments received under paragraph (2).

"(d) Guidance Document Defined.—In this section, the term 'guidance document' means a document issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration that—

"(1) provides an interpretation of a regulation of the Administration; or

"(2) includes an enforcement policy of the Administration available to the public."

Petitions

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5204, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1536, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall—

"(1) publish on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department [of Transportation] a summary of all petitions for regulatory action submitted to the Administration;

"(2) prioritize the petitions submitted based on the likelihood of safety improvements resulting from the regulatory action requested;

"(3) not later than 180 days after the date a summary of a petition is published under paragraph (1), formally respond to such petition by indicating whether the Administrator will accept, deny, or further review the petition;

"(4) prioritize responses to petitions consistent with a petition's potential to reduce crashes, improve enforcement, and reduce unnecessary burdens; and

"(5) not later than 60 days after the date of receipt of a petition, publish on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department an updated inventory of the petitions described in paragraph (1), including any applicable disposition information for those petitions.

"(b) Treatment of Multiple Petitions.—The Administrator may treat multiple similar petitions as a single petition for the purposes of subsection (a).

"(c) Petition Defined.—In this section, the term 'petition' means a request for—

"(1) a new regulation;

"(2) a regulatory interpretation or clarification; or

"(3) a determination by the Administrator that a regulation should be modified or eliminated because it is—

"(A) no longer—

"(i) consistent and clear;

"(ii) current with the operational realities of the motor carrier industry; or

"(iii) uniformly enforced;

"(B) ineffective; or

"(C) overly burdensome."

Prioritizing Statutory Rulemakings

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title V, §5302, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1543, provided that: "The Administrator of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration shall prioritize the completion of each outstanding rulemaking required by statute before beginning any other rulemaking, unless the Secretary [of Transportation] determines that there is a significant need for such other rulemaking and notifies Congress of such determination."

Findings

Pub. L. 106–159, §3, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1749, provided that: "Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) The current rate, number, and severity of crashes involving motor carriers in the United States are unacceptable.

"(2) The number of Federal and State commercial motor vehicle and operator inspections is insufficient and civil penalties for violators must be utilized to deter future violations.

"(3) The Department of Transportation is failing to meet statutorily mandated deadlines for completing rulemaking proceedings on motor carrier safety and, in some significant safety rulemaking proceedings, including driver hours-of-service regulations, extensive periods have elapsed without progress toward resolution or implementation.

"(4) Too few motor carriers undergo compliance reviews and the Department's data bases and information systems require substantial improvement to enhance the Department's ability to target inspection and enforcement resources toward the most serious safety problems and to improve States' ability to keep dangerous drivers off the roads.

"(5) Additional safety inspectors and inspection facilities are needed in international border areas to ensure that commercial motor vehicles, drivers, and carriers comply with United States safety standards.

"(6) The Department should rigorously avoid conflicts of interest in federally funded research.

"(7) Meaningful measures to improve safety must be implemented expeditiously to prevent increases in motor carrier crashes, injuries, and fatalities.

"(8) Proper use of Federal resources is essential to the Department's ability to improve its research, rulemaking, oversight, and enforcement activities related to commercial motor vehicles, operators, and carriers."

Purposes

Pub. L. 106–159, §4, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1749, provided that: "The purposes of this Act [see Tables for classification] are—

"(1) to improve the administration of the Federal motor carrier safety program and to establish a Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration in the Department of Transportation; and

"(2) to reduce the number and severity of large-truck involved crashes through more commercial motor vehicle and operator inspections and motor carrier compliance reviews, stronger enforcement measures against violators, expedited completion of rulemaking proceedings, scientifically sound research, and effective commercial driver's license testing, recordkeeping and sanctions."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 106–159, title I, §106, Dec. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1756, provided that:

"(a) Transfer of Assets and Personnel.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this Act, those personnel, property, and records employed, used, held, available, or to be made available in connection with a function transferred to the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration by this Act shall be transferred to the Administration for use in connection with the functions transferred, and unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds of the Office of Motor Carrier Safety (including any predecessor entity) shall also be transferred to the Administration.

"(b) Legal Documents.—All orders, determinations, rules, regulations, permits, grants, loans, contracts, settlements, agreements, certificates, licenses, and privileges—

"(1) that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective by the Office, any officer or employee of the Office, or any other Government official, or by a court of competent jurisdiction, in the performance of any function that is transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act; and

"(2) that are in effect on the effective date of such transfer (or become effective after such date pursuant to their terms as in effect on such effective date),

shall continue in effect according to their terms until modified, terminated, superseded, set aside, or revoked in accordance with law by the Administration, any other authorized official, a court of competent jurisdiction, or operation of law.

"(c) Proceedings.—

"(1) In general.—The provisions of this Act shall not affect any proceedings or any application for any license pending before the Office at the time this Act takes effect [see Effective Date of 1999 Amendment note set out under section 104 of this title], insofar as those functions are transferred by this Act; but such proceedings and applications, to the extent that they relate to functions so transferred, shall be continued. Orders shall be issued in such proceedings, appeals shall be taken therefrom, and payments shall be made pursuant to such orders, as if this Act had not been enacted; and orders issued in any such proceedings shall continue in effect until modified, terminated, superseded, or revoked by a duly authorized official, by a court of competent jurisdiction, or by operation of law.

"(2) Statutory construction.—Nothing in this subsection shall be deemed to prohibit the discontinuance or modification of any proceeding described in paragraph (1) under the same terms and conditions and to the same extent that such proceeding could have been discontinued or modified if this Act had not been enacted.

"(3) Orderly transfer.—The Secretary is authorized to provide for the orderly transfer of pending proceedings from the Office.

"(d) Suits.—

"(1) In general.—This Act shall not affect suits commenced before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 9, 1999], except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3). In all such suits, proceeding shall be had, appeals taken, and judgments rendered in the same manner and with the same effect as if this Act had not been enacted.

"(2) Suits by or against omcs.—Any suit by or against the Office begun before January 1, 2000, shall be continued, insofar as it involves a function retained and transferred under this Act, with the Administration (to the extent the suit involves functions transferred to the Administration under this Act) substituted for the Office.

"(3) Remanded cases.—If the court in a suit described in paragraph (1) remands a case to the Administration, subsequent proceedings related to such case shall proceed in accordance with applicable law and regulations as in effect at the time of such subsequent proceedings.

"(e) Continuance of Actions Against Officers.—No suit, action, or other proceeding commenced by or against any officer in his official capacity as an officer of the Office shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act. No cause of action by or against the Office, or by or against any officer thereof in his official capacity, shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act.

"(f) Exercise of Authorities.—Except as otherwise provided by law, an officer or employee of the Administration may, for purposes of performing a function transferred by this Act or the amendments made by this Act, exercise all authorities under any other provision of law that were available with respect to the performance of that function to the official responsible for the performance of the function immediately before the effective date of the transfer of the function under this Act or the amendments made by this Act.

"(g) References.—Any reference to the Office in any Federal law, Executive order, rule, regulation, or delegation of authority, or any document of or pertaining to the Office or an officer or employee of the Office is deemed to refer to the Administration or a member or employee of the Administration, as appropriate."

§114. Transportation Security Administration

(a) In General.—The Transportation Security Administration shall be an administration of the Department of Transportation.

(b) Under Secretary.—

(1) Appointment.—The head of the Administration shall be the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security. The Under Secretary shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

(2) Qualifications.—The Under Secretary must—

(A) be a citizen of the United States; and

(B) have experience in a field directly related to transportation or security.


(3) Term.—The term of office of an individual appointed as the Under Secretary shall be 5 years.


(c) Limitation on Ownership of Stocks and Bonds.—The Under Secretary may not own stock in or bonds of a transportation or security enterprise or an enterprise that makes equipment that could be used for security purposes.

(d) Functions.—The Under Secretary shall be responsible for security in all modes of transportation, including—

(1) carrying out chapter 449, relating to civil aviation security, and related research and development activities; and

(2) security responsibilities over other modes of transportation that are exercised by the Department of Transportation.


(e) Screening Operations.—The Under Secretary shall—

(1) be responsible for day-to-day Federal security screening operations for passenger air transportation and intrastate air transportation under sections 44901 and 44935;

(2) develop standards for the hiring and retention of security screening personnel;

(3) train and test security screening personnel; and

(4) be responsible for hiring and training personnel to provide security screening at all airports in the United States where screening is required under section 44901, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation and the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies and departments.


(f) Additional Duties and Powers.—In addition to carrying out the functions specified in subsections (d) and (e), the Under Secretary shall—

(1) receive, assess, and distribute intelligence information related to transportation security;

(2) assess threats to transportation;

(3) develop policies, strategies, and plans for dealing with threats to transportation security;

(4) make other plans related to transportation security, including coordinating countermeasures with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government;

(5) serve as the primary liaison for transportation security to the intelligence and law enforcement communities;

(6) on a day-to-day basis, manage and provide operational guidance to the field security resources of the Administration, including Federal Security Managers as provided by section 44933;

(7) enforce security-related regulations and requirements;

(8) identify and undertake research and development activities necessary to enhance transportation security;

(9) inspect, maintain, and test security facilities, equipment, and systems;

(10) ensure the adequacy of security measures for the transportation of cargo;

(11) oversee the implementation, and ensure the adequacy, of security measures at airports and other transportation facilities;

(12) require background checks for airport security screening personnel, individuals with access to secure areas of airports, and other transportation security personnel;

(13) work in conjunction with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration with respect to any actions or activities that may affect aviation safety or air carrier operations;

(14) work with the International Civil Aviation Organization and appropriate aeronautic authorities of foreign governments under section 44907 to address security concerns on passenger flights by foreign air carriers in foreign air transportation; and

(15) carry out such other duties, and exercise such other powers, relating to transportation security as the Under Secretary considers appropriate, to the extent authorized by law.


(g) National Emergency Responsibilities.—

(1) In general.—Subject to the direction and control of the Secretary, the Under Secretary, during a national emergency, shall have the following responsibilities:

(A) To coordinate domestic transportation, including aviation, rail, and other surface transportation, and maritime transportation (including port security).

(B) To coordinate and oversee the transportation-related responsibilities of other departments and agencies of the Federal Government other than the Department of Defense and the military departments.

(C) To coordinate and provide notice to other departments and agencies of the Federal Government, and appropriate agencies of State and local governments, including departments and agencies for transportation, law enforcement, and border control, about threats to transportation.

(D) To carry out such other duties, and exercise such other powers, relating to transportation during a national emergency as the Secretary shall prescribe.


(2) Authority of other departments and agencies.—The authority of the Under Secretary under this subsection shall not supersede the authority of any other department or agency of the Federal Government under law with respect to transportation or transportation-related matters, whether or not during a national emergency.

(3) Circumstances.—The Secretary shall prescribe the circumstances constituting a national emergency for purposes of this subsection.


(h) Management of Security Information.—In consultation with the Transportation Security Oversight Board, the Under Secretary shall—

(1) enter into memoranda of understanding with Federal agencies or other entities to share or otherwise cross-check as necessary data on individuals identified on Federal agency databases who may pose a risk to transportation or national security;

(2) establish procedures for notifying the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, appropriate State and local law enforcement officials, and airport or airline security officers of the identity of individuals known to pose, or suspected of posing, a risk of air piracy or terrorism or a threat to airline or passenger safety;

(3) in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies and air carriers, establish policies and procedures requiring air carriers—

(A) to use information from government agencies to identify individuals on passenger lists who may be a threat to civil aviation or national security; and

(B) if such an individual is identified, notify appropriate law enforcement agencies, prevent the individual from boarding an aircraft, or take other appropriate action with respect to that individual; and


(4) consider requiring passenger air carriers to share passenger lists with appropriate Federal agencies for the purpose of identifying individuals who may pose a threat to aviation safety or national security.


(i) View of NTSB.—In taking any action under this section that could affect safety, the Under Secretary shall give great weight to the timely views of the National Transportation Safety Board.

(j) Acquisitions.—

(1) In general.—The Under Secretary is authorized—

(A) to acquire (by purchase, lease, condemnation, or otherwise) such real property, or any interest therein, within and outside the continental United States, as the Under Secretary considers necessary;

(B) to acquire (by purchase, lease, condemnation, or otherwise) and to construct, repair, operate, and maintain such personal property (including office space and patents), or any interest therein, within and outside the continental United States, as the Under Secretary considers necessary;

(C) to lease to others such real and personal property and to provide by contract or otherwise for necessary facilities for the welfare of its employees and to acquire, maintain, and operate equipment for these facilities;

(D) to acquire services, including such personal services as the Secretary determines necessary, and to acquire (by purchase, lease, condemnation, or otherwise) and to construct, repair, operate, and maintain research and testing sites and facilities; and

(E) in cooperation with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, to utilize the research and development facilities of the Federal Aviation Administration.


(2) Title.—Title to any property or interest therein acquired pursuant to this subsection shall be held by the Government of the United States.


(k) Transfers of Funds.—The Under Secretary is authorized to accept transfers of unobligated balances and unexpended balances of funds appropriated to other Federal agencies (as such term is defined in section 551(1) of title 5) to carry out functions transferred, on or after the date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, by law to the Under Secretary.

(l) Regulations.—

(1) In general.—The Under Secretary is authorized to issue, rescind, and revise such regulations as are necessary to carry out the functions of the Administration.

(2) Emergency procedures.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law or executive order (including an executive order requiring a cost-benefit analysis), if the Under Secretary determines that a regulation or security directive must be issued immediately in order to protect transportation security, the Under Secretary shall issue the regulation or security directive without providing notice or an opportunity for comment and without prior approval of the Secretary.

(B) Review by transportation security oversight board.—Any regulation or security directive issued under this paragraph shall be subject to review by the Transportation Security Oversight Board established under section 115. Any regulation or security directive issued under this paragraph shall remain effective for a period not to exceed 90 days unless ratified or disapproved by the Board or rescinded by the Under Secretary.


(3) Factors to consider.—In determining whether to issue, rescind, or revise a regulation under this section, the Under Secretary shall consider, as a factor in the final determination, whether the costs of the regulation are excessive in relation to the enhancement of security the regulation will provide. The Under Secretary may waive requirements for an analysis that estimates the number of lives that will be saved by the regulation and the monetary value of such lives if the Under Secretary determines that it is not feasible to make such an estimate.

(4) Airworthiness objections by faa.—

(A) In general.—The Under Secretary shall not take an aviation security action under this title if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration notifies the Under Secretary that the action could adversely affect the airworthiness of an aircraft.

(B) Review by secretary.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), the Under Secretary may take such an action, after receiving a notification concerning the action from the Administrator under subparagraph (A), if the Secretary of Transportation subsequently approves the action.


(m) Personnel and Services; Cooperation by Under Secretary.—

(1) Authority of under secretary.—In carrying out the functions of the Administration, the Under Secretary shall have the same authority as is provided to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under subsections (l) and (m) of section 106.

(2) Authority of agency heads.—The head of a Federal agency shall have the same authority to provide services, supplies, equipment, personnel, and facilities to the Under Secretary as the head has to provide services, supplies, equipment, personnel, and facilities to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under section 106(m).


(n) Personnel Management System.—The personnel management system established by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under section 40122 shall apply to employees of the Transportation Security Administration, or, subject to the requirements of such section, the Under Secretary may make such modifications to the personnel management system with respect to such employees as the Under Secretary considers appropriate, such as adopting aspects of other personnel systems of the Department of Transportation.

(o) Authority of Inspector General.—The Transportation Security Administration shall be subject to the Inspector General Act of 1978 (5 U.S.C. App.) and other laws relating to the authority of the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation.

(p) Law Enforcement Powers.—

(1) In general.—The Under Secretary may designate an employee of the Transportation Security Administration or other Federal agency to serve as a law enforcement officer.

(2) Powers.—While engaged in official duties of the Administration as required to fulfill the responsibilities under this section, a law enforcement officer designated under paragraph (1) may—

(A) carry a firearm;

(B) make an arrest without a warrant for any offense against the United States committed in the presence of the officer, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States if the officer has probable cause to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing the felony; and

(C) seek and execute warrants for arrest or seizure of evidence issued under the authority of the United States upon probable cause that a violation has been committed.


(3) Guidelines on exercise of authority.—The authority provided by this subsection shall be exercised in accordance with guidelines prescribed by the Under Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General of the United States, and shall include adherence to the Attorney General's policy on use of deadly force.

(4) Revocation or suspension of authority.—The powers authorized by this subsection may be rescinded or suspended should the Attorney General determine that the Under Secretary has not complied with the guidelines prescribed in paragraph (3) and conveys the determination in writing to the Secretary of Transportation and the Under Secretary.


(q) Authority To Exempt.—The Under Secretary may grant an exemption from a regulation prescribed in carrying out this section if the Under Secretary determines that the exemption is in the public interest.

(r) Nondisclosure of Security Activities.—

(1) In general.—Notwithstanding section 552 of title 5, the Under Secretary shall prescribe regulations prohibiting the disclosure of information obtained or developed in carrying out security under authority of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (Public Law 107–71) or under chapter 449 of this title if the Under Secretary decides that disclosing the information would—

(A) be an unwarranted invasion of personal privacy;

(B) reveal a trade secret or privileged or confidential commercial or financial information; or

(C) be detrimental to the security of transportation.


(2) Availability of information to congress.—Paragraph (1) does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.

(3) Limitation on transferability of duties.—Except as otherwise provided by law, the Under Secretary may not transfer a duty or power under this subsection to another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States.

(4) Limitations.—Nothing in this subsection, or any other provision of law, shall be construed to authorize the designation of information as sensitive security information (as defined in section 1520.5 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations)—

(A) to conceal a violation of law, inefficiency, or administrative error;

(B) to prevent embarrassment to a person, organization, or agency;

(C) to restrain competition; or

(D) to prevent or delay the release of information that does not require protection in the interest of transportation security, including basic scientific research information not clearly related to transportation security.


(s) Transportation Security Strategic Planning.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall develop, prepare, implement, and update, as needed—

(A) a National Strategy for Transportation Security; and

(B) transportation modal security plans addressing security risks, including threats, vulnerabilities, and consequences, for aviation, railroad, ferry, highway, maritime, pipeline, public transportation, over-the-road bus, and other transportation infrastructure assets.


(2) Role of secretary of transportation.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall work jointly with the Secretary of Transportation in developing, revising, and updating the documents required by paragraph (1).

(3) Contents of national strategy for transportation security.—The National Strategy for Transportation Security shall include the following:

(A) An identification and evaluation of the transportation assets in the United States that, in the interests of national security and commerce, must be protected from attack or disruption by terrorist or other hostile forces, including modal security plans for aviation, bridge and tunnel, commuter rail and ferry, highway, maritime, pipeline, rail, mass transit, over-the-road bus, and other public transportation infrastructure assets that could be at risk of such an attack or disruption.

(B) The development of risk-based priorities, based on risk assessments conducted or received by the Secretary of Homeland Security (including assessments conducted under the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 1 across all transportation modes and realistic deadlines for addressing security needs associated with those assets referred to in subparagraph (A).

(C) The most appropriate, practical, and cost-effective means of defending those assets against threats to their security.

(D) A forward-looking strategic plan that sets forth the agreed upon roles and missions of Federal, State, regional, local, and tribal authorities and establishes mechanisms for encouraging cooperation and participation by private sector entities, including nonprofit employee labor organizations, in the implementation of such plan.

(E) A comprehensive delineation of prevention, response, and recovery responsibilities and issues regarding threatened and executed acts of terrorism within the United States and threatened and executed acts of terrorism outside the United States to the extent such acts affect United States transportation systems.

(F) A prioritization of research and development objectives that support transportation security needs, giving a higher priority to research and development directed toward protecting vital transportation assets. Transportation security research and development projects shall be based, to the extent practicable, on such prioritization. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to require the termination of any research or development project initiated by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Secretary of Transportation before the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007.

(G) A 3- and 10-year budget for Federal transportation security programs that will achieve the priorities of the National Strategy for Transportation Security.

(H) Methods for linking the individual transportation modal security plans and the programs contained therein, and a plan for addressing the security needs of intermodal transportation.

(I) Transportation modal security plans described in paragraph (1)(B), including operational recovery plans to expedite, to the maximum extent practicable, the return to operation of an adversely affected transportation system following a major terrorist attack on that system or other incident. These plans shall be coordinated with the resumption of trade protocols required under section 202 of the SAFE Port Act (6 U.S.C. 942) and the National Maritime Transportation Security Plan required under section 70103(a) of title 46.


(4) Submissions of plans to congress.—

(A) Initial strategy.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit the National Strategy for Transportation Security, including the transportation modal security plans, developed under this subsection to the appropriate congressional committees not later than April 1, 2005.

(B) Subsequent versions.—After December 31, 2005, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit the National Strategy for Transportation Security, including the transportation modal security plans and any revisions to the National Strategy for Transportation Security and the transportation modal security plans, to appropriate congressional committees not less frequently than April 1 of each even-numbered year.

(C) Periodic progress report.—

(i) Requirement for report.—Each year, in conjunction with the submission of the budget to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an assessment of the progress made on implementing the National Strategy for Transportation Security, including the transportation modal security plans.

(ii) Content.—Each progress report submitted under this subparagraph shall include, at a minimum, the following:

(I) Recommendations for improving and implementing the National Strategy for Transportation Security and the transportation modal and intermodal security plans that the Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, considers appropriate.

(II) An accounting of all grants for transportation security, including grants and contracts for research and development, awarded by the Secretary of Homeland Security in the most recent fiscal year and a description of how such grants accomplished the goals of the National Strategy for Transportation Security.

(III) An accounting of all—

(aa) funds requested in the President's budget submitted pursuant to section 1105 of title 31 for the most recent fiscal year for transportation security, by mode;

(bb) personnel working on transportation security by mode, including the number of contractors; and

(cc) information on the turnover in the previous year among senior staff of the Department of Homeland Security, including component agencies, working on transportation security issues. Such information shall include the number of employees who have permanently left the office, agency, or area in which they worked, and the amount of time that they worked for the Department.


(iii) Written explanation of transportation security activities not delineated in the national strategy for transportation security.—At the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a written explanation of any Federal transportation security activity that is inconsistent with the National Strategy for Transportation Security, including the amount of funds to be expended for the activity and the number of personnel involved.


(D) Classified material.—Any part of the National Strategy for Transportation Security or the transportation modal security plans that involve information that is properly classified under criteria established by Executive order shall be submitted to the appropriate congressional committees separately in a classified format.

(E) Appropriate congressional committees defined.—In this subsection, the term "appropriate congressional committees" means the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate.


(5) Priority Status.—

(A) In general.—The National Strategy for Transportation Security shall be the governing document for Federal transportation security efforts.

(B) Other plans and reports.—The National Strategy for Transportation Security shall include, as an integral part or as an appendix—

(i) the current National Maritime Transportation Security Plan under section 70103 of title 46;

(ii) the report required by section 44938 of this title;

(iii) transportation modal security plans required under this section;

(iv) the transportation sector specific plan required under Homeland Security Presidential Directive–7; and

(v) any other transportation security plan or report that the Secretary of Homeland Security determines appropriate for inclusion.


(6) Coordination.—In carrying out the responsibilities under this section, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation, shall consult, as appropriate, with Federal, State, and local agencies, tribal governments, private sector entities (including nonprofit employee labor organizations), institutions of higher learning, and other entities.

(7) Plan distribution.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall make available and appropriately publicize an unclassified version of the National Strategy for Transportation Security, including its component transportation modal security plans, to Federal, State, regional, local and tribal authorities, transportation system owners or operators, private sector stakeholders, including nonprofit employee labor organizations representing transportation employees, institutions of higher learning, and other appropriate entities.


(u) 2 Transportation Security Information Sharing Plan.—

(1) Definitions.—In this subsection:

(A) Appropriate congressional committees.—The term "appropriate congressional committees" has the meaning given that term in subsection (s)(4)(E).

(B) Plan.—The term "Plan" means the Transportation Security Information Sharing Plan established under paragraph (2).

(C) Public and private stakeholders.—The term "public and private stakeholders" means Federal, State, and local agencies, tribal governments, and appropriate private entities, including nonprofit employee labor organizations representing transportation employees.

(D) Secretary.—The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Homeland Security.

(E) Transportation security information.—The term "transportation security information" means information relating to the risks to transportation modes, including aviation, public transportation, railroad, ferry, highway, maritime, pipeline, and over-the-road bus transportation, and may include specific and general intelligence products, as appropriate.


(2) Establishment of plan.—The Secretary of Homeland Security, in consultation with the program manager of the information sharing environment established under section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 485), the Secretary of Transportation, and public and private stakeholders, shall establish a Transportation Security Information Sharing Plan. In establishing the Plan, the Secretary shall gather input on the development of the Plan from private and public stakeholders and the program manager of the information sharing environment established under section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 485).

(3) Purpose of plan.—The Plan shall promote sharing of transportation security information between the Department of Homeland Security and public and private stakeholders.

(4) Content of plan.—The Plan shall include—

(A) a description of how intelligence analysts within the Department of Homeland Security will coordinate their activities within the Department and with other Federal, State, and local agencies, and tribal governments, including coordination with existing modal information sharing centers and the center described in section 1410 of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007;

(B) the establishment of a point of contact, which may be a single point of contact within the Department of Homeland Security, for each mode of transportation for the sharing of transportation security information with public and private stakeholders, including an explanation and justification to the appropriate congressional committees if the point of contact established pursuant to this subparagraph differs from the agency within the Department that has the primary authority, or has been delegated such authority by the Secretary, to regulate the security of that transportation mode;

(C) a reasonable deadline by which the Plan will be implemented; and

(D) a description of resource needs for fulfilling the Plan.


(5) Coordination with information sharing.—The Plan shall be—

(A) implemented in coordination, as appropriate, with the program manager for the information sharing environment established under section 1016 of the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (6 U.S.C. 485); and

(B) consistent with the establishment of the information sharing environment and any policies, guidelines, procedures, instructions, or standards established by the President or the program manager for the implementation and management of the information sharing environment.


(6) Reports to congress.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 150 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees, a report containing the Plan.

(B) Annual report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on updates to and the implementation of the Plan.


(7) Security clearances.—The Secretary shall, to the greatest extent practicable, take steps to expedite the security clearances needed for designated public and private stakeholders to receive and obtain access to classified information distributed under this section, as appropriate.

(8) Classification of material.—The Secretary, to the greatest extent practicable, shall provide designated public and private stakeholders with transportation security information in an unclassified format.


(v) Enforcement of Regulations and Orders of the Secretary of Homeland Security.—

(1) Application of subsection.—

(A) In general.—This subsection applies to the enforcement of regulations prescribed, and orders issued, by the Secretary of Homeland Security under a provision of chapter 701 of title 46 and under a provision of this title other than a provision of chapter 449 (in this subsection referred to as an "applicable provision of this title").

(B) Violations of chapter 449.—The penalties for violations of regulations prescribed and orders issued by the Secretary of Homeland Security under chapter 449 of this title are provided under chapter 463 of this title.

(C) Nonapplication to certain violations.—

(i) Paragraphs (2) through (5) do not apply to violations of regulations prescribed, and orders issued, by the Secretary of Homeland Security under a provision of this title—

(I) involving the transportation of personnel or shipments of materials by contractors where the Department of Defense has assumed control and responsibility;

(II) by a member of the armed forces of the United States when performing official duties; or

(III) by a civilian employee of the Department of Defense when performing official duties.


(ii) Violations described in subclause (I), (II), or (III) of clause (i) shall be subject to penalties as determined by the Secretary of Defense or the Secretary's designee.


(2) Civil penalty.—

(A) In general.—A person is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for a violation of a regulation prescribed, or order issued, by the Secretary of Homeland Security under an applicable provision of this title.

(B) Repeat violations.—A separate violation occurs under this paragraph for each day the violation continues.


(3) Administrative imposition of civil penalties.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary of Homeland Security may impose a civil penalty for a violation of a regulation prescribed, or order issued, under an applicable provision of this title. The Secretary shall give written notice of the finding of a violation and the penalty.

(B) Scope of civil action.—In a civil action to collect a civil penalty imposed by the Secretary under this subsection, a court may not re-examine issues of liability or the amount of the penalty.

(C) Jurisdiction.—The district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction of civil actions to collect a civil penalty imposed by the Secretary under this subsection if—

(i) the amount in controversy is more than—

(I) $400,000, if the violation was committed by a person other than an individual or small business concern; or

(II) $50,000 if the violation was committed by an individual or small business concern;


(ii) the action is in rem or another action in rem based on the same violation has been brought; or

(iii) another action has been brought for an injunction based on the same violation.


(D) Maximum penalty.—The maximum civil penalty the Secretary administratively may impose under this paragraph is—

(i) $400,000, if the violation was committed by a person other than an individual or small business concern; or

(ii) $50,000, if the violation was committed by an individual or small business concern.


(E) Notice and opportunity to request hearing.—Before imposing a penalty under this section the Secretary shall provide to the person against whom the penalty is to be imposed—

(i) written notice of the proposed penalty; and

(ii) the opportunity to request a hearing on the proposed penalty, if the Secretary receives the request not later than 30 days after the date on which the person receives notice.


(4) Compromise and setoff.—

(A) The Secretary may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this subsection.

(B) The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this subsection from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.


(5) Investigations and proceedings.—Chapter 461 shall apply to investigations and proceedings brought under this subsection to the same extent that it applies to investigations and proceedings brought with respect to aviation security duties designated to be carried out by the Secretary.

(6) Definitions.—In this subsection:

(A) Person.—The term "person" does not include—

(i) the United States Postal Service; or

(ii) the Department of Defense.


(B) Small business concern.—The term "small business concern" has the meaning given that term in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632).


(7) Enforcement transparency.—

(A) In general.—Not later than December 31, 2008, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall—

(i) provide an annual summary to the public of all enforcement actions taken by the Secretary under this subsection; and

(ii) include in each such summary the docket number of each enforcement action, the type of alleged violation, the penalty or penalties proposed, and the final assessment amount of each penalty.


(B) Electronic availability.—Each summary under this paragraph shall be made available to the public by electronic means.

(C) Relationship to the freedom of information act and the privacy act.—Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require disclosure of information or records that are exempt from disclosure under sections 552 or 552a of title 5.

(D) Enforcement guidance.—Not later than 180 days after the enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, the Secretary shall provide a report to the public describing the enforcement process established under this subsection.


(w) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Homeland Security for—

(1) railroad security—

(A) $488,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(B) $483,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(C) $508,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(D) $508,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;


(2) over-the-road bus and trucking security—

(A) $14,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(B) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(C) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 2010; and

(D) $27,000,000 for fiscal year 2011; and


(3) hazardous material and pipeline security—

(A) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(B) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(C) $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.

(Added Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §101(a), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 597; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title XVI, §1601(b), title XVII, §1707, Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2312, 2318; Pub. L. 108–7, div. I, title III, §351(d), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 420; Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, §4001(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3710; Pub. L. 110–53, title XII, §§1202, 1203(a), title XIII, §1302(a), title XV, §1503(a), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 381, 383, 390, 425; Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title V, §568(a), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 111–83, title V, §561(c)(1), Oct. 28, 2009, 123 Stat. 2182; Pub. L. 114–301, §2(d), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1514.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Aviation and Transportation Security Act, referred to in subsec. (k), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 107–71, which was approved Nov. 19, 2001.

The Inspector General Act of 1978, referred to in subsec. (o), is Pub. L. 95–452, Oct. 12, 1978, 92 Stat. 1101, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

The Aviation and Transportation Security Act, referred to in subsec. (r)(1), is Pub. L. 107–71, Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 597. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2001 Amendment note set out under section 40101 of this title and Tables.

The Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007, referred to in subsec. (s)(3)(B), is Pub. L. 110–53, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 266. Section 1410 of the Act is classified to section 1139 of Title 6, Domestic Security. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2007 Amendment note set out under section 101 of Title 6 and Tables.

The date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 and the date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsecs. (s)(3)(F), (u)(6), and (v)(7)(D), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–53, which was approved Aug. 3, 2007.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (u)(1)(A). Pub. L. 114–301, §2(d)(1), substituted "subsection (s)(4)(E)" for "subsection (t)".

Subsec. (u)(7) to (9). Pub. L. 114–301, §2(d)(2), (3), redesignated pars. (8) and (9) as (7) and (8), respectively, and struck out former par. (7) which related to surveys and reports.

2009—Subsec. (r)(4). Pub. L. 111–83 added par. (4).

2007—Subsecs. (o) to (s). Pub. L. 110–161 redesignated subsecs. (p) to (s) as (o) to (r), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (o). Text of former subsec. (o) read as follows: "The acquisition management system established by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under section 40110 shall apply to acquisitions of equipment, supplies, and materials by the Transportation Security Administration, or, subject to the requirements of such section, the Under Secretary may make such modifications to the acquisition management system with respect to such acquisitions of equipment, supplies, and materials as the Under Secretary considers appropriate, such as adopting aspects of other acquisition management systems of the Department of Transportation."

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 110–161 redesignated subsec. (t) as (s).

Subsec. (t)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(a), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "transportation modal security plans."

Subsec. (t)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(b)(1), inserted ", based on risk assessments conducted or received by the Secretary of Homeland Security (including assessments conducted under the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007" after "risk-based priorities".

Subsec. (t)(3)(D). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(b)(2), substituted "local, and tribal" for "and local" and "cooperation and participation by private sector entities, including nonprofit employee labor organizations," for "private sector cooperation and participation".

Subsec. (t)(3)(E). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(b)(3), substituted "prevention, response, and recovery" for "response and recovery" and inserted "and threatened and executed acts of terrorism outside the United States to the extent such acts affect United States transportation systems" before period at end.

Subsec. (t)(3)(F). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(b)(4), inserted at end "Transportation security research and development projects shall be based, to the extent practicable, on such prioritization. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed to require the termination of any research or development project initiated by the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Secretary of Transportation before the date of enactment of the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007."

Subsec. (t)(3)(G) to (I). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(b)(5), added subpars. (G) to (I).

Subsec. (t)(4)(C)(i). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(c)(1)(A), inserted ", including the transportation modal security plans" before period at end.

Subsec. (t)(4)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(c)(1)(B), added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out former cl. (ii). Text of former cl. (ii) read as follows: "Each progress report under this subparagraph shall include, at a minimum, recommendations for improving and implementing the National Strategy for Transportation Security and the transportation modal security plans that the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Transportation, considers appropriate."

Subsec. (t)(4)(E). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(c)(2), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E). Text of former subpar. (E) read as follows: "In this subsection, the term 'appropriate congressional committees' means the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Select Committee on Homeland Security of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs of the Senate."

Subsec. (t)(5)(B)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(d), added cl. (iv) and redesignated former cl. (iv) as (v).

Subsec. (t)(6), (7). Pub. L. 110–53, §1202(e), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 110–53, §1203(a), added subsec. (u).

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 110–53, §1302(a), added subsec. (v).

Subsec. (w). Pub. L. 110–53, §1503(a), added subsec. (w).

2004—Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 108–458 added subsec. (t).

2003—Subsec. (q)(1). Pub. L. 108–7 inserted "or other Federal agency" after "Transportation Security Administration".

2002—Subsec. (l)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–296, §1707, inserted "for a period not to exceed 90 days" after "effective" and "ratified or" before "disapproved".

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 107–296, §1601(b), added subsec. (s).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title V, §568(b), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2092, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2007].

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–458, title IV, §4082, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3732, provided that: "This title [enacting section 44925 of this title, amending this section, sections 44903, 44904, 44909, 44917, 44923, 46301 to 46303, and 48301 of this title, and sections 70102 and 70103 of Title 46, Shipping, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 44703, 44901, 44913, 44917, 44923, 44925, and 44935 of this title, section 2751 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 70101 of Title 46] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 17, 2004]."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Transportation Security Administration of the Department of Transportation, including the functions of the Secretary of Transportation, and of the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(2), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Deemed References to Chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51

General references to "this title" deemed to refer also to chapters 509 and 511 of Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs, see section 4(d)(8) of Pub. L. 111–314, set out as a note under section 101 of this title.

Safeguarding and Disposal of Personal Information of Registered Traveler Program Participants

Pub. L. 114–4, title V, §536, Mar. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 67, provided that:

"(a) Any company that collects or retains personal information directly from any individual who participates in the Registered Traveler or successor program of the Transportation Security Administration shall hereafter safeguard and dispose of such information in accordance with the requirements in—

"(1) the National Institute for Standards and Technology Special Publication 800–30, entitled 'Risk Management Guide for Information Technology Systems';

"(2) the National Institute for Standards and Technology Special Publication 800–53, Revision 3, entitled 'Recommended Security Controls for Federal Information Systems and Organizations'; and

"(3) any supplemental standards established by the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration (referred to in this section as the 'Administrator').

"(b) The airport authority or air carrier operator that sponsors the company under the Registered Traveler program shall hereafter be known as the 'Sponsoring Entity'.

"(c) The Administrator shall hereafter require any company covered by subsection (a) to provide, not later than 30 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 4, 2015], to the Sponsoring Entity written certification that the procedures used by the company to safeguard and dispose of information are in compliance with the requirements under subsection (a). Such certification shall include a description of the procedures used by the company to comply with such requirements."

Registered Traveler Programs and Biometrically-Secure Cards

Pub. L. 110–161, div. E, title V, §571, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2093, provided that: "Effective no later than ninety days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 26, 2007], the Transportation Security Administration shall permit approved members of Registered Traveler programs to satisfy fully the required identity verification procedures at security screening checkpoints by presenting a biometrically-secure Registered Traveler card in lieu of the government-issued photo identification document required of non-participants: Provided, That if their identity is not confirmed biometrically, the standard identity and screening procedures will apply: Provided further, That if the Assistant Secretary (Transportation Security Administration) determines this is a threat to civil aviation, then the Assistant Secretary (Transportation Security Administration) shall notify the Committees on Appropriations of the Senate and House of Representatives five days in advance of such determination and require Registered Travelers to present government-issued photo identification documents in conjunction with a biometrically-secure Registered Traveler card."

Congressional Oversight of Security Assurance for Public and Private Stakeholders

Pub. L. 110–53, title XII, §1203(b), Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 385, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary [of Homeland Security] shall provide a semiannual report to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Homeland Security and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives that includes—

"(A) the number of public and private stakeholders who were provided with each report;

"(B) a description of the measures the Secretary has taken, under [former] section 114(u)(7) of title 49, United States Code, as added by this section, or otherwise, to ensure proper treatment and security for any classified information to be shared with the public and private stakeholders under the Plan; and

"(C) an explanation of the reason for the denial of transportation security information to any stakeholder who had previously received such information.

"(2) No report required if no changes in stakeholders.—The Secretary is not required to provide a semiannual report under paragraph (1) if no stakeholders have been added to or removed from the group of persons with whom transportation security information is shared under the plan since the end of the period covered by the last preceding semiannual report."

Specialized Training

Pub. L. 110–53, title XVI, §1611, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 485, provided that: "The Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration shall provide advanced training to transportation security officers for the development of specialized security skills, including behavior observation and analysis, explosives detection, and document examination, in order to enhance the effectiveness of layered transportation security measures."

Inapplicability of Personnel Limitations After Fiscal Year 2007

Pub. L. 110–53, title XVI, §1612, Aug. 3, 2007, 121 Stat. 485, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Notwithstanding any provision of law, any statutory limitation on the number of employees in the Transportation Security Administration, before or after its transfer to the Department of Homeland Security from the Department of Transportation, does not apply after fiscal year 2007.

"(b) Aviation Security.—Notwithstanding any provision of law imposing a limitation on the recruiting or hiring of personnel into the Transportation Security Administration to a maximum number of permanent positions, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall recruit and hire such personnel into the Administration as may be necessary—

"(1) to provide appropriate levels of aviation security; and

"(2) to accomplish that goal in such a manner that the average aviation security-related delay experienced by airline passengers is reduced to a level of less than 10 minutes."

Lease of Property to Transportation Security Administration Employees

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §514, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2084, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, United States Code, for fiscal year 2006 and thereafter, the Administrator of the Transportation Security Administration may impose a reasonable charge for the lease of real and personal property to Transportation Security Administration employees and for use by Transportation Security Administration employees and may credit amounts received to the appropriation or fund initially charged for operating and maintaining the property, which amounts shall be available, without fiscal year limitation, for expenditure for property management, operation, protection, construction, repair, alteration, and related activities."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 108–334, title V, §516, Oct. 18, 2004, 118 Stat. 1318.

Acquisition Management System of the Transportation Security Administration

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §515, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2084, provided that: "For fiscal year 2006 and thereafter, the acquisition management system of the Transportation Security Administration shall apply to the acquisition of services, as well as equipment, supplies, and materials."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 108–334, title V, §517, Oct. 18, 2004, 118 Stat. 1318.

Registered Traveler Program Fee

Pub. L. 109–90, title V, §540, Oct. 18, 2005, 119 Stat. 2088, provided that: "For fiscal year 2006 and thereafter, notwithstanding section 553 of title 5, United States Code, the Secretary of Homeland Security shall impose a fee for any registered traveler program undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security by notice in the Federal Register, and may modify the fee from time to time by notice in the Federal Register: Provided, That such fees shall not exceed the aggregate costs associated with the program and shall be credited to the Transportation Security Administration registered traveler fee account, to be available until expended."

Enhanced Security Measures

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §109, Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 613, as amended by Pub. L. 107–296, title XIV, §1403(b), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2306, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Under Secretary of Transportation for Security may take the following actions:

"(1) Require effective 911 emergency call capability for telephones serving passenger aircraft and passenger trains.

"(2) Establish a uniform system of identification for all State and local law enforcement personnel for use in obtaining permission to carry weapons in aircraft cabins and in obtaining access to a secured area of an airport, if otherwise authorized to carry such weapons.

"(3) Establish requirements to implement trusted passenger programs and use available technologies to expedite the security screening of passengers who participate in such programs, thereby allowing security screening personnel to focus on those passengers who should be subject to more extensive screening.

"(4) In consultation with the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, develop alternative security procedures under which a medical product to be transported on a flight of an air carrier would not be subject to an inspection that would irreversibly damage the product.

"(5) Provide for the use of technologies, including wireless and wire line data technologies, to enable the private and secure communication of threats to aid in the screening of passengers and other individuals on airport property who are identified on any State or Federal security-related data base for the purpose of having an integrated response coordination of various authorized airport security forces.

"(6) In consultation with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, consider whether to require all pilot licenses to incorporate a photograph of the license holder and appropriate biometric imprints.

"(7) Provide for the use of voice stress analysis, biometric, or other technologies to prevent a person who might pose a danger to air safety or security from boarding the aircraft of an air carrier or foreign air carrier in air transportation or intrastate air transportation.

"(8) Provide for the use of technology that will permit enhanced instant communications and information between airborne passenger aircraft and appropriate individuals or facilities on the ground.

"(9) Require that air carriers provide flight attendants with a discreet, hands-free, wireless method of communicating with the pilots.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 2001], and annually thereafter until the Under Secretary has implemented or decided not to take each of the actions specified in subsection (a), the Under Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the progress of the Under Secretary in evaluating and taking such actions, including any legislative recommendations that the Under Secretary may have for enhancing transportation security."

[For definitions of terms used in section 109 of Pub. L. 107–71, set out above, see section 133 of Pub. L. 107–71, set out as a note under section 40102 of this title.]

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a closing parenthesis.

2 So in original. There is no subsec. (t).

§115. Transportation Security Oversight Board

(a) In General.—There is established in the Department of Homeland Security a board to be known as the "Transportation Security Oversight Board".

(b) Membership.—

(1) Number and appointment.—The Board shall be composed of 7 members as follows:

(A) The Secretary of Homeland Security, or the Secretary's designee.

(B) The Secretary of Transportation, or the Secretary's designee.

(C) The Attorney General, or the Attorney General's designee.

(D) The Secretary of Defense, or the Secretary's designee.

(E) The Secretary of the Treasury, or the Secretary's designee.

(F) The Director of National Intelligence, or the Director's designee.

(G) One member appointed by the President to represent the National Security Council.


(2) Chairperson.—The Chairperson of the Board shall be the Secretary of Homeland Security.


(c) Duties.—The Board shall—

(1) review and ratify or disapprove any regulation or security directive issued by the Under Secretary of Transportation for security 1 under section 114(l)(2) within 30 days after the date of issuance of such regulation or directive;

(2) facilitate the coordination of intelligence, security, and law enforcement activities affecting transportation;

(3) facilitate the sharing of intelligence, security, and law enforcement information affecting transportation among Federal agencies and with carriers and other transportation providers as appropriate;

(4) explore the technical feasibility of developing a common database of individuals who may pose a threat to transportation or national security;

(5) review plans for transportation security;

(6) make recommendations to the Under Secretary regarding matters reviewed under paragraph (5).


(d) Quarterly Meetings.—The Board shall meet at least quarterly.

(e) Consideration of Security Information.—A majority of the Board may vote to close a meeting of the Board to the public, except that meetings shall be closed to the public whenever classified, sensitive security information, or information protected in accordance with section 40119(b), will be discussed.

(Added Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §102(a), Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 604; amended Pub. L. 107–296, title IV, §426(a), Nov. 25, 2002, 116 Stat. 2186; Pub. L. 111–259, title IV, §411, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2725.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(1)(F). Pub. L. 111–259 amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, or the Director's designee."

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–296, §426(a)(1), substituted "Department of Homeland Security" for "Department of Transportation".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–296, §426(a)(2), added subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (F) as (B) to (G), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (G) which read as follows: "One member appointed by the President to represent the Office of Homeland Security."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–296, §426(a)(3), substituted "Secretary of Homeland Security" for "Secretary of Transportation".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–296 effective 60 days after Nov. 25, 2002, see section 4 of Pub. L. 107–296, set out as an Effective Date note under section 101 of Title 6, Domestic Security.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the Transportation Security Administration of the Department of Transportation, including the functions of the Secretary of Transportation, and of the Under Secretary of Transportation for Security, relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(2), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

§116. National Surface Transportation and Innovative Finance Bureau

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a National Surface Transportation and Innovative Finance Bureau in the Department.

(b) Purposes.—The purposes of the Bureau shall be—

(1) to provide assistance and communicate best practices and financing and funding opportunities to eligible entities for the programs referred to in subsection (d)(1);

(2) to administer the application processes for programs within the Department in accordance with subsection (d);

(3) to promote innovative financing best practices in accordance with subsection (e);

(4) to reduce uncertainty and delays with respect to environmental reviews and permitting in accordance with subsection (f); and

(5) to reduce costs and risks to taxpayers in project delivery and procurement in accordance with subsection (g).


(c) Executive Director.—

(1) Appointment.—The Bureau shall be headed by an Executive Director, who shall be appointed in the competitive service by the Secretary, with the approval of the President.

(2) Duties.—The Executive Director shall—

(A) report to the Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy;

(B) be responsible for the management and oversight of the daily activities, decisions, operations, and personnel of the Bureau;

(C) support the Council on Credit and Finance established under section 117 in accordance with this section; and

(D) carry out such additional duties as the Secretary may prescribe.


(d) Administration of Certain Application Processes.—

(1) In general.—The Bureau shall administer the application processes for the following programs:

(A) The infrastructure finance programs authorized under chapter 6 of title 23.

(B) The railroad rehabilitation and improvement financing program authorized under sections 501 through 503 of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821–823).

(C) Amount allocations authorized under section 142(m) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986.

(D) The nationally significant freight and highway projects program under section 117 of title 23.


(2) Congressional notification.—The Executive Director shall ensure that the congressional notification requirements for each program referred to in paragraph (1) are followed in accordance with the statutory provisions applicable to the program.

(3) Reports.—The Executive Director shall ensure that the reporting requirements for each program referred to in paragraph (1) are followed in accordance with the statutory provisions applicable to the program.

(4) Coordination.—In administering the application processes for the programs referred to in paragraph (1), the Executive Director shall coordinate with appropriate officials in the Department and its modal administrations responsible for administering such programs.

(5) Streamlining approval processes.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the Executive Director shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a report that—

(A) evaluates the application processes for the programs referred to in paragraph (1);

(B) identifies administrative and legislative actions that would improve the efficiency of the application processes without diminishing Federal oversight; and

(C) describes how the Executive Director will implement administrative actions identified under subparagraph (B) that do not require an Act of Congress.


(6) Procedures and transparency.—

(A) Procedures.—With respect to the programs referred to in paragraph (1), the Executive Director shall—

(i) establish procedures for analyzing and evaluating applications and for utilizing the recommendations of the Council on Credit and Finance;

(ii) establish procedures for addressing late-arriving applications, as applicable, and communicating the Bureau's decisions for accepting or rejecting late applications to the applicant and the public; and

(iii) document major decisions in the application evaluation process through a decision memorandum or similar mechanism that provides a clear rationale for such decisions.


(B) Review.—

(i) In general.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall review the compliance of the Executive Director with the requirements of this paragraph.

(ii) Recommendations.—The Comptroller General may make recommendations to the Executive Director in order to improve compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.

(iii) Report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this section, the Comptroller General shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the results of the review conducted under clause (i), including findings and recommendations for improvement.


(e) Innovative Financing Best Practices.—

(1) In general.—The Bureau shall work with the modal administrations within the Department, eligible entities, and other public and private interests to develop and promote best practices for innovative financing and public-private partnerships.

(2) Activities.—The Bureau shall carry out paragraph (1)—

(A) by making Federal credit assistance programs more accessible to eligible recipients;

(B) by providing advice and expertise to eligible entities that seek to leverage public and private funding;

(C) by sharing innovative financing best practices and case studies from eligible entities with other eligible entities that are interested in utilizing innovative financing methods; and

(D) by developing and monitoring—

(i) best practices with respect to standardized State public-private partnership authorities and practices, including best practices related to—

(I) accurate and reliable assumptions for analyzing public-private partnership procurements;

(II) procedures for the handling of unsolicited bids;

(III) policies with respect to noncompete clauses; and

(IV) other significant terms of public-private partnership procurements, as determined appropriate by the Bureau;


(ii) standard contracts for the most common types of public-private partnerships for transportation facilities; and

(iii) analytical tools and other techniques to aid eligible entities in determining the appropriate project delivery model, including a value for money analysis.


(3) Transparency.—The Bureau shall—

(A) ensure the transparency of a project receiving credit assistance under a program referred to in subsection (d)(1) and procured as a public-private partnership by—

(i) requiring the sponsor of the project to undergo a value for money analysis or a comparable analysis prior to deciding to advance the project as a public-private partnership;

(ii) requiring the analysis required under subparagraph (A), and other key terms of the relevant public-private partnership agreement, to be made publicly available by the project sponsor at an appropriate time;

(iii) not later than 3 years after the date of completion of the project, requiring the sponsor of the project to conduct a review regarding whether the private partner is meeting the terms of the relevant public-private partnership agreement; and

(iv) providing a publicly available summary of the total level of Federal assistance in such project; and


(B) develop guidance to implement this paragraph that takes into consideration variations in State and local laws and requirements related to public-private partnerships.


(4) Support to project sponsors.—At the request of an eligible entity, the Bureau shall provide technical assistance to the eligible entity regarding proposed public-private partnership agreements for transportation facilities, including assistance in performing a value for money analysis or comparable analysis.


(f) Environmental Review and Permitting.—

(1) In general.—The Bureau shall take actions that are appropriate and consistent with the Department's goals and policies to improve the delivery timelines for projects carried out under the programs referred to in subsection (d)(1).

(2) Activities.—The Bureau shall carry out paragraph (1)—

(A) by serving as the Department's liaison to the Council on Environmental Quality;

(B) by coordinating efforts to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the environmental review and permitting process;

(C) by providing technical assistance and training to field and headquarters staff of Federal agencies on policy changes and innovative approaches to the delivery of projects; and

(D) by identifying, developing, and tracking metrics for permit reviews and decisions by Federal agencies for projects under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.


(3) Support to project sponsors.—At the request of an eligible entity that is carrying out a project under a program referred to in subsection (d)(1), the Bureau, in coordination with the appropriate modal administrations within the Department, shall provide technical assistance with regard to the compliance of the project with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act 1969 and relevant Federal environmental permits.


(g) Project Procurement.—

(1) In general.—The Bureau shall promote best practices in procurement for a project receiving assistance under a program referred to in subsection (d)(1) by developing, in coordination with modal administrations within the Department as appropriate, procurement benchmarks in order to ensure accountable expenditure of Federal assistance over the life cycle of the project.

(2) Procurement benchmarks.—To the maximum extent practicable, the procurement benchmarks developed under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) establish maximum thresholds for acceptable project cost increases and delays in project delivery;

(B) establish uniform methods for States to measure cost and delivery changes over the life cycle of a project; and

(C) be tailored, as necessary, to various types of project procurements, including design-bid-build, design-build, and public-private partnerships.


(3) Data collection.—The Bureau shall—

(A) collect information related to procurement benchmarks developed under paragraph (1), including project specific information detailed under paragraph (2); and

(B) provide on a publicly accessible Internet Web site of the Department a report on the information collected under subparagraph (A).


(h) Elimination and Consolidation of Duplicative Offices.—

(1) Elimination of offices.—The Secretary may eliminate any office within the Department if the Secretary determines that—

(A) the purposes of the office are duplicative of the purposes of the Bureau; and

(B) the elimination of the office does not adversely affect the obligations of the Secretary under any Federal law.


(2) Consolidation of offices and office functions.—The Secretary may consolidate any office or office function within the Department into the Bureau that the Secretary determines has duties, responsibilities, resources, or expertise that support the purposes of the Bureau.

(3) Staffing and budgetary resources.—

(A) In general.—The Secretary shall ensure that the Bureau is adequately staffed and funded.

(B) Staffing.—The Secretary may transfer to the Bureau a position within the Department from any office that is eliminated or consolidated under this subsection if the Secretary determines that the position is necessary to carry out the purposes of the Bureau.

(C) Savings provision.—If the Secretary transfers a position to the Bureau under subparagraph (B), the Secretary, in coordination with the appropriate modal administration, shall ensure that the transfer of the position does not adversely affect the obligations of the modal administration under any Federal law.

(D) Budgetary resources.—

(i) Transfer of funds from eliminated or consolidated offices.—During the 2-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary may transfer to the Bureau funds allocated to any office or office function that is eliminated or consolidated under this subsection to carry out the purposes of the Bureau.

(ii) Transfer of funds allocated to administrative costs.—During the 2-year period beginning on the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary may transfer to the Bureau funds allocated to the administrative costs of processing applications for the programs referred to in subsection (d)(1).


(4) Notification.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section, and every 90 days thereafter, the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate of—

(A) the offices eliminated under paragraph (1) and the rationale for elimination of the offices;

(B) the offices and office functions consolidated under paragraph (2) and the rationale for consolidation of the offices and office functions;

(C) the actions taken under paragraph (3) and the rationale for taking such actions; and

(D) any additional legislative actions that may be needed.


(i) Savings Provisions.—

(1) Laws and regulations.—Nothing in this section may be construed to change a law or regulation with respect to a program referred to in subsection (d)(1).

(2) Responsibilities.—Nothing in this section may be construed to abrogate the responsibilities of an agency, operating administration, or office within the Department otherwise charged by a law or regulation with other aspects of program administration, oversight, or project approval or implementation for the programs and projects subject to this section.

(3) Applicability.—Nothing in this section may be construed to affect any pending application under 1 or more of the programs referred to in subsection (d)(1) that was received by the Secretary on or before the date of enactment of this section.


(j) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Bureau.—The term "Bureau" means the National Surface Transportation and Innovative Finance Bureau of the Department.

(2) Department.—The term "Department" means the Department of Transportation.

(3) Eligible entity.—The term "eligible entity" means an eligible applicant receiving financial or credit assistance under 1 or more of the programs referred to in subsection (d)(1).

(4) Executive director.—The term "Executive Director" means the Executive Director of the Bureau.

(5) Multimodal project.—The term "multimodal project" means a project involving the participation of more than 1 modal administration or secretarial office within the Department.

(6) Project.—The term "project" means a highway project, public transportation capital project, freight or passenger rail project, or multimodal project.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title IX, §9001(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1612.)

References in Text

Section 142 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(C), is classified to section 142 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (d)(5), (6)(B)(iii), (h)(3)(D), (4), and (i)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(D), (3), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§117. Council on Credit and Finance

(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish a Council on Credit and Finance in accordance with this section.

(b) Membership.—

(1) In general.—The Council shall be composed of the following members:

(A) The Deputy Secretary of Transportation.

(B) The Under Secretary of Transportation for Policy.

(C) The Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Budget and Programs.

(D) The General Counsel of the Department of Transportation.

(E) The Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy.

(F) The Administrator of the Federal Highway Administration.

(G) The Administrator of the Federal Transit Administration.

(H) The Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration.


(2) Additional members.—The Secretary may designate up to 3 additional officials of the Department to serve as at-large members of the Council.

(3) Chairperson and vice chairperson.—

(A) Chairperson.—The Deputy Secretary of Transportation shall serve as the chairperson of the Council.

(B) Vice chairperson.—The Chief Financial Officer and Assistant Secretary for Budget and Programs shall serve as the vice chairperson of the Council.


(4) Executive director.—The Executive Director of the National Surface Transportation and Innovative Finance Bureau shall serve as a nonvoting member of the Council.


(c) Duties.—The Council shall—

(1) review applications for assistance submitted under the programs referred to in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of section 116(d)(1);

(2) review applications for assistance submitted under the program referred to in section 116(d)(1)(D), as determined appropriate by the Secretary;

(3) make recommendations to the Secretary regarding the selection of projects to receive assistance under such programs;

(4) review, on a regular basis, projects that received assistance under such programs; and

(5) carry out such additional duties as the Secretary may prescribe.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title IX, §9002(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1618.)

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

CHAPTER 3—GENERAL DUTIES AND POWERS

SUBCHAPTER I—DUTIES OF THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION

Sec.
301.
Leadership, consultation, and cooperation.
302.
Policy standards for transportation.
303.
Policy on lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites.
303a.
Development of water transportation.
304.
Application of categorical exclusions for multimodal projects.
304a.
Accelerated decisionmaking in environmental reviews.
305.
Transportation investment standards and criteria.
306.
Prohibited discrimination.
307.
Improving State and Federal agency engagement in environmental reviews.
308.
Reports.
309.
High-speed ground transportation.
310.
Aligning Federal environmental reviews.
311.
Congressional notification requirements.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

321.
Definitions.
322.
General powers.
323.
Personnel.
324.
Members of the armed forces.
325.
Advisory committees.
326.
Gifts.
327.
Administrative working capital fund.
328.
Transportation Systems Center working capital fund.
329.
Transportation information.
330.
Research activities.
331.
Service, supplies, and facilities at remote places.
332.
Minority Resource Center.
333.
Responsibility for rail transportation unification and coordination projects.
[334, 335.
Repealed.]
336.
Civil penalty procedures.
337.
Budget request for the Director of Intelligence and Security.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—MISCELLANEOUS

351.
Judicial review of actions in carrying out certain transferred duties and powers.
352.
Authority to carry out certain transferred duties and powers.
353.
Toxicological testing of officers and employees.
354.
Investigative authority of Inspector General.

        

Amendments

2016—Pub. L. 114–322, title IV, §5001(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1885, added item 311.

2015Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §§1311(b), 1312(b), 1313(b), title VI, §6011(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1399, 1400, 1402, 1569, added items 304a, 307, and 310 and substituted "Research activities" for "Research contracts" in item 330.

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1446(d)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1438, amended section 1314(b) of Pub. L. 112–141, effective July 6, 2012, as if included in Pub. L. 112–141 as enacted. See 2012 Amendment note below.

2012Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, §1314(b), div. C, title II, §32932(a)(2), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 549, 829, as amended by Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1446(d)(4), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1438, substituted "Application of categorical exclusions for multimodal projects" for "Joint activities with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in item 304 and struck out item 307 "Safety information and intervention in Interstate Commerce Commission proceedings".

2003Pub. L. 108–168, §8(b)(2), Dec. 6, 2003, 117 Stat. 2035, added item 354.

1994Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(6)(B), (9)(B), (10)(B), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366–1368, added item 303a, struck out items 334 "Limit on aviation charges" and 335 "Authorization of appropriations", and added item 337, subchapter III heading, and items 351 to 353.

1991Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(c)(2), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1985, added item 309.

1989Pub. L. 101–225, title III, §305(2), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1925, added item 336.

1984Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(B), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5, substituted "Reports" for "Annual reports" in item 308.

SUBCHAPTER I—DUTIES OF THE SECRETARY OF TRANSPORTATION

§301. Leadership, consultation, and cooperation

The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) under the direction of the President, exercise leadership in transportation matters, including those matters affecting national defense and those matters involving national or regional emergencies;

(2) provide leadership in the development of transportation policies and programs, and make recommendations to the President and Congress for their consideration and implementation;

(3) coordinate Federal policy on intermodal transportation and initiate policies to promote efficient intermodal transportation in the United States;

(4) promote and undertake the development, collection, and dissemination of technological, statistical, economic, and other information relevant to domestic and international transportation;

(5) consult and cooperate with the Secretary of Labor in compiling information regarding the status of labor-management contracts and other labor-management problems and in promoting industrial harmony and stable employment conditions in all modes of transportation;

(6) promote and undertake research and development related to transportation, including noise abatement, with particular attention to aircraft noise, and including basic highway vehicle science;

(7) consult with the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government on the transportation requirements of the Government, including encouraging them to establish and observe policies consistent with maintaining a coordinated transportation system in procuring transportation or in operating their own transport services;

(8) consult and cooperate with State and local governments, carriers, labor, and other interested persons, including, when appropriate, holding informal public hearings; and

(9) develop and coordinate Federal policy on financing transportation infrastructure, including the provision of direct Federal credit assistance and other techniques used to leverage Federal transportation funds.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2418; Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5002(a), title VI, §6017, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2158, 2183; Pub. L. 105–178, title I, §1504, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 251.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
301 49:1653(a). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(a), 80 Stat. 933.

In the introductory clause before "shall", the words "in carrying out the purposes of this chapter . . . among his responsibilities" are omitted as surplus.

In clause (4), the word "compiling" is substituted for "gathering" for consistency.

Amendments

1998—Par. (9). Pub. L. 105–178 added par. (9).

1991—Pars. (3) to (5). Pub. L. 102–240, §5002(a), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively. Former par. (5) redesignated (6).

Par. (6). Pub. L. 102–240, §§5002(a), 6017, redesignated par. (5) as (6) and inserted ", and including basic highway vehicle science". Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 102–240, §5002(a), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively.

National Advisory Committee on Travel and Tourism Infrastructure

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1431, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1427, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) 1 out of every 9 jobs in the United States depends on travel and tourism, and the industry supports 15,000,000 jobs in the United States;

"(2) the travel and tourism industry employs individuals in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, and all of the territories of the United States;

"(3) international travel to the United States is the single largest export industry in the United States, generating a trade surplus balance of approximately $74,000,000,000;

"(4) travel and tourism provide significant economic benefits to the United States by generating nearly $2,100,000,000,000 in annual economic output; and

"(5) the United States intermodal transportation network facilitates the large-scale movement of business and leisure travelers, and is the most important asset of the travel industry.

"(b) Establishment.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary [of Transportation] shall establish an advisory committee to be known as the National Advisory Committee on Travel and Tourism Infrastructure (referred to in this section as the 'Committee') to provide information, advice, and recommendations to the Secretary on matters relating to the role of intermodal transportation in facilitating mobility related to travel and tourism activities.

"(c) Membership.—The Committee shall—

"(1) be composed of members appointed by the Secretary for terms of not more than 3 years; and

"(2) include a representative cross-section of public and private sector stakeholders involved in the travel and tourism industry, including representatives of—

"(A) the travel and tourism industry, product and service providers, and travel and tourism-related associations;

"(B) travel, tourism, and destination marketing organizations;

"(C) the travel and tourism-related workforce;

"(D) State tourism offices;

"(E) State departments of transportation;

"(F) regional and metropolitan planning organizations; and

"(G) local governments.

"(d) Role of Committee.—The Committee shall—

"(1) advise the Secretary on current and emerging priorities, issues, projects, and funding needs related to the use of the intermodal transportation network of the United States to facilitate travel and tourism;

"(2) serve as a forum for discussion for travel and tourism stakeholders on transportation issues affecting interstate and interregional mobility of passengers;

"(3) promote the sharing of information between the private and public sectors on transportation issues impacting travel and tourism;

"(4) gather information, develop technical advice, and make recommendations to the Secretary on policies that improve the condition and performance of an integrated national transportation system that—

"(A) is safe, economical, and efficient; and

"(B) maximizes the benefits to the United States generated through the travel and tourism industry;

"(5) identify critical transportation facilities and corridors that facilitate and support the interstate and interregional transportation of passengers for tourism, commercial, and recreational activities;

"(6) provide for development of measures of condition, safety, and performance for transportation related to travel and tourism;

"(7) provide for development of transportation investment, data, and planning tools to assist Federal, State, and local officials in making investment decisions relating to transportation projects that improve travel and tourism; and

"(8) address other issues of transportation policy and programs impacting the movement of travelers for tourism and recreational purposes, including by making legislative recommendations.

"(e) National Travel and Tourism Infrastructure Strategic Plan.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary, in consultation with the Committee, State departments of transportation, and other appropriate public and private transportation stakeholders, shall develop and post on the public Internet website of the Department a national travel and tourism infrastructure strategic plan that includes—

"(1) an assessment of the condition and performance of the national transportation network;

"(2) an identification of the issues on the national transportation network that create significant congestion problems and barriers to long-haul passenger travel and tourism;

"(3) forecasts of long-haul passenger travel and tourism volumes for the 20-year period beginning in the year during which the plan is issued;

"(4) an identification of the major transportation facilities and corridors for current and forecasted long-haul travel and tourism volumes, the identification of which shall be revised, as appropriate, in subsequent plans;

"(5) an assessment of statutory, regulatory, technological, institutional, financial, and other barriers to improved long-haul passenger travel performance (including opportunities for overcoming the barriers);

"(6) best practices for improving the performance of the national transportation network; and

"(7) strategies to improve intermodal connectivity for long-haul passenger travel and tourism."

Collaboration and Support

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title VI, §6024, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1585, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] may solicit the support of, and identify opportunities to collaborate with, other Federal research agencies and national laboratories to assist in the effective and efficient pursuit and resolution of research challenges identified by the Secretary."

Public-Private Partnerships

Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, §1534, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 584, provided that:

"(a) Best Practices.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall compile, and make available to the public on the website of the Department [of Transportation], best practices on how States, public transportation agencies, and other public officials can work with the private sector in the development, financing, construction, and operation of transportation facilities.

"(b) Contents.—The best practices compiled under subsection (a) shall include polices and techniques to ensure that the interests of the traveling public and State and local governments are protected in any agreement entered into with the private sector for the development, financing, construction, and operation of transportation facilities.

"(c) Technical Assistance.—The Secretary, on request, may provide technical assistance to States, public transportation agencies, and other public officials regarding proposed public-private partnership agreements for the development, financing, construction, and operation of transportation facilities, including assistance in analyzing whether the use of a public-private partnership agreement would provide value compared with traditional public delivery methods.

"(d) Standard Transaction Contracts.—

"(1) Development.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [see section 3(a), (b) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment notes under section 101 of Title 23, Highways], the Secretary shall develop standard public-private partnership transaction model contracts for the most popular types of public-private partnerships for the development, financing, construction, and operation of transportation facilities.

"(2) Use.—The Secretary shall encourage States, public transportation agencies, and other public officials to use the model contracts as a base template when developing their own public-private partnership agreements for the development, financing, construction, and operation of transportation facilities."

Vessel Transfer Authority

Pub. L. 109–364, div. C, title XXXV, §3504, Oct. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 2516, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation may transfer or otherwise make available without reimbursement to any other department a vessel under the jurisdiction of the Department of Transportation, upon request by the Secretary of the department that receives the vessel."

Budget Justification

Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, §1532, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 583, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a budget justification for each agency of the Department concurrently with the annual budget submission of the President to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code."

Pub. L. 109–59, title I, §1926, Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1483, as amended by Pub. L. 110–244, title I, §108(a), June 6, 2008, 122 Stat. 1602, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Department of Transportation and each agency in the Department shall submit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate a budget justification concurrently with the President's annual budget submission to Congress under section 1105(a) of title 31, United States Code."

Coordinated Transportation Services

Pub. L. 105–178, title III, §3034, June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 386, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Comptroller General shall conduct a study of Federal departments and agencies (other than the Department of Transportation) that receive Federal financial assistance for non-emergency transportation services.

"(b) Contents.—In conducting the study, the Comptroller General shall—

"(1) identify each Federal department and agency (other than the Department of Transportation) that has received Federal financial assistance for non-emergency transportation services in any of the 3 fiscal years preceding the date of enactment of this Act [June 9, 1998];

"(2) identify the amount of such assistance received by each Federal department and agency in such fiscal years; and

"(3) identify the projects and activities funded using such financial assistance.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall transmit to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate a report containing the results of the study and any recommendations for enhanced coordination between the Department of Transportation and other Federal departments and agencies that provide funding for non-emergency transportation."

Establishment of Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System

Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §346, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1449, provided that:

"(a) As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997], the Secretary of Transportation, acting for the Department of Transportation, may take receipt of such equipment and sites of the Ground Wave Emergency Network (referred to in this section as 'GWEN') as the Secretary of Transportation determines to be necessary for the establishment of a nationwide system to be known as the 'Nationwide Differential Global Positioning System' (referred to in this section as 'NDGPS').

"(b) As soon as practicable after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1997], the Secretary of Transportation may establish the NDGPS. In establishing the NDGPS, the Secretary of Transportation may—

"(1) if feasible, reuse GWEN equipment and sites transferred to the Department of Transportation under subsection (a);

"(2) to the maximum extent practicable, use contractor services to install the NDGPS;

"(3) modify the positioning system operated by the Coast Guard at the time of the establishment of the NDGPS to integrate the reference stations made available pursuant to subsection (a);

"(4) in cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce, ensure that the reference stations referred to in paragraph (3) are compatible with, and integrated into, the Continuously Operating Reference Station (commonly referred to as 'CORS') system of the National Geodetic Survey of the Department of Commerce; and

"(5) in cooperation with the Secretary of Commerce, investigate the use of the NDGPS reference stations for the Global Positioning System Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor System of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

"(c) The Secretary of Transportation may—

"(1) manage and operate the NDGPS;

"(2) ensure that the service of the NDGPS is provided without the assessment of any user fee; and

"(3) in cooperation with the Secretary of Defense, ensure that the use of the NDGPS is denied to any enemy of the United States.

"(d) In any case in which the Secretary of Transportation determines that contracting for the maintenance of 1 or more NDGPS reference stations is cost-effective, the Secretary of Transportation may enter into a contract to provide for that maintenance.

"(e) The Secretary of Transportation may—

"(1) in cooperation with appropriate representatives of private industries and universities and officials of State governments—

"(A) investigate improvements (including potential improvements) to the NDGPS;

"(B) develop standards for the NDGPS; and

"(C) sponsor the development of new applications for the NDGPS; and

"(2) provide for the continual upgrading of the NDGPS to improve performance and address the needs of—

"(A) the Federal Government;

"(B) State and local governments; and

"(C) the general public."

Intermodal Transportation Advisory Board and Office of Intermodalism

Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5002(b), (c), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2158, which provided for establishment within the Office of the Secretary of Transportation of an Intermodal Transportation Advisory Board to make recommendations for carrying out responsibilities of the Secretary concerning the coordination of Federal policy on intermodal transportation, and for establishment within the Office of the Secretary of an Office of Intermodalism to develop intermodal transportation data, to coordinate Federal research on intermodal transportation, to provide technical assistance to States and metropolitan planning organizations, and to provide administrative and clerical support to the Intermodal Transportation Advisory Board, was repealed and reenacted as sections 5502 and former 5503 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(d), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 849, 850, 1379.

Model Intermodal Transportation Plans

Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5003, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2159, which directed Secretary of Transportation to make grants to States, representing a variety of geographic regions and transportation needs, patterns, and modes, for purpose of developing model State intermodal transportation plans consistent with policy of United States to encourage and promote development of national intermodal transportation system, was repealed and reenacted as section 5504 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(d), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 850, 1379.

National Commission on Intermodal Transportation

Pub. L. 102–240, title V, §5005, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2160, provided for establishment of a National Commission on Intermodal Transportation, consisting of 11 appointed members, to make a complete investigation and study of intermodal transportation in the United States and internationally and to send a report to Congress not later than Sept. 30, 1993, containing recommendations for implementing the policy set out in section 302(e) of this title, with the Commission to terminate on the 180th day following transmittal of the report, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400.

Border Crossings

Pub. L. 102–240, title VI, §6015, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2181, directed Secretary of Transportation to identify existing and emerging trade corridors and transportation subsystems that facilitate trade between United States, Canada, and Mexico and to recommend changes to improve and integrate corridor subsystems in order to achieve increased productivity and use of innovative marketing techniques, and directed Secretary to report to Congress not later than 18 months after Dec. 18, 1991, on transportation infrastructure needs and associated costs and to propose an agenda to develop systemwide integration of services for national benefits.

Underground Pipelines

Pub. L. 102–240, title VI, §6020, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2184, directed Secretary of Transportation to conduct a study to evaluate feasibility, costs, and benefits of constructing and operating pneumatic capsule pipelines for underground movement of commodities other than hazardous liquids and gas, and to submit, not later than 2 years after Dec. 18, 1991, a report to Congress on the results of the study, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(3), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400.

Long-Range National Transportation Strategic Planning Study

Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §317(b), Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2149, directed Department of Transportation to undertake a long-range, multi-modal national transportation strategic planning study, such study to forecast long-term needs and costs for developing and maintaining facilities and services to achieve a desired national transportation program for moving people and goods in the year 2015 and to include detailed analyses of transportation needs within six to nine metropolitan areas that have diverse population, development, and demographic patterns, including at least one interstate metropolitan area, with study to be submitted to Congress on or before Oct. 1, 1989. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act: Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §317(b)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329-381.

Commercial Expendable Launch Vehicle Activities

Designation of Department of Transportation as lead agency and duties of the Secretary for encouraging, facilitating, and developing commercial expendable launch vehicle operations by private enterprise, see Ex. Ord. No. 12465, Feb. 24, 1984, 49 F.R. 7211, set out under section 50903 of Title 51, National and Commercial Space Programs.

Ex. Ord. No. 13274. Environmental Stewardship and Transportation Infrastructure Project Reviews

Ex. Ord. No. 13274, Sept. 18, 2002, 67 F.R. 59449, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13286, §2, Feb. 28, 2003, 68 F.R. 10619, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, and to enhance environmental stewardship and streamline the environmental review and development of transportation infrastructure projects, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. The development and implementation of transportation infrastructure projects in an efficient and environmentally sound manner is essential to the well-being of the American people and a strong American economy. Executive departments and agencies (agencies) shall take appropriate actions, to the extent consistent with applicable law and available resources, to promote environmental stewardship in the Nation's transportation system and expedite environmental reviews of high-priority transportation infrastructure projects.

Sec. 2. Actions. (a) For transportation infrastructure projects, agencies shall, in support of the Department of Transportation, formulate and implement administrative, policy, and procedural mechanisms that enable each agency required by law to conduct environmental reviews (reviews) with respect to such projects to ensure completion of such reviews in a timely and environmentally responsible manner.

(b) In furtherance of the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with agencies as appropriate, shall advance environmental stewardship through cooperative actions with project sponsors to promote protection and enhancement of the natural and human environment in the planning, development, operation, and maintenance of transportation facilities and services.

(c) The Secretary of Transportation shall designate for the purposes of this order a list of high-priority transportation infrastructure projects that should receive expedited agency reviews and shall amend such list from time to time as the Secretary deems appropriate. For projects on the Secretary's list, agencies shall to the maximum extent practicable expedite their reviews for relevant permits or other approvals, and take related actions as necessary, consistent with available resources and applicable laws, including those relating to safety, public health, and environmental protection.

Sec. 3. Interagency Task Force. (a) Establishment. There is established, within the Department of Transportation for administrative purposes, the interagency "Transportation Infrastructure Streamlining Task Force" (Task Force) to: (i) monitor and assist agencies in their efforts to expedite a review of transportation infrastructure projects and issue permits or similar actions, as necessary; (ii) review projects, at least quarterly, on the list of priority projects pursuant to section 2(c) of this order; and (iii) identify and promote policies that can effectively streamline the process required to provide approvals for transportation infrastructure projects, in compliance with applicable law, while maintaining safety, public health, and environmental protection.

(b) Membership and Operation. The Task Force shall promote interagency cooperation and the establishment of appropriate mechanisms to coordinate Federal, State, tribal, and local agency consultation, review, approval, and permitting of transportation infrastructure projects. The Task Force shall consist exclusively of the following officers of the United States: the Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Transportation (who shall chair the Task Force), Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Defense, Secretary of Homeland Security, Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Chairman of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality. A member of the Task Force may designate, to perform the Task Force functions of the member, any person who is part of the member's department, agency, or office and who is either an officer of the United States appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate or a member of the Senior Executive Service. The Task Force shall report to the President through the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality.

Sec. 4. Report. At least once each year, the Task Force shall submit to the President a report that: (a) Describes the results of the coordinated and expedited reviews on a project-by-project basis, and identifies those procedures and actions that proved to be most useful and appropriate in coordinating and expediting the review of the projects.

(b) Identifies substantive and procedural requirements of Federal, State, tribal, and local laws, regulations, and Executive Orders that are inconsistent with, duplicative of, or are structured so as to restrict their efficient implementation with other applicable requirements.

(c) Makes recommendations regarding those additional actions that could be taken to: (i) address the coordination and expediting of reviews of transportation infrastructure projects by simplifying and harmonizing applicable substantive and procedural requirements; and (ii) elevate and resolve controversies among Federal, State, tribal, and local agencies related to the review or impacts of transportation infrastructure projects in a timely manner.

(d) Provides any other recommendations that would, in the judgement of the Task Force, advance the policy set forth in section 1 of this order.

Sec. 5. Preservation of Authority. Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, and legislative proposals.

Sec. 6. Judicial Review. This order is intended only to improve the internal management of the Federal Government and is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or equity by a party against the United States, its departments, agencies, instrumentalities or entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

§302. Policy standards for transportation

(a) The Secretary of Transportation is governed by the transportation policy of sections 10101 and 13101 of this title in addition to other laws.

(b) This subtitle and chapters 221 and 315 of this title do not authorize, without appropriate action by Congress, the adoption, revision, or implementation of a transportation policy or investment standards or criteria.

(c) The Secretary shall consider the needs—

(1) for effectiveness and safety in transportation systems; and

(2) of national defense.


(d)(1) It is the policy of the United States to promote the construction and commercialization of high-speed ground transportation systems by—

(A) conducting economic and technological research;

(B) demonstrating advancements in high-speed ground transportation technologies;

(C) establishing a comprehensive policy for the development of such systems and the effective integration of the various high-speed ground transportation technologies; and

(D) minimizing the long-term risks of investors.


(2) It is the policy of the United States to establish in the shortest time practicable a United States designed and constructed magnetic levitation transportation technology capable of operating along Federal-aid highway rights-of-way, as part of a national transportation system of the United States.

(e) Intermodal Transportation.—It is the policy of the United States Government to encourage and promote development of a national intermodal transportation system in the United States to move people and goods in an energy-efficient manner, provide the foundation for improved productivity growth, strengthen the Nation's ability to compete in the global economy, and obtain the optimum yield from the Nation's transportation resources.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2419; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(a), title V, §5001, Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1978, 2158; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(6), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1375; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 946.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
302(a) 49:1653(b)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(b), 80 Stat. 933.
302(b) 49:1653(b)(2).
302(c) 49:1653(b)(3).

In subsection (a), the words "In carrying out his duties and responsibilities under this chapter" before "Secretary of Transportation" are omitted as surplus. The words "the transportation policy of sections 10101 and 10101a of this title in addition to other laws" are substituted for "all applicable statutes including the policy standards set forth in the Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended [49 U.S.C. 1301 et seq.]; the national transportation policy of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended; title 23, relating to Federal-aid highways; and title 14, titles 52 and 53 of the Revised Statutes, the Act of April 25, 1940, as amended, and the Act of September 2, 1958, as amended, relating to the United States Coast Guard" because each of the omitted laws is now applicable to the Secretary of Transportation and the Department of Transportation as the result of the restatement of those laws, and the Secretary is therefore bound to follow those laws by their own terms.

In subsection (c), the words "In exercising the functions, powers, and duties conferred on and transferred to the Secretary by this chapter" before "Secretary" are omitted as surplus. The word "consider" is substituted for "give full consideration to" to eliminate surplus words. The words "for operational continuity of the functions transferred" after "the needs" are omitted as executed.

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "13101" for "10101a".

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "This subtitle and chapters 221 and 315 of this title" for "Subtitle I and chapter 31 of subtitle II of this title and the Department of Transportation Act (49 App. U.S.C. 1651 et seq.)".

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–240, §1036(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–240, §5001, added subsec. (e).

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted "49 App. U.S.C." for "49 U.S.C.".

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by section 1036(a) of Pub. L. 102–240 effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as a note under section 104 of Title 23, Highways.

§303. Policy on lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites

(a) It is the policy of the United States Government that special effort should be made to preserve the natural beauty of the countryside and public park and recreation lands, wildlife and waterfowl refuges, and historic sites.

(b) The Secretary of Transportation shall cooperate and consult with the Secretaries of the Interior, Housing and Urban Development, and Agriculture, and with the States, in developing transportation plans and programs that include measures to maintain or enhance the natural beauty of lands crossed by transportation activities or facilities.

(c) Approval of Programs and Projects.—Subject to subsections (d) and (h), the Secretary may approve a transportation program or project (other than any project for a park road or parkway under section 204 1 of title 23) requiring the use of publicly owned land of a public park, recreation area, or wildlife and waterfowl refuge of national, State, or local significance, or land of an historic site of national, State, or local significance (as determined by the Federal, State, or local officials having jurisdiction over the park, area, refuge, or site) only if—

(1) there is no prudent and feasible alternative to using that land; and

(2) the program or project includes all possible planning to minimize harm to the park, recreation area, wildlife and waterfowl refuge, or historic site resulting from the use.


(d) De Minimis Impacts.—

(1) Requirements.—

(A) Requirements for historic sites.—The requirements of this section shall be considered to be satisfied with respect to an area described in paragraph (2) if the Secretary determines, in accordance with this subsection, that a transportation program or project will have a de minimis impact on the area.

(B) Requirements for parks, recreation areas, and wildlife or waterfowl refuges.—The requirements of subsection (c)(1) shall be considered to be satisfied with respect to an area described in paragraph (3) if the Secretary determines, in accordance with this subsection, that a transportation program or project will have a de minimis impact on the area. The requirements of subsection (c)(2) with respect to an area described in paragraph (3) shall not include an alternatives analysis.

(C) Criteria.—In making any determination under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider to be part of a transportation program or project any avoidance, minimization, mitigation, or enhancement measures that are required to be implemented as a condition of approval of the transportation program or project.


(2) Historic sites.—With respect to historic sites, the Secretary may make a finding of de minimis impact only if—

(A) the Secretary has determined, in accordance with the consultation process required under section 306108 of title 54, United States Code,2 that—

(i) the transportation program or project will have no adverse effect on the historic site; or

(ii) there will be no historic properties affected by the transportation program or project;


(B) the finding of the Secretary has received written concurrence from the applicable State historic preservation officer or tribal historic preservation officer (and from the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation if the Council is participating in the consultation process); and

(C) the finding of the Secretary has been developed in consultation with parties consulting as part of the process referred to in subparagraph (A).


(3) Parks, recreation areas, and wildlife or waterfowl refuges.—With respect to parks, recreation areas, or wildlife or waterfowl refuges, the Secretary may make a finding of de minimis impact only if—

(A) the Secretary has determined, after public notice and opportunity for public review and comment, that the transportation program or project will not adversely affect the activities, features, and attributes of the park, recreation area, or wildlife or waterfowl refuge eligible for protection under this section; and

(B) the finding of the Secretary has received concurrence from the officials with jurisdiction over the park, recreation area, or wildlife or waterfowl refuge.


(e) Satisfaction of Requirements for Certain Historic Sites.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall—

(A) align, to the maximum extent practicable, the requirements of this section with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and section 306108 of title 54, including implementing regulations; and

(B) not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this subsection, coordinate with the Secretary of the Interior and the Executive Director of the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (referred to in this subsection as the "Council") to establish procedures to satisfy the requirements described in subparagraph (A) (including regulations).


(2) Avoidance alternative analysis.—

(A) In general.—If, in an analysis required under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Secretary determines that there is no feasible or prudent alternative to avoid use of a historic site, the Secretary may—

(i) include the determination of the Secretary in the analysis required under that Act;

(ii) provide a notice of the determination to—

(I) each applicable State historic preservation officer and tribal historic preservation officer;

(II) the Council, if the Council is participating in the consultation process under section 306108 of title 54; and

(III) the Secretary of the Interior; and


(iii) request from the applicable preservation officer, the Council, and the Secretary of the Interior a concurrence that the determination is sufficient to satisfy subsection (c)(1).


(B) Concurrence.—If the applicable preservation officer, the Council, and the Secretary of the Interior each provide a concurrence requested under subparagraph (A)(iii), no further analysis under subsection (c)(1) shall be required.

(C) Publication.—A notice of a determination, together with each relevant concurrence to that determination, under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) be included in the record of decision or finding of no significant impact of the Secretary; and

(ii) be posted on an appropriate Federal website by not later than 3 days after the date of receipt by the Secretary of all concurrences requested under subparagraph (A)(iii).


(3) Aligning historical reviews.—

(A) In general.—If the Secretary, the applicable preservation officer, the Council, and the Secretary of the Interior concur that no feasible and prudent alternative exists as described in paragraph (2), the Secretary may provide to the applicable preservation officer, the Council, and the Secretary of the Interior notice of the intent of the Secretary to satisfy subsection (c)(2) through the consultation requirements of section 306108 of title 54.

(B) Satisfaction of conditions.—To satisfy subsection (c)(2), the applicable preservation officer, the Council, and the Secretary of the Interior shall concur in the treatment of the applicable historic site described in the memorandum of agreement or programmatic agreement developed under section 306108 of title 54.


(f) References to Past Transportation Environmental Authorities.—

(1) Section 4(f) requirements.—The requirements of this section are commonly referred to as section 4(f) requirements (see section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (Public Law 89–670; 80 Stat. 934) as in effect before the repeal of that section).

(2) Section 106 requirements.—The requirements of section 306108 of title 54 are commonly referred to as section 106 requirements (see section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (Public Law 89–665; 80 Stat. 917) as in effect before the repeal of that section).


(g) Bridge Exemption From Consideration.—A common post-1945 concrete or steel bridge or culvert (as described in 77 Fed. Reg. 68790) that is exempt from individual review under section 306108 of title 54 shall be exempt from consideration under this section.

(h) Rail and Transit.—

(1) In general.—Improvements to, or the maintenance, rehabilitation, or operation of, railroad or rail transit lines or elements thereof that are in use or were historically used for the transportation of goods or passengers shall not be considered a use of a historic site under subsection (c), regardless of whether the railroad or rail transit line or element thereof is listed on, or eligible for listing on, the National Register of Historic Places.

(2) Exceptions.—

(A) In general.—Paragraph (1) shall not apply to—

(i) stations; or

(ii) bridges or tunnels located on—

(I) railroad lines that have been abandoned; or

(II) transit lines that are not in use.


(B) Clarification with respect to certain bridges and tunnels.—The bridges and tunnels referred to in subparagraph (A)(ii) do not include bridges or tunnels located on railroad or transit lines—

(i) over which service has been discontinued; or

(ii) that have been railbanked or otherwise reserved for the transportation of goods or passengers.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2419; Pub. L. 100–17, title I, §133(d), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 173; Pub. L. 109–59, title VI, §6009(a)(2), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1875; Pub. L. 113–287, §5(p), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3272; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §§1301(b), 1302(b), 1303(b), title XI, §11502(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1376, 1378, 1690.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
303(a) 49:1651(b)(2). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §2(b)(2), 80 Stat. 931.
  49:1653(f) (1st sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(f), 80 Stat. 934; restated Aug. 23, 1968, Pub. L. 90–495, §18(b), 82 Stat. 824.
303(b) 49:1653(f) (2d sentence).
303(c) 49:1653(f) (less 1st, 2d sentences).

In subsection (a), the words "hereby declared to be" before "the policy" are omitted as surplus. The words "of the United States Government" are substituted for "national" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words "crossed by transportation activities or facilities" are substituted for "traversed" for clarity.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "After August 23, 1968" after "Secretary" are omitted as executed. The word "transportation" is inserted before "program" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "or project" are added for consistency.

References in Text

Section 204 of title 23, referred to in subsec. (c), was repealed and a new section 204 enacted by Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, §1119(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 473, 489.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(A), (2)(A), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

The date of enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(B), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §11502(b)(1), substituted "subsections (d) and (h)" for "subsection (d)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–94, §1301(b), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–94, §1302(b), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–94, §1303(b), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–94, §11502(b)(2), added subsec. (h).

2014—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–287 substituted "section 306108 of title 54, United States Code" for "section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470f)" in introductory provisions.

2005—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–59, §6009(a)(2)(A), inserted heading and substituted "Subject to subsection (d), the Secretary" for "The Secretary" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–59, §6009(a)(2)(B), added subsec. (d).

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–17 inserted "(other than any project for a park road or parkway under section 204 of title 23)" after "program or project".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Treatment of Military Flight Operations

Pub. L. 105–85, div. A, title X, §1079, Nov. 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 1916, provided that: "No military flight operation (including a military training flight), or designation of airspace for such an operation, may be treated as a transportation program or project for purposes of section 303(c) of title 49, United States Code."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The words ", United States Code" probably should not appear.

§303a. Development of water transportation

(a) Policy.—It is the policy of Congress—

(1) to promote, encourage, and develop water transportation, service, and facilities for the commerce of the United States; and

(2) to foster and preserve rail and water transportation.


(b) Definition.—In this section, "inland waterway" includes the Great Lakes.

(c) Requirements.—The Secretary of Transportation shall—

(1) investigate the types of vessels suitable for different classes of inland waterways to promote, encourage, and develop inland waterway transportation facilities for the commerce of the United States;

(2) investigate water terminals, both for inland waterway traffic and for through traffic by water and rail, including the necessary docks, warehouses, and equipment, and investigate railroad spurs and switches connecting with those water terminals, to develop the types most appropriate for different locations and for transferring passengers or property between water carriers and rail carriers more expeditiously and economically;

(3) consult with communities, cities, and towns about the location of water terminals, and cooperate with them in preparing plans for terminal facilities;

(4) investigate the existing status of water transportation on the different inland waterways of the United States to learn the extent to which—

(A) the waterways are being used to their capacity and are meeting the demands of traffic; and

(B) water carriers using those waterways are interchanging traffic with rail carriers;


(5) investigate other matters that may promote and encourage inland water transportation; and

(6) compile, publish, and distribute information about transportation on inland waterways that the Secretary considers useful to the commercial interests of the United States.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(6)(A), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1366.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
303a 49 App.:142. Feb. 28, 1920, ch. 91, §500, 41 Stat. 499; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(9), 95 Stat. 154.

Section 4(j)(6)(A) amends 49:ch. 3 by restating 49 App.:142 as section 303a because the provision more appropriately belongs in chapter 3.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "in full vigor both" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the words "be construed to" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(1), the word "appropriate" is omitted as surplus. The word "vessels" is substituted for "boats" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "the subject of", "apparatus", "appliances in connection therewith", and "or interchange" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(3), the words "appropriate" and "suitable" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c)(6), the words "province and", "from time to time", and "useful statistics, data, and" are omitted as surplus.

§304. Application of categorical exclusions for multimodal projects

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Cooperating authority.—The term "cooperating authority" means a Department of Transportation operating administration or secretarial office that has expertise but is not the lead authority with respect to a proposed multimodal project.

(2) Lead authority.—The term "lead authority" means a Department of Transportation operating administration or secretarial office that has the lead responsibility for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) with respect to a proposed multimodal project.

(3) Multimodal project.—The term "multimodal project" has the meaning given the term in section 139(a) of title 23.


(b) Exercise of Authorities.—The authorities granted in this section may be exercised for a multimodal project, class of projects, or program of projects that are carried out under this title or title 23.

(c) Application of Categorical Exclusions for Multimodal Projects.—In considering the environmental impacts of a proposed multimodal project, a lead authority may apply categorical exclusions designated under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) in implementing regulations or procedures of a cooperating authority for a proposed multimodal project, subject to the conditions that—

(1) the lead authority makes a determination, with the concurrence of the cooperating authority—

(A) on the applicability of a categorical exclusion to a proposed multimodal project; and

(B) that the project satisfies the conditions for a categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and this section;


(2) the lead authority follows the implementing regulations of the cooperating authority or procedures under that Act; and

(3) the lead authority determines that—

(A) the proposed multimodal project does not individually or cumulatively have a significant impact on the environment; and

(B) extraordinary circumstances do not exist that merit additional analysis and documentation in an environmental impact statement or environmental assessment required under that Act.


(d) Cooperating Authority Expertise.—A cooperating authority shall provide expertise to the lead authority on aspects of the multimodal project in which the cooperating authority has expertise.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2419; Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, §1314(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 547; Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1310, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1397.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
304(a) 49:1653(g) (less 3d sentence). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §4(g), 80 Stat. 934.
304(b) 49:1653(g) (3d sentence).

In subsection (a), the text of 49:1653(g) (last sentence) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (a)(4), the word "ensure" is substituted for "assure" as being more precise. The words "of the United States Government" are substituted for "Federal", and the words "United States" are substituted for "national", for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words "The Secretaries shall report on April 1 of each year" are substituted for "They shall, within one year after the effective date of the Act, and annually thereafter, report" to omit executed words and to specify the date of April 1 because the President prescribed April 1, 1967, as the effective date of the Department of Transportation Act (Pub. L. 89–670, 80 Stat. 931) by Executive Order No. 11340, March 30, 1967 (32 F.R. 5443). The word "consider" is substituted for "determine" for consistency.

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (c), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §1310(1)(A), substituted "operating administration or secretarial office that has expertise but" for "operating authority that" and inserted "proposed multimodal" after "with respect to a".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–94, §1310(1)(B), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'lead authority' means a Department of Transportation operating administration or secretarial office that—

"(A) is the lead authority over a proposed multimodal project; and

"(B) has determined that the components of the project that fall under the modal expertise of the lead authority—

"(i) satisfy the conditions for a categorical exclusion under implementing regulations or procedures of the lead authority under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.); and

"(ii) do not require the preparation of an environmental assessment or environmental impact statement under that Act."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–94, §1310(2), inserted "or title 23" after "under this title".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94, §1310(3), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to application of categorical exclusions for multimodal projects.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–94, §1310(3), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d). Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—A cooperating authority shall provide modal expertise to the lead authority on such aspects of the multimodal project in which the cooperating authority has expertise.

"(2) Use of categorical exclusion.—In a case described in paragraph (1), the 1 or more categorical exclusions of a cooperating authority may be applied by the lead authority once the cooperating authority reviews the project on behalf of the lead authority and determines the project satisfies the conditions for a categorical exclusion under the implementing regulations or procedures of the cooperating authority under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and this section."

2012–Pub. L. 112–141 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to joint activities with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

§304a. Accelerated decisionmaking in environmental reviews

(a) In General.—In preparing a final environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), if the lead agency modifies the statement in response to comments that are minor and are confined to factual corrections or explanations of why the comments do not warrant additional agency response, the lead agency may write on errata sheets attached to the statement, instead of rewriting the draft statement, subject to the condition that the errata sheets—

(1) cite the sources, authorities, and reasons that support the position of the agency; and

(2) if appropriate, indicate the circumstances that would trigger agency reappraisal or further response.


(b) Single Document.—To the maximum extent practicable, the lead agency shall expeditiously develop a single document that consists of a final environmental impact statement and a record of decision, unless—

(1) the final environmental impact statement makes substantial changes to the proposed action that are relevant to environmental or safety concerns; or

(2) there is a significant new circumstance or information relevant to environmental concerns that bears on the proposed action or the impacts of the proposed action.


(c) Adoption and Incorporation by Reference of Documents.—

(1) Avoiding duplication.—To prevent duplication of analyses and support expeditious and efficient decisions, the operating administrations of the Department of Transportation shall use adoption and incorporation by reference in accordance with this subsection.

(2) Adoption of documents of other operating administrations.—An operating administration or a secretarial office within the Department of Transportation may adopt a draft environmental impact statement, an environmental assessment, or a final environmental impact statement of another operating administration for the use of the adopting operating administration when preparing an environmental assessment or final environmental impact statement for a project without recirculating the document for public review, if—

(A) the adopting operating administration certifies that the proposed action is substantially the same as the project considered in the document to be adopted;

(B) the other operating administration concurs with such decision; and

(C) such actions are consistent with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).


(3) Incorporation by reference.—An operating administration or secretarial office within the Department of Transportation may incorporate by reference all or portions of a draft environmental impact statement, an environmental assessment, or a final environmental impact statement for the use of the adopting operating administration when preparing an environmental assessment or final environmental impact statement for a project if—

(A) the incorporated material is cited in the environmental assessment or final environmental impact statement and the contents of the incorporated material are briefly described;

(B) the incorporated material is reasonably available for inspection by potentially interested persons within the time allowed for review and comment; and

(C) the incorporated material does not include proprietary data that is not available for review and comment.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1311(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1398.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (c)(2)(C), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§305. Transportation investment standards and criteria

(a) Subject to sections 301–304 1 of this title, the Secretary of Transportation shall develop standards and criteria to formulate and economically evaluate all proposals for investing amounts of the United States Government in transportation facilities and equipment. Based on experience, the Secretary shall revise the standards and criteria. When approved by Congress, the Secretary shall prescribe standards and criteria developed or revised under this subsection. This subsection does not apply to—

(1) the acquisition of transportation facilities or equipment by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government to provide transportation for its use;

(2) an inter-oceanic canal located outside the 48 contiguous States;

(3) defense features included at the direction of the Department of Defense in designing and constructing civil air, sea, or land transportation;

(4) foreign assistance programs;

(5) water resources projects; or

(6) grant-in-aid programs authorized by law.


(b) A department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government preparing a survey, plan, or report that includes a proposal about which the Secretary has prescribed standards and criteria under subsection (a) of this section shall—

(1) prepare the survey, plan, or report under those standards and criteria and on the basis of information provided by the Secretary on the—

(A) projected growth of transportation needs and traffic in the affected area;

(B) the relative efficiency of various modes of transportation;

(C) the available transportation services in the area; and

(D) the general effect of the proposed investment on existing modes of transportation and on the regional and national economy;


(2) coordinate the survey, plan, or report—

(A) with the Secretary and include the views and comments of the Secretary; and

(B) as appropriate, with other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, States, and local governments, and include their views and comments; and


(3) send the survey, plan, or report to the President for disposition under law and procedure established by the President.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2420.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
305(a) 49:1656(a) (less next-to-last par.). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §7 (less (a) next-to-last par.), 80 Stat. 941.
305(b) 49:1656 (less (a)).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "consistent with national transportation policies" after "develop standards and criteria" are omitted as unnecessary because of section 302 of the revised title. The words "Based on experience" are substituted for "in the light of experience", and the words "shall prescribe" are substituted for "be promulgated by the", to conform to other sections of the revised title. The words "from time to time" after "shall revise" are omitted as unnecessary. The words "This subsection does not apply to" are substituted for "except such proposals as are concerned with" for clarity. In clause (1), the words "a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government" are substituted for "Federal agencies" for clarity and consistency. Similar conforming changes are made throughout the section. The word "services" after "provide transportation" is omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the words "48 contiguous States" are substituted for "contiguous United States" for clarity.

The text of 49:1656(a) (last par.) that provided that the Secretary of Transportation was a member of the Water Resources Council on matters pertaining to navigation features of water resource projects is omitted as superseded because 42:1962(a) gave the Secretary membership on the Council without limitation.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "unit of" before "governments" are omitted as surplus. In clause (3), the word "thereafter" after "send" is omitted as surplus.

References in Text

Section 304 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was amended generally by Pub. L. 112–141, div. A, title I, §1314(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 547.

1 See References in Text note below.

§306. Prohibited discrimination

(a) In this section, "financial assistance" includes obligation guarantees.

(b) A person in the United States may not be excluded from participating in, be denied the benefits of, or be subject to discrimination under, a project, program, or activity because of race, color, national origin, or sex when any part of the project, program, or activity is financed through financial assistance under section 332 or 333 or chapter 221 or 249 of this title, section 211 or 216 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 721, 726), or title V of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq.).

(c) When the Secretary of Transportation decides that a person receiving financial assistance under a law referred to in subsection (b) of this section has not complied with that subsection, a Federal civil rights law, or an order or regulation issued under a Federal civil rights law, the Secretary shall notify the person of the decision and require the person to take necessary action to ensure compliance with that subsection.

(d) If a person does not comply with subsection (b) of this section within a reasonable time after receiving a notice under subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary shall take at least one of the following actions:

(1) direct that no more Federal financial assistance be provided the person.

(2) refer the matter to the Attorney General with a recommendation that a civil action be brought against the person.

(3) carry out the duties and powers provided by title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.).

(4) take other action provided by law.


(e) When a matter is referred to the Attorney General under subsection (d)(2) of this section, or when the Attorney General has reason to believe that a person is engaged in a pattern or practice violating this section, the Attorney General may begin a civil action in a district court of the United States for appropriate relief.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2421; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(3), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(7), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1376.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
306(a) 45:803(f). Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §905, 90 Stat. 148.
306(b) 45:803(a).
306(c), (d) 45:803(b).
306(e) 45:803(c)–(e).

In subsection (b), the enumerated laws are substituted for "through financial assistance under this Act", meaning the Rail Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (Pub. L. 94–210, 90 Stat. 31) and laws amended by that Act. The laws cited in the subsection are substituted for "through financial assistance under this Act" for clarity. The enumerated laws include provisions of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 that amend other laws as well as provisions that are not amendments to other laws. A reference to the Urban Mass Transportation Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88–365, 78 Stat. 302) is omitted because this section related to that Act is superseded by 49:1615.

In subsection (c), the word "decides" is substituted for "determines" for consistency. The word "ensure" is substituted for "assure" as being more precise.

In subsection (d), the words "at least one of the following actions" are substituted for "and/or" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (e), the text of 45:803(d) is omitted as unnecessary because section 322 of the revised title gives the Secretary of Transportation general authority to prescribe regulations and other provisions of the revised title give the Secretary general authority to carry out his duties and powers. The text of 45:803(e) is omitted as unnecessary.

Pub. L. 98–216

This is necessary to correct a cross-reference in section 306(b) and to reflect the transfer of the non-positive law provisions of title 49 to title 49 appendix.

References in Text

The Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 94–210, Feb. 5, 1976, 90 Stat. 31, as amended. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§821 et seq.) of chapter 17 of Title 45, Railroads. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of Title 45 and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241, as amended. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "section 332 or 333 or chapter 221 or 249 of this title, section 211 or 216 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 721, 726), or title V of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq.)" for "section 332 or 333 of this title, section 211 or 216 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 721, 726), title V or VII of the Railroad Revitalization and Regulatory Reform Act of 1976 (45 U.S.C. 821 et seq., 851 et seq.), or section 4(i) or 5 of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 1653(i), 1654)".

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–216 substituted "section 332 or 333 of this title" for "section 332 of this title" and "49 App. U.S.C." for "49 U.S.C.".

§307. Improving State and Federal agency engagement in environmental reviews

(a) In General.—

(1) Requests to provide funds.—A public entity receiving financial assistance from the Department of Transportation for 1 or more projects, or for a program of projects, for a public purpose may request that the Secretary allow the public entity to provide funds to Federal agencies, including the Department, State agencies, and Indian tribes participating in the environmental planning and review process for the project, projects, or program.

(2) Use of funds.—The funds may be provided only to support activities that directly and meaningfully contribute to expediting and improving permitting and review processes, including planning, approval, and consultation processes for the project, projects, or program.


(b) Activities Eligible for Funding.—Activities for which funds may be provided under subsection (a) include transportation planning activities that precede the initiation of the environmental review process, activities directly related to the environmental review process, dedicated staffing, training of agency personnel, information gathering and mapping, and development of programmatic agreements.

(c) Amounts.—A request under subsection (a) may be approved only for the additional amounts that the Secretary determines are necessary for the Federal agencies, State agencies, or Indian tribes participating in the environmental review process to timely conduct the review.

(d) Agreements.—Prior to providing funds approved by the Secretary for dedicated staffing at an affected Federal agency under subsection (a), the affected Federal agency and the requesting public entity shall enter into an agreement that establishes a process to identify projects or priorities to be addressed by the use of the funds.

(e) Guidance.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall issue guidance to implement this section.

(2) Factors.—As part of the guidance issued under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall ensure—

(A) to the maximum extent practicable, that expediting and improving the process of environmental review and permitting through the use of funds accepted and expended under this section does not adversely affect the timeline for review and permitting by Federal agencies, State agencies, or Indian tribes of other entities that have not contributed funds under this section;

(B) that the use of funds accepted under this section will not impact impartial decisionmaking with respect to environmental reviews or permits, either substantively or procedurally; and

(C) that the Secretary maintains, and makes publicly available, including on the Internet, a list of projects or programs for which such review or permits have been carried out using funds authorized under this section.


(f) Existing Authority.—Nothing in this section may be construed to conflict with section 139(j) of title 23.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1312(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1399.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 307, Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2421, related to safety information and intervention in Interstate Commerce Commission proceedings, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32932(a)(1), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 829, effective Oct. 1, 2012.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§308. Reports

(a) As soon as practicable after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary of Transportation shall report to the President, for submission to Congress, on the activities of the Department of Transportation during the prior fiscal year.

(b) The Secretary shall submit to the President and Congress each year a report on the aviation activities of the Department. The report shall include—

(1) collected information the Secretary considers valuable in deciding questions about—

(A) the development and regulation of civil aeronautics;

(B) the use of airspace of the United States; and

(C) the improvement of the air navigation and traffic control system; and


(2) recommendations for additional legislation and other action the Secretary considers necessary.


(c) The Secretary shall submit to Congress each year a report on the conditions of the public ports of the United States, including the—

(1) economic and technological development of the ports;

(2) extent to which the ports contribute to the national welfare and security; and

(3) factors that may impede the continued development of the ports.


[(d) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(h), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724.]

(e)(1) The Secretary shall submit to Congress in March 1998, and in March of each even-numbered year thereafter, a report of estimates by the Secretary on the current performance and condition of public mass transportation systems with recommendations for necessary administrative or legislative changes.

(2) In reporting to Congress under this subsection, the Secretary shall prepare a complete assessment of public transportation facilities in the United States. The Secretary also shall assess future needs for those facilities and estimate future capital requirements and operation and maintenance requirements for one-year, 5-year, and 10-year periods at specified levels of service.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2422; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 4; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1121(h), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 724; Pub. L. 105–362, title XV, §1502(c), Nov. 10, 1998, 112 Stat. 3295.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
308(a) 45:792. Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–236, §602, 87 Stat. 1022.
  49:1658. Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §12, 80 Stat. 949; Feb. 5, 1976, Pub. L. 94–210, §906(1), 90 Stat. 149.
308(b) 49:1354(e). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §313(e), 72 Stat. 753.
308(c) 15:1519a. Oct. 3, 1980, Pub. L. 96–371, §2, 94 Stat. 1362; Aug. 6, 1981, Pub. L. 97–31, §12(8), 95 Stat. 154.

In subsection (a), the words "As part of his annual report each year" in 45:792 are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement of the source provisions.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "aviation activities of the Department" are substituted for "work performed under this chapter" because of the restatement. The words "The report shall include" are substituted for "Such report shall contain" for consistency. In clause (1), the words "and data" after "information" are omitted as surplus. The words "airspace of the United States" are substituted for "National airspace" for clarity and consistency. In clause (2), the words "the Secretary considers necessary" are substituted for "as may be considered" for clarity.

Pub. L. 98–216
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
308(d) 49 App.:1654a. Oct. 14, 1980, Pub. L. 96–448, §409, 94 Stat. 1948; Dec. 21, 1982, Pub. L. 97–375, §210(a), 96 Stat. 1825.
308(e) 49 App.:1601c. Jan. 6, 1983, Pub. L. 97–424, §310, 96 Stat. 2151.

This [deletion of the last sentence of subsection (a)] is necessary because section 111(b) of the Congressional Reports Elimination Act of 1982 (Pub. L. 97–375, 96 Stat. 1821) repealed section 602 of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (Pub. L. 93–236, 87 Stat. 1022), which was restated as section 308(a) (last sentence) of title 49 by section 1 of the Act of January 12, 1983 (Pub. L. 97–449, 96 Stat. 2413).

In subsection (e)(1), the words "January of each even-numbered year" are substituted for "January of 1984 and in January of every second year thereafter" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–362 substituted "submit to Congress in March 1998, and in March of each even-numbered year thereafter, a report" for "submit a report to Congress in January of each even-numbered year".

1995—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out subsec. (d) which related to reports to Congress listing assistance provided by Government to railroad industry.

1984—Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A)(i), substituted "Reports" for "Annual reports" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A)(ii), struck out requirement that the report include a complete statement on the effectiveness of the United States Railway Association and the Consolidated Rail Corporation in carrying out the purposes of the Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 98–216, §2(1)(A)(iii), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Availability of Reports

Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1434, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1430, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Transportation] shall make available to the public on the website of the Department any report required to be submitted by the Secretary to Congress after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015].

"(b) Deadline.—Each report described in subsection (a) shall be made available on the website not later than 30 days after the report is submitted to Congress."

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which reporting provisions contained in subsecs. (a) and (b) of this section and, as subsequently amended, subsec. (e) of this section, are listed, respectively, as the 11th item on page 133, the last item on page 132, and the 5th item on page 138), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Annual Report on Safety Enforcement Activities of Federal Aviation Administration

Pub. L. 100–202, §101(l) [title III, §317(a)], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–358, 1329-380, and Pub. L. 100–457, title III, §317(a), Sept. 30, 1988, 102 Stat. 2148, which required Secretary of Transportation to transmit to Congress an annual report on Federal Aviation Administration's prior safety enforcement activities including staffing level comparisons, inspector experience and training schedules, criteria used to set annual work programs, annual inspection comparisons, statement of adequacy of internal management controls, status of regulatory changes, list of specific operational measures of effectiveness, schedule showing number of civil penalty cases closed, schedule showing number of enforcement actions taken, and schedules showing aviation industry's safety record, were repealed and reenacted as section 44723 of this title by Pub. L. 103–272, §§1(e), 7(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1202, 1379.

§309. High-speed ground transportation

(a) The Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretaries of Commerce, Energy, and Defense, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Public Works, and the heads of other interested agencies, shall lead and coordinate Federal efforts in the research and development of high-speed ground transportation technologies in order to foster the implementation of magnetic levitation and high-speed steel wheel on rail transportation systems as alternatives to existing transportation systems.

(b)(1) The Secretary may award contracts and grants for demonstrations to determine the contributions that high-speed ground transportation could make to more efficient, safe, and economical intercity transportation systems. Such demonstrations shall be designed to measure and evaluate such factors as the public response to new equipment, higher speeds, variations in fares, improved comfort and convenience, and more frequent service. In connection with grants and contracts for demonstrations under this section, the Secretary shall provide for financial participation by private industry to the maximum extent practicable.

(2)(A) In connection with the authority provided under paragraph (1), there is established a national high-speed ground transportation technology demonstration program, which shall be separate from the national magnetic levitation prototype development program established under section 1036(b) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 and shall be managed by the Secretary of Transportation.

(B)(i) Any eligible applicant may submit to the Secretary a proposal for demonstration of any advancement in a high-speed ground transportation technology or technologies to be incorporated as a component, subsystem, or system in any revenue service high-speed ground transportation project or system under construction or in operation at the time the application is made.

(ii) Grants or contracts shall be awarded only to eligible applicants showing demonstrable benefit to the research and development, design, construction, or ultimate operation of any maglev technology or high-speed steel wheel on rail technology. Criteria to be considered in evaluating the suitability of a proposal under this paragraph shall include—

(I) feasibility of guideway or track design and construction;

(II) safety and reliability;

(III) impact on the environment in comparison to other high-speed ground transportation technologies;

(IV) minimization of land use;

(V) effect on human factors related to high-speed ground transportation;

(VI) energy and power consumption and cost;

(VII) integration of high-speed ground transportation systems with other modes of transportation;

(VIII) actual and projected ridership; and

(IX) design of signaling, communications, and control systems.


(C) For the purposes of this paragraph, the term "eligible applicant" means any United States private business, State government, local government, organization of State or local government, or any combination thereof. The term does not include any business owned in whole or in part by the Federal Government.

(D) The amount and distribution of grants or contracts made under this paragraph shall be determined by the Secretary. No grant or contract may be awarded under this paragraph to demonstrate a technology to be incorporated into a project or system located in a State that prohibits under State law the expenditure of non-Federal public funds or revenues on the construction or operation of such project or system.

(E) Recipients of grants or contracts made pursuant to this paragraph shall agree to submit a report to the Secretary detailing the results and benefits of the technology demonstration proposed, as required by the Secretary.

(c)(1) In carrying out the responsibilities of the Secretary under this section, the Secretary is authorized to enter into 1 or more cooperative research and development agreements (as defined by section 12 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3710a)), and 1 or more funding agreements (as defined by section 201(b) of title 35, United States Code), with United States companies for the purpose of—

(A) conducting research to overcome technical and other barriers to the development and construction of practicable high-speed ground transportation systems and to help advance the basic generic technologies needed for these systems; and

(B) transferring the research and basic generic technologies described in subparagraph (A) to industry in order to help create a viable commercial high-speed ground transportation industry within the United States.


(2) In a cooperative agreement or funding agreement under paragraph (1), the Secretary may agree to provide not more than 80 percent of the cost of any project under the agreement. Not less than 5 percent of the non-Federal entity's share of the cost of any such project shall be paid in cash.

(3) The research, development, or utilization of any technology pursuant to a cooperative agreement under paragraph (1), including the terms under which such technology may be licensed and the resulting royalties may be distributed, shall be subject to the provisions of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.).

(4) The research, development, or utilization of any technology pursuant to a funding agreement under paragraph (1), including the determination of all licensing and ownership rights, shall be subject to the provisions of chapter 18 of title 35, United States Code.

(5) At the conclusion of fiscal year 1993 and again at the conclusion of fiscal year 1996, the Secretary shall submit reports to Congress regarding research and technology transfer activities conducted pursuant to the authorization contained in paragraph (1).

(d)(1) Not later than June 1, 1995, the Secretary shall complete and submit to Congress a study of the commercial feasibility of constructing 1 or more high-speed ground transportation systems in the United States. Such study shall consist of—

(A) an economic and financial analysis;

(B) a technical assessment; and

(C) recommendations for model legislation for State and local governments to facilitate construction of high-speed ground transportation systems.


(2) The economic and financial analysis referred to in paragraph (1)(A) shall include—

(A) an examination of the potential market for a nationwide high-speed ground transportation network, including a national magnetic levitation ground transportation system;

(B) an examination of the potential markets for short-haul high-speed ground transportation systems and for intercity and long-haul high-speed ground transportation systems, including an assessment of—

(i) the current transportation practices and trends in each market; and

(ii) the extent to which high-speed ground transportation systems would relieve the current or anticipated congestion on other modes of transportation;


(C) projections of the costs of designing, constructing, and operating high-speed ground transportation systems, the extent to which such systems can recover their costs (including capital costs), and the alternative methods available for private and public financing;

(D) the availability of rights-of-way to serve each market, including the extent to which average and maximum speeds would be limited by the curvature of existing rights-of-way and the prospect of increasing speeds through the acquisition of additional rights-of-way without significant relocation of residential, commercial, or industrial facilities;

(E) a comparison of the projected costs of the various competing high-speed ground transportation technologies;

(F) recommendations for funding mechanisms, tax incentives, liability provisions, and changes in statutes and regulations necessary to facilitate the development of individual high-speed ground transportation systems and the completion of a nationwide high-speed ground transportation network;

(G) an examination of the effect of the construction and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems on regional employment and economic growth;

(H) recommendations for the roles appropriate for local, regional, and State governments to facilitate construction of high-speed ground transportation systems, including the roles of regional economic development authorities;

(I) an assessment of the potential for a high-speed ground transportation technology export market;

(J) recommendations regarding the coordination and centralization of Federal efforts relating to high-speed ground transportation;

(K) an examination of the role of the National Railroad Passenger Corporation in the development and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems; and

(L) any other economic or financial analyses the Secretary considers important for carrying out this section.


(3) The technical assessment referred to in paragraph (1)(B) shall include—

(A) an examination of the various technologies developed for use in the transportation of passengers by high-speed ground transportation, including a comparison of the safety (including dangers associated with grade crossings), energy efficiency, operational efficiencies, and environmental impacts of each system;

(B) an examination of the potential role of a United States designed maglev system, developed as a prototype under section 1036(b) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, in relation to the implementation of other high-speed ground transportation technologies and the national transportation system;

(C) an examination of the work being done to establish safety standards for high-speed ground transportation as a result of the enactment of section 7 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988;

(D) an examination of the need to establish appropriate technological, quality, and environmental standards for high-speed ground transportation systems;

(E) an examination of the significant unresolved technical issues surrounding the design, engineering, construction, and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems, including the potential for the use of existing rights-of-way;

(F) an examination of the effects on air quality, energy consumption, noise, land use, health, and safety as a result of the decreases in traffic volume on other modes of transportation that are expected to result from the full-scale development of high-speed ground transportation systems; and

(G) any other technical assessments the Secretary considers important for carrying out this section.


(e)(1) Within 12 months after the submission of the study required by subsection (d), the Secretary shall establish the national high-speed ground transportation policy (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Policy").

(2) The Policy shall include—

(A) provisions to promote the design, construction, and operation of high-speed ground transportation systems in the United States;

(B) a determination whether the various competing high-speed ground transportation technologies can be effectively integrated into a national network and, if not, whether 1 or more such technologies should receive preferential encouragement from the Federal Government to enable the development of such a national network;

(C) a strategy for prioritizing the markets and corridors in which the construction of high-speed ground transportation systems should be encouraged; and

(D) provisions designed to promote American competitiveness in the market for high-speed ground transportation technologies.


(3) The Secretary shall solicit comments from the public in the development of the Policy and may consult with other Federal agencies as appropriate in drafting the Policy.

(Added Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(c)(1), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1982.)

References in Text

Section 1036(b) of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2)(A) and (d)(3)(B), is section 1036(b) of Pub. L. 102–240, which is set out below.

The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (c)(3), is Pub. L. 96–480, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2311, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 63 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of Title 15 and Tables.

Section 7 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(C), is section 7 of Pub. L. 100–342, which amended section 431 of Title 45, Railroads.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 18, 1991, and applicable to funds authorized to be appropriated or made available after Sept. 30, 1991, and, with certain exceptions, not applicable to funds appropriated or made available on or before Sept. 30, 1991, see section 1100 of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as an Effective Date of 1991 Amendment note under section 104 of Title 23, Highways.

National Magnetic Levitation Prototype Development Program

Pub. L. 102–240, title I, §1036(b), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 1978, provided that:

"(1) Management of program.—There is hereby established a national magnetic levitation prototype development program to be managed by a program director appointed jointly by the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the 'Assistant Secretary'). To carry out such program, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall establish a national maglev joint project office (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the 'Maglev Project Office'), which shall be headed by the program director, and shall enter into such arrangements as may be necessary for funding, staffing, office space, and other requirements that will allow the Maglev Project Office to carry out its functions. In carrying out such program, the program director shall consult with appropriate Federal officials, including the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

"(2) Phase one contracts.—

"(A) Request for proposals.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 1991], the Maglev Project Office shall release a request for proposals for development of conceptual designs for a maglev system and for research to facilitate the development of such conceptual designs.

"(B) Award of contracts.—Not later than 15 months after the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall, based on the recommendations of the program director, award 1-year contracts for research and development to no fewer than 5 eligible applicants. If fewer than 5 complete applications have been received, contracts shall be awarded to as many eligible applicants as is practical.

"(C) Factors and conditions to be considered.—The Secretary and the Assistant Secretary may approve contracts under subparagraph (B) only after consideration of factors relating to the construction and operation of a magnetic levitation system, including the cost-effectiveness, ease of maintenance, safety, limited environmental impact, ability to achieve sustained high speeds, ability to operate along the Interstate highway rights-of-way, the potential for the guideway design to be a national standard, the applicant's resources, capabilities, and history of successfully designing and developing systems of similar complexity, and the desirability of geographic diversity among contractors and only if the applicant agrees to submit a report to the Maglev Project Office detailing the results of the research and development and agrees to provide for matching of the phase one contract at a 90 percent Federal, 10 percent non-Federal, cost share.

"(3) Phase two contracts.—Within 3 months of receiving the final reports of contract activities under paragraph (2), and based only on such reports and the recommendations of the program director, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall select not more than 3 eligible applicants from among the contract recipients submitting reports under paragraph (2) to receive 18-month contracts for research and development leading to a detailed design for a prototype maglev system. The Secretary and the Assistant Secretary may only award contracts under this paragraph if—

"(A) they determine that the applicant has demonstrated technical merit for the conceptual design and the potential for further development of such design into an operational prototype as described in paragraph (4),

"(B) the applicant agrees to submit the detailed design within such 18-month period to the Maglev Project Office and the selection committee described in paragraph (4), and

"(C) the applicant agrees to provide for matching of the phase two contract at an 80 percent Federal, 20 percent non-Federal, cost share.

"(4) Prototype.—

"(A) Selection of design.—Within 6 months of receiving the detailed designs developed under paragraph (3), the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall, based on the recommendations of the selection committee described in this subparagraph, select 1 design for development into a full-scale prototype, unless the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary determine jointly that no design shall be selected, based on an assessment of technical feasibility and projected cost of construction and operation of the prototype. A selection committee of 8 members, consisting of—

"(i) 1 member to be appointed by the Secretary,

"(ii) 1 member to be appointed by the Assistant Secretary,

"(iii) 3 members to be appointed by the Senate majority and minority leaders, and

"(iv) 3 members to be appointed by the Speaker of the House and the minority leader of the House,

shall be appointed not later than 1 year following the award of contracts under paragraph (3). The selection committee, within 3 months of receiving the detailed designs developed under paragraph (3), shall make a recommendation to the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary as to the best prototype design or the unsuitability of any design. The program director shall provide technical reviews of the phase two contract reports to the selection committee and otherwise provide any technical assistance that the committee requires to assist it in making a recommendation. In the event that the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary determine jointly not to select a design for development under this subsection, they shall report to Congress on the basis for such determination, together with recommendations for future action, including further research, development, or design, termination of the program, or such other action as may be appropriate.

"(B) Award of construction grant or contract.—Unless the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary determine not to proceed pursuant to subparagraph (A), they shall, not later than 3 months after selection of a design for development into a full-scale prototype, and based on the recommendations of the program director, award 1 construction grant or contract to the applicant whose detailed design was selected under subparagraph (A) for the purpose of constructing a prototype maglev system in accordance with the selected design. Not more than 75 percent of the cost of the project shall be borne by the United States.

"(C) Factors to be considered in selection.—Selection of the detailed design under this paragraph shall be based on consideration of the following factors, among others:

"(i) The project shall be capable of utilizing Interstate highway rights-of-way along or above a significant portion of its route, and may also use railroad rights-of-way along or above any portion of the railroad route.

"(ii) The total length of guideway shall be at least 19 miles and allow significant full-speed operations between stops.

"(iii) The project shall be constructed and ready for operational testing within 3 years after the award of the contract or grant.

"(iv) The project shall provide for the conversion of the prototype to commercial operation after testing and technical evaluation is completed.

"(v) The project shall be located in an area that provides a potential ridership base for future commercial operation.

"(vi) The project shall utilize a technology capable of being applied in commercial service in most parts of the contiguous United States.

"(vii) The project shall have at least 1 switch.

"(viii) The project shall be intermodal in nature connecting a major metropolitan area with an airport, port, passenger rail station, or other transportation mode.

"(D) Additional factors for consideration.—In awarding a grant or contract under this paragraph, the Secretary shall encourage the development of domestic manufacturing capabilities. In selecting among eligible applicants, the Secretary shall consider existing railroads and equipment manufacturers with excess production capacity, including railroads that have experience in advanced technologies (including self-propelled cars).

"(5) Licensing.—

"(A) Proprietary rights.—No trade secrets or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential, under the meaning of section 552(b)(4) of title 5, United States Code, which is obtained from a United States business, research, or education entity as a result of activities under this subsection shall be disclosed.

"(B) Commercial information.—The research, development, and use of any technology developed pursuant to an agreement reached pursuant to this subsection, including the terms under which any technology may be licensed and the resulting royalties may be distributed, shall be subject to the provisions of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701–3714). In addition, the Secretary and the Assistant Secretary may require any grant or contract recipient to assure that research and development be performed substantially in the United States and that the products embodying the inventions made under any agreement pursuant to this subsection or produced through the use of such inventions be manufactured substantially in the United States.

"(6) Reports.—The Secretary and the Assistant Secretary shall provide periodic reports to Congress on progress made under this subsection.

"(7) Eligible applicant defined.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'eligible applicant' means a United States private business, United States public or private education and research organization, Federal laboratory, or a consortium of such businesses, organizations, and laboratories."

§310. Aligning Federal environmental reviews

(a) Coordinated and Concurrent Environmental Reviews.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the Department of Transportation, in coordination with the heads of Federal agencies likely to have substantive review or approval responsibilities under Federal law, shall develop a coordinated and concurrent environmental review and permitting process for transportation projects when initiating an environmental impact statement under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) (in this section referred to as "NEPA").

(b) Contents.—The coordinated and concurrent environmental review and permitting process developed under subsection (a) shall—

(1) ensure that the Department of Transportation and agencies of jurisdiction possess sufficient information early in the review process to determine a statement of a transportation project's purpose and need and range of alternatives for analysis that the lead agency and agencies of jurisdiction will rely on for concurrent environmental reviews and permitting decisions required for the proposed project;

(2) achieve early concurrence or issue resolution during the NEPA scoping process on the Department of Transportation's statement of a project's purpose and need, and during development of the environmental impact statement on the range of alternatives for analysis, that the lead agency and agencies of jurisdiction will rely on for concurrent environmental reviews and permitting decisions required for the proposed project absent circumstances that require reconsideration in order to meet an agency of jurisdiction's obligations under a statute or Executive order; and

(3) achieve concurrence or issue resolution in an expedited manner if circumstances arise that require a reconsideration of the purpose and need or range of alternatives considered during any Federal agency's environmental or permitting review in order to meet an agency of jurisdiction's obligations under a statute or Executive order.


(c) Environmental Checklist.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary of Transportation and Federal agencies of jurisdiction likely to have substantive review or approval responsibilities on transportation projects shall jointly develop a checklist to help project sponsors identify potential natural, cultural, and historic resources in the area of a proposed project.

(2) Purpose.—The purpose of the checklist shall be to—

(A) identify agencies of jurisdiction and cooperating agencies;

(B) develop the information needed for the purpose and need and alternatives for analysis; and

(C) improve interagency collaboration to help expedite the permitting process for the lead agency and agencies of jurisdiction.


(d) Interagency Collaboration.—

(1) In general.—Consistent with Federal environmental statutes, the Secretary of Transportation shall facilitate annual interagency collaboration sessions at the appropriate jurisdictional level to coordinate business plans and facilitate coordination of workload planning and workforce management.

(2) Purpose of collaboration sessions.—The interagency collaboration sessions shall ensure that agency staff is—

(A) fully engaged;

(B) utilizing the flexibility of existing regulations, policies, and guidance; and

(C) identifying additional actions to facilitate high quality, efficient, and targeted environmental reviews and permitting decisions.


(3) Focus of collaboration sessions.—The interagency collaboration sessions, and the interagency collaborations generated by the sessions, shall focus on methods to—

(A) work with State and local transportation entities to improve project planning, siting, and application quality; and

(B) consult and coordinate with relevant stakeholders and Federal, tribal, State, and local representatives early in permitting processes.


(4) Consultation.—The interagency collaboration sessions shall include a consultation with groups or individuals representing State, tribal, and local governments that are engaged in the infrastructure permitting process.


(e) Performance Measurement.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with relevant Federal agencies, shall establish a program to measure and report on progress toward aligning Federal reviews and reducing permitting and project delivery time as outlined in this section.

(f) Reports.—

(1) Report to congress.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this section and biennially thereafter, the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report that describes—

(A) progress in aligning Federal environmental reviews under this section; and

(B) the impact this section has had on accelerating the environmental review and permitting process.


(2) Inspector general report.—Not later than 3 years after the date of enactment of this section, the Inspector General of the Department of Transportation shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report that describes—

(A) progress in aligning Federal environmental reviews under this section; and

(B) the impact this section has had on accelerating the environmental review and permitting process.


(g) Savings Provision.—This section shall not apply to any project subject to section 139 of title 23.

(Added Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title I, §1313(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1400.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c)(1), (e), and (f)(1), (2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of Title 42 and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as an Effective Date of 2015 Amendment note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§311. Congressional notification requirements

(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b) or as expressly provided in another provision of law, the Secretary of Transportation shall provide to the appropriate committees of Congress notice of an announcement concerning a covered project at least 3 full business days before the announcement is made by the Department.

(b) Emergency Program.—With respect to an allocation of funds under section 125 of title 23, the Secretary shall provide to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate notice of the allocation—

(1) at least 3 full business days before the issuance of the allocation; or

(2) concurrently with the issuance of the allocation, if the allocation is made using the quick release process of the Department (or any successor process).


(c) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Appropriate committees of congress.—The term "appropriate committees of Congress" means—

(A) the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives; and

(B) the Committee on Environment and Public Works, the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate.


(2) Covered project.—The term "covered project" means a project competitively selected by the Department to receive a discretionary grant award, letter of intent, loan commitment, loan guarantee commitment, or line of credit commitment in an amount equal to or greater than $750,000.

(3) Department.—The term "Department" means the Department of Transportation, including the modal administrations of the Department.

(Added Pub. L. 114–322, title IV, §5001(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1884.)

SUBCHAPTER II—ADMINISTRATIVE

§321. Definitions

In this subchapter, "aeronautics", "air commerce", and "air navigation facility" have the same meanings given those terms in section 40102(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2422; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(2), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(8), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1376; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(2), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4378.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 97–449
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
321 (no source).

A number of the source provisions of the subchapter are taken from 49:ch. 20. The text of 49:ch. 20 contains general definitions, some of which are used in those source provisions. The section includes those definitions from 49:ch. 20 that are used in the source provisions included in the subchapter.

Pub. L. 103–429

This makes a clarifying amendment to 49:321.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–429 struck out ", respectively" after "of this title".

Pub. L. 103–272 substituted "section 40102(a) of this title" for "section 101(2), (4), and (8) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (49 App. U.S.C. 1301(2), (4), (8))".

1984—Pub. L. 98–216 substituted "49 App. U.S.C." for "49 U.S.C.".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–429, §9, Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4391, provided that: "The amendments made by sections 6(2)–(15), (19)–(35), (37)–(39), (41), (44)–(52), (54)–(62), (65), (66)(B), (70), (73)–(76), and (78)–(81) of this Act [enacting section 41312 of this title and amending this section and sections 5103, 5104, 5115, 5125, 5307, 5318, 5320, 5323, 5326, 5327, 5331, 5337, 5565, 20136, 22108, 24501, 24904, 30141, 30165, 30166, 30308, 31501, 32101, 32304, 32309, 32505, 32703, 32705, 32706, 32908 to 32910, 32913, 33101, 33106, 40102, 40104, 40110, 41103, 41110, 41734, 44502, 44701, 44711, 44937, 45105, 45302, 46301, 46310, 46502, 47101, 47113, 47114, 47128, 47531, 47532, 60109, and 60112 of this title] shall take effect on July 5, 1994."

§322. General powers

(a) The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the Secretary. An officer of the Department of Transportation may prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers of the officer.

(b) The Secretary may delegate, and authorize successive delegations of, duties and powers of the Secretary to an officer or employee of the Department. An officer of the Department may delegate, and authorize successive delegations of, duties and powers of the officer to another officer or employee of the Department. However, the duties and powers specified in sections 103(c)(1),1 104(c)(1), and 106(g)(1) of this title may not be delegated to an officer or employee outside the Administration concerned.

(c) On a reimbursable basis when appropriate, the Secretary may, in carrying out aviation duties and powers—

(1) use the available services, equipment, personnel, and facilities of other civilian or military departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, with their consent;

(2) cooperate with those departments, agencies, and instrumentalities in establishing and using aviation services, equipment, and facilities of the Department; and

(3) confer and cooperate with, and use the services, records, and facilities of, State, territorial, municipal, and other agencies.


(d) The Secretary may make expenditures to carry out aviation duties and powers, including expenditures for—

(1) rent and personal services;

(2) travel expenses;

(3) office furniture, equipment, supplies, lawbooks, newspapers, periodicals, and reference books, including exchanges;

(4) printing and binding;

(5) membership in and cooperation with domestic or foreign organizations related to, or a part of, the civil aeronautics industry or the art of aeronautics;

(6) payment of allowances and other benefits to employees stationed in foreign countries to the same extent authorized for members of the Foreign Service of comparable grade;

(7) investigations and studies about aeronautics; and

(8) acquiring, exchanging, operating, and maintaining passenger-carrying aircraft and automobiles and other property.


(e) The Secretary may negotiate, without advertising, the purchase of technical or special property related to air navigation when the Secretary decides that—

(1) making the property would require a substantial initial investment or an extended period of preparation; and

(2) procurement by advertising would likely result in additional cost to the Government by duplication of investment or would result in duplication of necessary preparation that would unreasonably delay procuring the property.

(Pub. L. 97–449, §1(b), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2422.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
322(a) 49:1657(e)(1) (last 19 words), (2) (last 19 words), (f), (g). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §9(e)–(g), 80 Stat. 944.
322(b) 49:1344(d) (less words after semicolon). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§302(k), 303(a), (d) (less words after semicolon), 80 Stat. 747, 749.
  49:1657(e)(1) (less last 19 words), (2) (less last 19 words), (3).
  5 App. U.S.C. Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1968, eff. July 1, 1968, §2, 82 Stat. 1369.
322(c) 49:1343(i).
322(d) 49:1344(a).
322(e) 49:1344(e). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §303(e); added May 21, 1970, Pub. L. 91–258, §51(a)(1), 84 Stat. 234; July 12, 1976, Pub. L. 94–353, §16, 90 Stat. 882; Oct. 19, 1980, Pub. L. 96–470, §112(e), 94 Stat. 2240.

In the chapter, the words "Secretary of Transportation" and "Secretary" are substituted for "Administrator" in the provisions of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731) restated in the revised chapter because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1).

In subsection (a), the words "may prescribe regulations to carry out the duties and powers" are substituted for "may make such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out . . . functions, powers, and duties" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 49:1657(f) and (g) is omitted as executed because the transfer of personnel, assets, and liabilities, etc., has been accomplished.

In subsection (b), the words "Except where this chapter vests in any administration, agency or board, specific functions, powers, and duties" before "the Secretary may" in 49:1657(e)(1) are omitted because of the specific wording of sections 103, 104, and 106 of the revised title. The words "in addition to the authority to delegate and redelegate contained in any other Act in the exercise of the functions transferred to or vested in the Secretary in this chapter" before "delegate" in 49:1657(e)(1) are omitted because the authority of the Secretary to delegate is consolidated in the subsection. The words "the duties and powers of the Secretary" are substituted for "any of his residual functions, powers, and duties" in 49:1657(e)(1) and "any of the functions transferred to him by this reorganization plan" in section 2 of Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1968 (eff. July 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 1369), for clarity and consistency. The words "as he may designate" and "of such functions, powers, and duties as he may deem desirable" are omitted as surplus each place they appear in 49:1657(e)(1) and (2). The text of section 322(b) (1st sentence) of the revised title is substituted for 49:1344(d) (less words after semicolon) for clarity and because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary of Transportation under 49:1655(c)(1). The text of 49:1657(e)(2) (words before 2d comma) is omitted as unnecessary because the authority of an officer to delegate is consolidated in the subsection. The words "the duties and powers of the officer" are substituted for "such functions, powers, and duties" in 49:1657(e)(2) for clarity and consistency. The words "the duties and powers specified in sections 103(c)(1), 104(c)(1), and 106(g)(1) of this title" are substituted for "any of the statutory duties and responsibilities specifically assigned to them by this chapter" in 49:1657(e)(3) for clarity. The words "may not be delegated to an officer or employee outside the Administration concerned" are substituted for "The Administrators established by section 1652(e) of this title . . . may not delegate . . . outside of their respective administrations" in 49:1657(e)(3) for clarity and because of the restatement of the section.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "aviation duties and powers" are added because the source provisions being restated only applies to carrying out duties and powers related to the Federal Aviation Administration. In clause (2), the words "those departments, agencies, and instrumentalities" are substituted for "such other agencies and instrumentalities" in 49:1343(i) for clarity and consistency. The words "aviation . . . Department" are substituted for "Administration" in 49:1343(i) because of the transfer of aviation functions to the Secretary under 49:1655(c)(1).

In subsection (d), before clause (1), the words "aviation duties and powers" are substituted for "for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties vested in and imposed upon him by law" in 49:1344(a) because the source provisions being restated only applies to carrying out duties and powers related to the Federal Aviation Administration. The words "at the seat of government and elsewhere as may be necessary" after "expenditures" and "and as from time to time may